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view, it is plain that unrestricted com- Law, from the point of view of the strict petition among the creatures lower than Individualists, is Socialism; at least, man evolved at length a power, one of its most important functions is thought, which overthrew the previous the use of the power of the community conditions and dominated the world of to protect those who are not strong brute force and blind contest for sur- enough to enforce their own rights. If vival. This force has its own way of it were the solemn duty of humanity to dealing with things, and the more com- adopt consistent and thorough Individpletely that is followed the greater is ualism, law should be abolished; he the success of those who follow it. No only should preserve his property, or human beings approach so nearly to even his life, who could do so by his the kind of competition that prevails own hand or cunning; widows and oramong beasts as the lowest races of phans should be a prey to those strong mankind, who are rightly called the enough to seize them. The decalogue most backward. The proposal to elimis should be deleted. Then we should innate the results of thought in order that deed have reverted to the kind of comwe may revert to that condition of af- petition which prevails in the ocean fairs over which thought has triumphed, and the forest. But it would hardly and the belief that further progress can mean progress. only be attained by returning to the As compared with a doctrine which, form of competition which at last pro- pushed to its logical extreme, involves duced thought as its mastering term, the disappearance of morality, the creed are illusory; in fact the suggestion is of Socialism appears, in the abstract, that we should decapitate progress, s.) a most beneficent gospel. It proposes to speak, in order that advance may to use the individual for the best adcontinue. Nor is the protective pwer vantage of the State and to organize of organized "social" life, as distinct the State for the best advantage of from the free struggle of individuals, the individual. And if practice could without example even outside human be made to conform to theory, Socialism ity. The development of instinct gives would have a claim upon humanity that examples of it. "The phases of social could not rightly be repudiated. life exhibited by animals other than A principle enunciated in a few lines man," said Huxley, "sometimes curi in the late Professor W. Wallace's ously foreshadow human policy."' ' In- "Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel's stances in the insect world are well Philosophy" may be cited: known, and for one example among

The apprehension of a thing from one many in the case of the higher animals

side or aspect-the apprehension of one it is interesting to refer to the account

thing apart from its connections—the given from personal observation by retention of a term or formula apart Mansfield Parkyns of the organization from its context-is what Hegel terms of baboons in their forays on the corn- "abstract" . . . To abstract is a necesfields.

sary stage in the process of knowledge. Nor, indeed, is a return to the Free

But it is equally necessary to insist on

in the danger of clinging, as to an ultimate Competition, the unrestricted struggle

truth, to the pseudo-simplicity of abfor existence, as it flourishes outside

straction, which forgets altogether what

straction which humanity, practicable; but this is what it is in certain situations desirable for the Individualist system postulates if a time to overlook. it is logical in its doctrine of progress.

In this sense, Socialism is a system 1" The Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals." 2" Life in Abyssinia."

full of the error of "abstraction." It

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view, it is plain that unrestricted com- Law, from the point of view of the strict petition among the creatures lower than Individualists, is Socialism; at least, man evolved at length a power, one of its most important functions is thought, which overthrew the previous the use of the power of the community conditions and dominated the world of to protect those who are not strong brute force and blind contest for sur- enough to enforce their own rights. If vival. This force has its own way of it were the solemn duty of humanity to dealing with things, and the more com- adopt consistent and thorough Individpletely that is followed the greater is ualism, law should be abolished; he the success of those who follow it. No only should preserve his property, or human beings approach so nearly to even his life, who could do so by his the kind of competition that prevails own hand or cunning; widows and oramong beasts as the lowest races of phans should be a prey to those strong mankind, who are rightly called the enough to seize them. The decalogue most backward. The proposal to elimi- should be deleted. Then we should innate the results of thought in order that deed have reverted to the kind of comwe may revert to that condition of af- petition which prevails in the ocean fairs over which thought has triumphed, and the forest. But it would hardly and the belief that further progress can mean progress. only be attained by returning to the As compared with a doctrine which, form of competition which at last pro- pushed to its logical extreme, involves duced thought as its mastering term, the disappearance of morality, the creed are illusory; in fact the suggestion is of Socialism appears, in the abstract, that we should decapitate progress, so a most beneficent gospel. It proposes to speak, in order that advance may to use the individual for the best adcontinue. Nor is the protective power vantage of the State and to organize of organized "social" life, as distinct the State for the best advantage of from the free struggle of individuals, the individual. And if practice could without example even outside human be made to conform to theory, Socialism ity. The development of instinct gives would have a claim upon humanity that examples of it. "The phases of social could not rightly be repudiated. life exhibited by animals other than A principle enunciated in a few lines man,” said Huxley, "sometimes curi. in the late Professor W. Wallace's ously foreshadow human policy.” i In "Prolegomena to the Study of Hegel's stances in the insect world are well Philosophy" may be cited: known, and for one example among

The apprehension of a thing from one many in the case of the higher animals

side or aspect-the apprehension of one it is interesting to refer to the account

thing apart from its connections—the given from personal observation by retention of a term or formula apart Mansfield Parkyns of the organization from its context-is what Hegel terms of baboons in their forays on the corn- "abstract" ... To abstract is a necesfields."

sary stage in the process of knowledge.

But it is equally necessary to insist on Nor, indeed, is a return to the Free

the danger of clinging, as to an ultimate Competition, the unrestricted struggle

truth, to the pseudo-simplicity of abfor existence, as it flourishes outside

straction, which forgets altogether what humanity, practicable; but this is what it is in certain situations desirable for the Individualist system postulates if a time to overlook. it is logical in its doctrine of progress.

In this sense, Socialism is a system 1 « The Anatomy of Invertebrated Animals." ?" Life in Abyssinia."

full of the error of "abstraction." It regards men and women as uniform but, these being provided, the family units for the construction of that State should be the very means of developing which the visionary sees completed in to the best the individual characters of his dreams. If Individualism ignores the parents. And the fruit of a man's conscience, Socialism ignores character, art, handicraft or labor should be his But the development of character with own, in order to satisfy that basal conthe consequent multiplication of the ob- cept of right in the human mind that jects to which human energy directs it he who creates should have power to self is one of the strongest motive dispose; lacking this, how can a man forces of civilization. Diversity of have that love of his work which alone character is necessary in a healthy, pro- prompts him to give to it his finest gressive community, and it cannot flour- energy? He may dedicate his output ish in a dead level sameness of sur to the common use; but the gift should roundings. Moreover, Socialism ignores be voluntary. that love of independence which is not Though the Hegelian system has been only an incentive to work, but an ele- abandoned as an explanation of the ment in nobility of disposition. And it Universe, it remains a very valuable incondemns the good form of acquisitive- dicator of the course of the human ness as well as the bad. The abuses of mind; and one may well hope that the the desire for property are patent to movement of the twentieth century will everybody. But there is a sense in be neither to a creed of Individualism which a man is denied the exercise of nor to a creed of Socialism, but to a his best relations with the world if the plan which, rising above both, will right of individual possession is denied eliminate the brutality of the one to him. In family life this is especially and the futility of the other, and manifest. A parent should not be the harmonize all that is found to be servant of the State to administer as good in he two seemingly contradicconcerns his children a system decreed tory conceptions of a right civilizaby it. There should be safeguards tion. against the abuse of parental power,

Godfrey Burchett. The Gentleman's Magazine.

THE SOUL OF OUR SUBURB.

It is with a proper reticence that one and unfledged youngling, that lolled in shrinks from the baring of a soul, with its shirt-sleeves and talked across gara certain trepidation that one sets upon den-walls, that kept poultry in its backpaper any aspects of its development. yards and lodgers in its upper chamFor the soul of our suburb is both bers. It was intensely democratic; real and very desperately in earnest; and indeed it still remains so,---- across and it has almost found itself. Four the line. But then it is hardly necesyears have gone to its making, four sary to remark that, in common with pregnant years, that have called into all railway lines, this one is extremely being a thousand new emotions, a thou- unmistakable, and it is upon this side sand dauntless aspirations. Four years of it that our suburb has really evolved. ago this suburb of ours was but the Here, from its former waste, from its merest red-brick tag, strung out along jungle of dusty grass and half-made a railway leading to a place that roads, it has grown to its present high shall be nameless. It was a raw estate. Four years ago it was not; to. day it is magnificent in an esplanade in their wake has come the third, the and desirable residential properties. It man of leisure. He is, at present, of possesses at least a dozen houses of the retired description, retired from the real architectural merit: it owns a lawn- commerce that the youngsters still purtennis court; and one can admit, too, sue, retired upon that competence without undue pride, that it has already which can ensure at least one servant outgrown very many of its earlier and a proportionate distinction. By faults, still, alas, so visible across the day he moves sedately through our deline.

serted streets, a rare figure, but recruitAs a community we seldom mix, in ing comrades. At even-time he is lost the social sense, with our immediate in the younger army that has returned ancestors. The line is our rubicon. from its duties. These one meets in The dwellers beyond it work for their leisure hours, pale of face, frockwages; the dwellers upon this side la coated, with caps of tweed or hats of bor for salaries. The dwellers upon straw. One sees them examining their the other side herd genially in work- garden-beds or reading their evening men's trains at extraordinarily nomi- newspapers. They have conferred disnal fares; the dwellers upon this side tinction on our suburb: they have lifted have season tickets, and go townwards our soul from the vulgar mire; and yet, with newspapers. The gulf therefore how unerringly, one reflects, would the is great, and not crossed with impunity. youth from Oxford class them as

Even after four years one has come bounders. And yet again, what good to wonder whether the first clerk, who fellows they are, and how they cleave took his forty-pound house on the only with both hands to their ideals of reside of the line worth considering, felt spectability. They would sooner die himself to be something of a pioneer. than go batless; and how magnifiPossibly he did, but it is a little hard cently they are seconded (or led perto realize that there can ever have been haps?) by their wives. a first. There are now so many. It has been our rare privilege to be From a thousand City offices they re- the witness of a suburban At-home. turn to us night by night, their cuffs where all things were done in the comin paper, and the latest news upon their pletest fashion of a correct society. lips. To a thousand City offices they Nobody was introduced, for example, hurry from us each morning, their pipes and the whole air of the little drawingin their mouths, and their eyes fixed room was electric with social appraisearnestly upon the neighboring clocks. ings. One could tell at a glance that One likes to emphasize their earnest books upon etiquette were not only ness, for, though they do not spend present, but had been diligently studmuch time with us, they are responsi- ied in the various houses from which ble for the atmosphere that pervades these guests had assembled. And the place. The days of our rollicking never surely was the half-extended coatless youth are over; we have grown hand more sternly quenched by the earnest, though we are still young; for frigid bow, or the lady so thoroughly most of these newcomers are young, overwhelmed who would take a lump and the majority have been married but of sugar in her fingers; and only once a year or two. They take themselves might one have heard an h drop in a with enormous seriousness, and the de- silence that could be felt. Some friends, sire to rise dominates them all.

too, drove up during the afternoon in a These represent the second stage in hired landau; and this vehicle, as it our suburban development; but already waited outside, lifted us all to the best

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