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And the ascending dawn
of an immortal Christ Here goes my love to Limerick! 'Tis Filled the blue heavens with light. there that I would be,
Frederic Rowland Marrin. In the rare town, the fair town that
lies beyond the sea. Myself and darling Limerick we've
MADONNA LAURA. been too far apart, But the easy town, the breezy town,
When all her golden beanty did unclose she always had my heart.
In Love's great noon and glory of
desire, Of all the towns I ever saw, wherever
Slipping her sheath, and yearning I was set,
higher, higher, There's only one. beneath the suu I
Laura, my life, did leave me to my never could forget.
foes, I've shut my eyes in distant lands, And living. lovely, disembodied, rose and, oh, my mind was torn,
To the white wicket and the shimFor I saw the streets of Limerick, the
mering choir. place where I was born.
Ah, why does not that "last day"
come and tire But I was far away from her, the city. My soul for Heaven?-that last day of my joy,
one knows Where once I wandered light as air, a But as the first in Heaven. The same little barefoot boy.
way Since then I've worn the leather out, That all my thoughts go, and as but never trod so free
feather light, As long ago in Limerick, the only place my soul would rise, a pilgrim clean for me.
Why must I wait, dear Christ? Why There's few to know the face of me. must I stay? on all the Shannon shore
Bitter and ever bitterer grows the To grip my hand and call my name
fight. when I return once more;
Had I but died three years ago to-day! But I will rest in Limerick, the dear- Francesco Petrarcha. Rendered into Engest place I know,
lish by Agnes Tobin. Until, please God, I'm called at last
and get the word to go. Punch.
A FLATTERING ILLUSION.
MARCUS AURELIUS AND EPICTE- I thank you for the flowers you sent, TUS.
And then she pouted, blush'd, and Twin stars, serene and pure,
droop'd her head. In the fear-haunted gloom
Forgive me for the words I spoke last Of the wild pagan night,
night: So long, so long ago!
The flowers have sweetly proved that In royal purple one,
you are right. Philosopher and saint,
Then I forgave her, took her hand in With words divinely wise;
mine, The other but a slave,
Seal'd her forgiveness with the old, old Yet monarch still who ruled
sign; The godlike minds of men.
And as we wander'd through the dimAlone, undimmed, they burned
lit bowers, Above a world of doom,
I wonder'd who had really sent the Until the morning-red
flowers. Flamed crimson in the East,
WOMEN AND POLITICS.
The writer of the article on "Women sphere of action and shut out the busiand Politics," in the February number ness of the world, that they may the of this Review, * claims to speak for better pursue their own ideal of holi
a great though silent multitude of ness and right living. I do not wish women," who shrink from their own to undervalue the beauty of Miss Steenfranchisement because their already phen's ideal of gentleness, piety, and burdened strength would not be equal devotion. But there is still a place to the duties and responsibilities of in the world and a need for the sterner voting at parliamentary elections. virtues, the more adventurous spirits. She claims exemption as the special "Honor, anger, valor, fire," were the privilege of weakness, and a conces- qualities that Stevenson exulted over sion to what she conceives to be the re- in his wife. "She was," he says, "steeltiring, unworldly nature of a large true and blade-straight." And surely, number of women. And if it is argued even in this domesticated generation that, if women were enfranchised, no there are some whose hearts will rewoman could possibly be forced to spond to the ring of those brave words. vote against her will, we are met with Patient Grizzel may have her adthe unanswerable assertion that “any mirers, but who would not prefer to woman could, of course, abstain from meet Christina of Sweden, or even voting, but would this shelter her from Catherine de Médicis, or Maria being canvassed for her vote?” Alas, Theresa, or Queen Elizabeth, or any that no one tries to shelter us from other of the great stateswomen of the canvassing other people, a far more past. Indeed, there are many people unpleasant task!
who would go so far as to feel more As a simple matter of justice, it does interest in Catherine of Russia, in spite not seem fair, or even reasonable, that of her indefensible moral attitude. Sir the height of one's personal intellectual Walter Scott, with all his enchantambition should be enforced as the ments, could not make a heroine of the legal limit of another person's activity. fair but passive Rowena. Who does It may be that "nuns fret not at their not remember how, in their first youth. convent's narrow room:" but surely ful reading of Iranhoe, they wept over that is no reason why we should all the sorrows of the fierce Rebecca, and be shut up in cells. I do not say there skipped the parts about the mild and are not many who would prefer to amiable Saxon lady. And while there have “protecting barriers between are lovers of romance and poetry still them and the rough outer world," and left among us, there will be many who who are only troubled and alienated find their ideal of a woman's character by any appeal to their sympathies from in the heroic soul and indomitable will the wider life of the nation, and the of the Antigone of Sophocles. “Yet remonotonous and involved issues of our member in women, too, dwells the present industrial struggle. The con spirit of battle," says Orestes in the troversy is a very ancient one. There play, and some of us are unregenerhave been contemplative orders, and atedly proud that this is still one of bermits, and enthusiasts, in all ages, the profound facts of human nature. who have consciously limited their B ut there is another side to this •The Living Age, March 9.
question. However unpleasant or
wearisome the idea of political activity amount of skill. This is no question may be, and probably is, to some of men doing more work than women, women, as it is to some men, this dis- because this rule holds good of trades taste, founded on a peculiarity of tem- where piecework rates are given. perament, must not blind our eyes to Nowadays this question assumes a the wide and deep issues involved. In very serious aspect, because the old this work-a-day world, when women, industrial conditions have changed, as women, are in no way sheltered and it is a fact that, from one cause from the severity of the industrial or another---the illness, drunkenness, or struggle, it is idle to hold up to them desertion, so lamentably common in as women an ideal of intellectual aloof- our great towns-many and many ness and seclusion. Miss Stephen a woman is forced into the position speaks for those who "dread the suf- of breadwinner for others beside herfrage," retiring, well-to-do people who self. Now it is no easy matter to keep fear change and exertion, and on several people on what is considered whom the present industrial condition a quite good wage for a woman, 158. does not press heavily in practical life. or 208. a week; but when we come Without answering her arguments in to the multitude of smaller and lesser detail, I would appeal to her and skilled trades that swarm in all inothers on behalf of those women who dustrial centres, such as tailoring, have something more serious to dread fancy-box-making, shirtmaking, folding than the intellectual effort of voting and sewing, clay-pipe finishing, maat an election. Against the fastidious chining, and dozens of others, the rates shrinking of the women who would in most cases are so low that the feel their own enfranchisement too workers are never far removed from great a strain on their nerves, I would the starvation level, wages of 68. or 78. set the really urgent and practical suf- a week being the limit of the earnings fering of another "very great and very of hundreds and thousands of women. silent multitude," the multitude of the In the Potteries from 78. to 108. is a women workers. The five millions of very usual wage for women, and the women who depend on their own ex- Cradley Heath chain-makers earn as ertions for their daily bread cannot little as 58. or 68. a week. The conafford the luxury of nun-like seclusion. dition of things that has brought such a
There is no possibility of shelter or large body of workers to the extremes protection for them. They are, whether of poverty has also had its effect upon they like it or no, in the thick of the the professional world. Roughly world's battle, and the very disqualifi- speaking, it may be said that the prescation that Miss Stephen welcomes as ent position of women works out in a kind of privilege is a source of dis- the industrial market in this way. ablement and extreme weakness in in- Educated and qualified women are dustrial warfare. It is a fact of com- able to earn as much as skilled workmon observation among people inter- ing men. The salary of many highested in economic questions, that in school teachers is no larger than the every trade where women are em- male spinner's wage of 21. a week, and ployed (with one or two local excep- often less than the wages of tailors' tions such as the weavers in Lanca- cutters. The wages of skilled workshire) they are paid at a much lowering women at their best are about the rate than men can earn for doing the same as those of unskilled working same work, or work of a slightly dif- men, and at their worst a good deal ferent nature requiring the same lower; whilst the wages of the un
skilled working women, varying as tive lack of value of the individual they do between 58. and 108. a week, to the employer, Trade Unionism is have no parallel in the ranks of the never a great success, because people men workers.
always know that, however large may The only exceptions to this category be the number of the dissatisfied, the are cases of special demands or spe- employer can easily fill their places cial individual successes, as the special at a moment's notice. demand among some classes of women The laws of supply and demand go has enabled women doctors to keep up far to regulate, in normal cases, the their fees, in face of the fact that pub- rate of wages. But in the case of lic recognition and honor is almost ex- women's labor these natural economic clusively a masculine monopoly.
forces have not had fair play. ArtiThe power of amusing and enter- ficial restrictions, that have narrowed taining the public is so rare, and in down the sphere of women's activity, such demand, that it is paid for irre- have resulted in the overcrowding of spective of sex. Thus popular novel- the few professions and trades open to ists, actresses, dancers, opera-singers, them. Thus the natural supply of and music-hall artistes are able to women's labor, arbitrarily forced into command wholly exceptional industrial a few channels, has, in every case, and economic conditions. But these largely exceeded the demand, with are the small minority, the few who the inevitable consequence of a reducsucceed.
tion of wages. When it is proposed The universal low rate of wages is to "shelter" women from some sphere not traceable to any lack of organizing of paid activity, as, for instance, in the power amongst women. As elemen- case of the barmaids, it should always tary school teachers, men and women be remembered that every "protection" do the same work, their hours are the of this kind increases the competition, same, they have to go through the and thereby lowers the rate of wages same training and pass the same ex- in the other trades where they are aminations. Nobody even suggests employed. But it is in those industries that women are not as good teachers carried on under Government superas men. And yet under every edu- vision that the direct industrial need cation committee in England there is of women for the franchise is perhaps a carefully calculated scale of salaries most apparent. In the evidence beby which teachers of every grade are fore the Royal Commission to inquire provided for; and in all cases, from into the wages of postal servants, it pupil teachers up to headmasters and was very clearly shown how rigidly headmistresses, men are paid so much the principle of a sex basis for wages extra for being men, and women so is adhered to, and how severely the much less for being women. And this able but unlucky women clerks in the in spite of the fact that there are Post Office are fined for not being men. 30,000 women members on the books The post of woman clerk is the of the National Union of Teachers. highest in the service open to women Again there are 96,000 women in the by public competition. Candidates cotton trade unions, and yet Miss Cols for these appointments are examined let (Board of Trade) gives the aver- in English composition, Geography, age of women's wages at 148. a week, Latin, French, and German (two a rate practically unknown amongst of these three); English history, Alskilled men workers. With unskilled gebra, Shorthand (two of these men or women, owing to the compara three). The minimum salary for this work is 551. a year, the maximum the laws of competition, if they do not 1001. The maximum salary of the wish to be ruined, to reduce the exsecond division of male clerks (lower penses of production in the same grade) is 2501., whilst the higher grade way. of the second division of men are able The whole question of the relation to earn up to 3501. The disparity of of industry and politics is too involved salary holds good though men and to enter into here. But it is neverthewomen may be doing very similar, and less true that, whether we like it or in some cases identical, work.
not, since the days of Lord ShaftesAgain, in the Pimlico Clothing Fac- bury's Factory Act we have seen a ory, 158. per week is considered a good great change, and a gradual shifting wage for a skilled woman worker, of the ground on which industrial queswhilst, in answer to a question in the tions are fought out. Technical diffiHouse of Commons last session, it culties relating to obscure processes in was ascertained that 238. per week is different trades are now national difthe lowest sum given to the most un- ficulties decided in Parliament. Workskilled man laborer. It is an un- ing men have realized this, and the doubted advantage to choose your em- great sums of Trade Union money ployers by popular election, and it is that in old days were kept exclusively easy to see how the men are able to for industrial objects, are now devoted bring pressure through the House of unhesitatingly to parliamentary purCommons to secure a fair rate of poses. The employers also have their wages for themselves in the Govern political organizations and methods of ment factories; whilst the whole attack and defence. It is not to be weight and prestige of the Govern- wondered at if, in the clash of powerment as the largest employer of labor ful conflicting interests, the grievin the country goes to set an exam- ances and claims of those millions of ple of underpayment and sub-contract workers who are not allowed to make ing amongst women. The effects of their voices heard should be ignored. this evil extend far beyond the 30,000 The late Lord Salisbury said that the women actually employed by Govern- condition of the working women of ment, and react on the whole of the England was a "blot and a menace to labor market. All local bodies are our civilization.” Miss Stephen, on the bound to keep down their expenses as other hand, congratulates women on much as they can. Government low possessing the key to men's reverence. rates have given them reason and justi- It may be that she is right, that men fication for adjusting their wages to reverence "sheltered" women; but this the Government standard; and directly I do know, that there are many hunone private emplorer, seeking natu- dreds of thousands of half-starved rally to buy labor at the cheapest rate, wage-earning women who are seeking begins to follow the public example, yet in vain the key to men's justice. other employers are at once bound by
Eva Gore-Booth. The Nineteenth century and After.
ELECTRIC WAVES AND WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY.
Five years ago, in the month of Feb- "wireless message” printed in ordinary ruary, in the year 1902, Mr. Marconi, Morse type from his station at Poldhu, travelling across the Atlantic in the near the Lizard. To-day such messages steamship Philadelphia, received a pass hourly between ships at sea, and