Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment

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Peter H. McMurry, Marjorie F. Shepherd, James S. Vickery
Cambridge University Press, Nov 29, 2004 - Law - 510 pages
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Particulate Matter Science for Policy Makers: A NARSTO Assessment was commissioned by NARSTO, a cooperative public-private sector organization of Canada, Mexico and the United States. It is a concise and comprehensive discussion of the current understanding by atmospheric scientists of airborne particulate matter (PM). Its goal is to provide policy makers who implement air-quality standards with this relevant and needed scientific information. The primary audience for this volume will be regulators, scientists, and members of industry, all of whom have a stake in effective PM management. It will also inform exposure and health scientists, who investigate causal hypotheses of health impacts, characterize exposure, and conduct epidemiological and toxicological studies.
 

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Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
1
Figure S 1 1 1 Framework for informing PM management
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A POLICY OVERVIEW
9
Policy Question 1 Is there a significant PM problem and how confident are we?
12
Figure S 5 6 7 Average PM2 5 concentrations
15
Chemical deposition
18
Figure S 8 3 16 Chemical links between the ozone and PM formation processes
22
Figure S 1l 10 28 Reconstructed eastern U S fine mass partitioned into
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PARTICLE AND GAS MEASUREMENTS
159
3 Representative denuder and filter sampler for collecting PM25
164
CHAPTER 6
180
SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL CHARACTERIZATION
191
1 Average air mass source regions and transport during July
192
5 Variations of average PM0 mass concentrations
198
10 Statistical distribution of 24hr PM25 concentrations at 20 sites in CA
203
15 Comparisons of average PM25 mass and species concentrations
210

Figure S 14 4 3 Distribution of SO2 sources in Canada and the United States
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Policy Question 5 What is the relationship between PM its components and other
36
Policy Question 6 How can progress be measured? How can we determine the effectiveness
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Figure S 15 6 21b Trends in concentrations of SO2and SO4
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BENEFITS TO THE POLICY COMMUNITY OF NEW SCIENCE
50
2 Representative composition of PM
56
5 Iterative communication for managing air quality
65
HEALTH CONTEXT FOR MANAGEMENT
69
1 Schematic rendering of relationship among outdoor and indoor sources
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CHAPTER 3
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5 Stylized summary of acute exposure studies
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ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROCESSES
103
1 Schematic of the life cycle of atmospheric particles and their
104
6 Predicted particulate nitrate concentration as a function of relative humidity
110
11 Response of the fine PM mass to changes in SO4 concentration
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EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION
127
CHAPTER 4
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1 Distribution of sources of primary PM0 in southern Canada and the United States
139
5 Flow diagram for development of the U S National Emission Inventory
145
CHAPTER 5
157
19 Trends in PM25 mass at IMPROVE sites 198898
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22 Seasonal variation of ozone PM25 mass and PM0 mass at four locations
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RECEPTOR METHODS
235
4 Threeday backtrajectories at Simcoe ON during MaySeptember
241
5 Examples of PM5 source profiles from emitters typical of Denver CO
250
7 CMB PM15 sourcecontribution estimates for two regions of Canada
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11 Comparison of fractions of S04 at Meadview AZ
266
CHEMICALTRANSPORT MODELS
283
3 Approaches to calculating longterm PM concentrations
295
4 Comparison of measured and simulated 24hr average S04 values
303
VISIBILITY AND RADIATIVE BALANCE EFFECTS
325
CONCEPTUAL MODELS OF PM
355
RECOMMENDED RESEARCH TO INFORM
415
GLOSSARY
433
REFERENCES
458
MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY AND VALIDATION
486
AVAILABILITY
493
GLOBAL AEROSOL TRANSPORT
501
APPENDIX E PREPARATION OF THIS ASSESSMENT
509
Copyright

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About the author (2004)

Peter H. McMurry is the Kenneth T. Whitby Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Minnesota, where he has served as Department Head since 1977. He is a past President of the American Association for Aerosol Research. His research focuses on phenomena including nucleation, growth, water uptake, and light scattering. With his research colleagues he has developed a condensation nucleus counter to detect particles as small as 3 nm, aerodynamic lenses to produce tightly collimated particle beams, and instruments to measure particle properties that include density, refractive index, and water content. He has written recent review articles on atmospheric aerosol measurement and nucleation.

Marjorie F. Shepherd is Senior Science Advisor at the Atmospheric and Climate Science Directorate, Meteorological Service of Canada. Her work involves investigating sampling and analysis methodologies for ambient volatile organic compounds. She has coordinated several projects within the Canadian multi-stakeholder science assessment for ground-level ozone. As science advisor for the Meteorological Service of Canada, she co-lead, with Health Canada, the development of science assessments for HF, CO, ozone and particulate matter - all in support of developing Canadian air quality objectives and standards.

James S. Vickery is one of the founding members of NARSTO and a member of the Executive Steering Committee. He is a Co-Leader of the US Committee on Environment and Natural Resources - Particulate Matter Research Work Group, which coordinates all U.S. Federally sponsored research concerning particulate matter. He is Special Assistant to the Director of EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory, where he has also held the positions of Division Director and Assistant Laboratory Director. He has also managed several different program and policy offices in EPA's Washington, DC headquarters.

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