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abroad, wisdom and doctrine here dom; for that we would not stoop in this land fought ; and how we with our minds to the seeking of the same now must get abroad, if it. When I thought of all this, we would have them.

then wondered I greatly, that their “So clean has learning fallen goodly wise men, that were every among the English nation, as that where throughout the English nathere have been very few on this tion, and had fully learnt all those fide Humber, that were able to books, would turn no part of them understand the English of their into their own language: but I service, or turn an epistle from then again quickly answered myLatin into English ; and I wot there self, and said, they weened not that were not many beyond Humber men ever should become so rechless, that could do it. There were so nor that this learning would so defew, as that I cannot bethink one cay; therefore they willingly let it on the south side of the Thames, alone, and wot that here would be when I first came to reign. God the more wisdom in the land, the Almighty be thanked, that we have more languages that we underever a teacher in pulpit now, food. Therefore, I pray thee, that thou “ Then I called to mind how do (as alfo I believe thou wilt) be. that the law was first found writftow that wisdom that God has ten in the Hebrew Speech ; and given thee, on all about, on them after that the Greeks had learned thou can't bestow it ; think what it, then turned they it into their punishment shall for this world be- own speech wholly, and also all fall us, when, as neither we our other books. And then the felves have loved wisdom, nor left Latin people, a little after they had it to others; we only loved the learned it, they tranflated all, thro' names that we were Christians, and wise interpreters, into their own very few of us the duties. When I language; and all other Christian minded all this, methought also that people also have turned some part I saw, before all was spoiled and thereof into their own tongues. burnt, how all the churches « Therefore, methinketh it better, throughout the English nation food if you so think, that we also, filed with books and ornaments, some books that he deemed molt and a great multitude of God's ser- needful for all men to understand, vants; and at that time they wist into that language turn; that we very little fruit of their books, be all know, and that we bring to pass, cause they could understand nothing (as we easily may with God's help, of them ; for that they were not if we have quietness) that all the written in their own language. So youth of freeborn Englishmen (such they told us, that our ancestors, that as have wealth, that they may before us held those places, loved maintain them) he committed to wisdom, and through the fame got learning, that, while they of no wealth, and left it us. A man may other note can; they first learn well here yet see their swath; but we to read English writing; afterwards, cannot enquire after it, because we let men further teach, in the Latin have let go both wealth and wif- tongue, those that they will further teach, and have to a higher de- learned of them how I might best o gree.


understand them, I turned them in“When I minded how this learn- to English, and will send one to ing of the Latin tongue, hereto- each bishop's see in my kingdom ; fore, was fallen through the Eng- and upon each there is a stile, that lish nation, though many could still is, of fifty marks. And I comread English writing; then began mand, on God's name, that no I, among diverse and manifold bun- man the stile from the books, nor neffes of the kingdom, to turn into the books from the minister, take ; English this book, (which in Latin seeing we know not how long there is named Pattoralis, and in English Mall be so learned bishops aś now, the Herdman's book) sometimes God be thanked, every where there word for word, sometimes under- are. Therefore, I would they should standing for understanding, even as always remain in their places, exI learned them of Plegmond my cept the bihop will have them with archbishop, of Afler my bishop, and him, or that they be lent some Grimbald my Mafs priest, and John whether, until that some other be my mass:priest. After that I had written out.”

The Marquis of Granby's Letter of Thanks to the British Forces in Germany.

Munster, January 1, 1763. tion obliged him to give. I ORD Granby has hoped to His best endeavours have always I have had it in his power to been directed to their good, by every have seen, and taken his leave of, means in his power; and he has the troops, before their embarkation the satisfaction to think he has some for England; but a severe illness reason to flatter himself of their having detained him at Warbourg, being convinced, if not of the efand his present state of health ficacy, at least of the fincerity, of obliging him to take another rout, his intentions, if he may judge by he could not leave this country the noble return their behaviour without this public testimony of his has made him ; a behaviour, that, entire approbation of their conduct, while it fills him with gratitude, has since he has had the honour of endeared them to their king and commanding them.

country, and has covered them with These fentiments naturally call glory and honour. for his utmost acknowledgments; Highly sensible of their merit, he. he therefore returns his warmest Mall continue, while he lives, to thanks to the generals, officers, and look upon it as much his duty, as private men, composing the whole it will for ever be his inclination, Britith corps, for the bravery, zeal, to give them every possible proof of discipline, and good conduct, he has his affection and esteem; which he constantly experienced from every should be happy to make as appaindividual ; and his most particular rent as their valour has been, and and personal thanks are due to them will be conspicuous and exemplary for their ready obedience, upon all to after-ages. occasions, to such orders as his sta.

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Observations on the Constitution and People of England. Tis. I think generally allowed profit would arise from thence to

that bad measures have intro- the electors, or elected. The conduced many disorders into the state, sequence of these divisions among which, if not timely corrected, must country gentlemen at elections, is necessarily be the cause of the loss too frequently an extravagance they of our liberty; and yet every one is are unable to support, though they unconcerned at this terrible conse- too often persevere by way of requence, that not one person hath venge on their political enemies, laid before the publick a regular till ruin overtakes themselves and syfiem for abolising these danger- families. With regard to the bur. ous errors, and restoring our con- roughs, the present method of canftitution to its primitive vigour. vafling at ele&ions, hath introduced This therefore I propose to attempt, an indolence and licentiousness in as every day brings the danger these places scarce to be credited ; more near, and if I prove unequal nor is it uncommon for the poorer to the task, this fatisfaction will re- sort of voters to borrow money on main, that I have endeavoured to the credit of the next election, serve my country

where there are tiiree or four years To effect this design, it is necef- to come, provided no accident hapsary to begin at the source of the pens to bring one on fooner. calamity; for if the fountain be It is now time to think of pointturbid, the stream flowing from it ing out a remedy for these growing cannot be puce. I fall therefore, evils before they arrive at maturity; without any further apology, say, but this is no ealy task. However, that parliaments are greatly chang. in my opinion, the best and fafest ed fince tlie beginning of the two method for obtaining this object of last centuries. At that time the our withes, is, to procure an act of principal gentlemen of the several parliament for taking away from all counties were so far from being cities, towns, and burroughs, in candidates at elections for members England and Wales, the right of of parliament, that they were prel- elecling members of parliament, led into the service of their country; the city of London alone excepted; and the electors considered this ho- and vesting the above privileges nourable employment as a heavy in the different counties by a proper bürthen, and accordingly allowed distribution, according to the value their representatives pensions for of lands and number of inhabitants their expence and trouble. How ivi each county. The city of Lonelections are managed at present, don to be allowed twelve memour enemies will tell with pleasure. bers.

As to my part, I shall only men- In the above-mentioned act, it is tion that elections in this age create necessary to have the two following heart-burnings among neighbours, clauses: and sometimes an inveterate hatred, ift. That every person intitled which probably would cease, if no to vote at the county elections, February, 1763


Mould should at least have ten pounds a think it reasonable that no other year.

tenures Mould be left in England 2d. That any person in poffef- than freehold and leasehold , and 'fion of a place of honour or profit with regard to the duke of Cornunder the crown, or whoever Mould wall, he might have full satisfaction accept of any at the time he enjoys out of the crown-lands for any loss a feat in parliament, his seat to be he might sustain by this means. vacant; and such person or persons The difficulty would not be great declared'incapable of sitting in the in this point. Let an aĉt of par. house of commons, whilst he or they liament be passed, to oblige all lords held any place as aforesaid, except. of manors to make their tenants the following persons, who should free, whenever any of them shall be without election meinbers of apply to their lords for this purparliament by their several posts, pose, on condition they pay the during the time they hold their faid value of the purchase down, or give offices. The two secretaries of the lord such security as he shall ftate, if commoners; the chancellor approve for the payment of the of the exchequer, and such other purchase money. The sum seems lords of the treasury as the king shall to be computed in proportion to pleale to nominate; two of the the value of freehold lands in the

lords of the adıniralty; two of trade manor.; or if there are few or no and plantations, nominated by the freehold estates in such manor, let

crown; one general-officer, also no- 'the estimate be made either accord*minated by the king; the secretary ing to the value of freehold lands

at war, and the attorney and folli- in the county where the manor 'citor general. These will be fully lies, or from some freehold lands in fufficient to manage the business of the neighbourhood'; for the situathe crown.

tion, or nature of the soil, may vary Many inconveniences arise from the price, and render them more or the various tenures in England; less valuable than other freehold they hinder the copyholders and te- lands in the county. nants of customary lands from I hope it will not be thought implanting or searching for mines : proper to mention, that the act of and the burthen is so heavy on the Scandalum Magnatum gives the tenants of the customary lands in nobles a superiority over the comCumberland and Westmoreland, mons, which seems to me inconthat one might be alınost induced fiftent with the nature of our conto think the legiNature let them ftitution ; and therefore could with remain in this wretched condition, to see it repealed, as there are other to shed the rest of the people of laws sufficient to secure all ranks of England, how dreadful a thing it people from insults of every kind. is to live in a state of slavery. Nor Priviledge of parliament is grown is this all; they deprive a consider- fo extensive, that we hardly know able number of bis majefty's subjects its bounds; a law therefore should of having a share in the legislature. be made, that the subject aggrieved

Had I only related this last grie. may so have liberty to carry on his vance, I believe the reader would suits in the courts of justice against


the members of both houses during be made, they would greatly conevery fellions of parliament, subject, tribute to the public utility; for the however, to a stop of execution till crown, for instance, would be althe priviledge expires, and that to ways supported without oppofition go no further than as the law now in every thing necessary to make ftands. I would not plead for this the prince great, and the people concession, if I thought it could in happy. Perhaps a great saving to any manner interfere with their the crown would be the consepublick duty ; but as the business quence, whereby the sovereign would of the law is at present carried on be better enabled to bestow a royal by attornies, follicitors, and coun- bounty, whenever merit claimed, sellors, the plaintiffs and defendants or the unfortunate worthy deserved are seldom called upon, unless some such indulgence. These laws would writing be brought to sign, an oatb also move a great incitement to required to be taken, or money be military virtue in our youth, when wanting to carry on the suit. they perceived that merit alone was

To these things I would add a the standard of promotion, and the general register for estates.

only way of obtaining a general's I have now finished the first part battoon, or a naval Aag, was to exof my plan, and fatter myself, that hibit a list of their exploits in the if the laws mentioned in it were to service of their country.

The Story on which the new Tragedy of Elvira is founded. From Farber De

Vasconcellos's Latin Abstract of the History of the Kings of Portugal.

ON Pedro was born at Coim- Galicia, was nearly related to W bra, the latter end of April, the kings of Castile and Portugal. in the year 1320'; and at the age With her, on account of her unpaof thirty-seven, on the death of his ralleled beauty and mental endowfather Alphonso, fucceeded to the ments, the prince was ardently in crown, being then, by the untime- love, even in the life-time of his ly death of his wife Conftantia, a wife Constantia. And after her widower. This princess was daugh- decease, by a dispensation from the ter of John Emanuel, and dying in Pope, he was privately married to the bloom of youth, in child-bed of her, intending, when he became her third child, was, for her excel. king, to acknowledge her publicly lent accomplishments, fincerely la. for his wife. But some of the nobles, mented by the whole kingdom. either through hatred or envy, fear

There was then among the ladies ing, perhaps, that the relations of that frequented the court, a young Agoes would be highly promoted, and noble virgin named Agnes de disclosed this affair to the king Al. Castro, whose father, Don Pedro phonso; and urged the death of Ferdinando de Castro, being de Agnes, as being of the utmost conscended from the chief grandees of sequence to the peace and quiet of

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