Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment

Front Cover
Peter H. McMurry, Marjorie F. Shepherd, James S. Vickery
Cambridge University Press, Nov 29, 2004 - Law - 510 pages
Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment was commissioned by NARSTO, a cooperative public-private sector organization of Canada, Mexico and the United States. It is a concise and comprehensive discussion of the current understanding by atmospheric scientists of airborne particulate matter (PM). Its goal is to provide policy makers who implement air-quality standards with this relevant and needed scientific information. The primary audience for this volume will be regulators, scientists, and members of industry, all of whom have a stake in effective PM management. It will also inform exposure and health scientists, who investigate causal hypotheses of health impacts, characterize exposure, and conduct epidemiological and toxicological studies.
 

Contents

LOCAL REGIONAL AND CONTINENTAL MANAGEMENT OF PM 2 5
2
Figure S 1 1 1 Framework for informing PM management
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A POLICY OVERVIEW
9
Policy Question 1 Is there a significant PM problem and how confident are
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Figure S 6 6 3 Average annual PM mass concentrations
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Policy Question 2 Where there is a PM problem what is its composition and what factors
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Figure S 8 3 16 Chemical links between the ozone and PM formation processes
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Figure S 11 10 28 Reconstructed eastern U S fine mass partitioned into
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PARTICLE AND GAS MEASUREMENTS
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1 Relationships of datameasurement techniques airquality management
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2 Inlets used for particle size separation
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CHAPTER 6
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SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHARACTERIZATION
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1 Average air mass source regions and transport during July
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36
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5 Variations of average PM mass concentrations
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Policy Question 4 What sourcespecific options are there for fixing the problem given
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Policy Question 5 What is the relationship between PM its components and other
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Policy Question 6 How can progress be measured? How can we determine the effectiveness
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Figure S 14 4 3 Distribution of SO sources in Canada and the United States
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Policy Question 7 When and how should implementation programs be reassessed and updated
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BENEFITS TO THE POLICY COMMUNITY OF NEW SCIENCE
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CHAPTER 1
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3 Illustrative transport scales for PM and other atmospheric pollutants
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5 Iterative communication for managing air quality
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HEALTH CONTEXT FOR MANAGEMENT
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1 Schematic rendering of relationship among outdoor and indoor sources
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CHAPTER 3
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5 Stylized summary of acute exposure studies
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4
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ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROCESSES
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1 Schematic of the life cycle of atmospheric particles and their
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20 Trends in annual particulate SO and NO concentrations
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3 Electron micrographs of selected particles
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9 Schematic of the formation of secondary organic aerosol in the atmosphere
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13 Isopleths of predicted particulate NO concentration
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CHAPTER 7
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CHAPTER 4
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21
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5 Comparison of measured and simulated chemical compositions
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9 Numbers of PM2 monitoring sites exceeding three benchmark levels
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RECEPTOR METHODS
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CHEMICALTRANSPORT MODELS
283
6 Comparison of measured and simulated 24hr average PM
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VISIBILITY AND RADIATIVE BALANCE EFFECTS
325
5 Effect of relative humidity on light scattering
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7 Global annual mean radiative forcings Wm for the period from
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CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF PM
355
4 Simplified conceptual model for the San Joaquin Valley
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14 Temporal variations of monthlyaverage PM at sites in
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RECOMMENDED RESEARCH TO INFORM
415
GLOSSARY
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REFERENCES
458
MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY AND VALIDATION
486
AVAILABILITY
493
GLOBAL AEROSOL TRANSPORT
501
APPENDIX E PREPARATION OF THIS ASSESSMENT
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Copyright

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About the author (2004)

Peter H. McMurry is the Kenneth T. Whitby Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Minnesota, where he has served as Department Head since 1977. He is a past President of the American Association for Aerosol Research. His research focuses on phenomena including nucleation, growth, water uptake, and light scattering. With his research colleagues he has developed a condensation nucleus counter to detect particles as small as 3 nm, aerodynamic lenses to produce tightly collimated particle beams, and instruments to measure particle properties that include density, refractive index, and water content. He has written recent review articles on atmospheric aerosol measurement and nucleation. Marjorie F. Shepherd is Senior Science Advisor at the Atmospheric and Climate Science Directorate, Meteorological Service of Canada. Her work involves investigating sampling and analysis methodologies for ambient volatile organic compounds. She has coordinated several projects within the Canadian multi-stakeholder science assessment for ground-level ozone. As science advisor for the Meteorological Service of Canada, she co-lead, with Health Canada, the development of science assessments for HF, CO, ozone and particulate matter - all in support of developing Canadian air quality objectives and standards. James S. Vickery is one of the founding members of NARSTO and a member of the Executive Steering Committee. He is a Co-Leader of the US Committee on Environment and Natural Resources - Particulate Matter Research Work Group, which coordinates all U.S. Federally sponsored research concerning particulate matter. He is Special Assistant to the Director of EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory, where he has also held the positions of Division Director and Assistant Laboratory Director. He has also managed several different program and policy offices in EPA's Washington, DC headquarters.

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