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SEVENTB SERIES
VOLUME XXXV.

No. 3277 April 27, 1907.

FROM BEGINNING

Vol. COLIII.

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CONTENTS.
Canada, England and the States. By Goldwin Smith . . .

CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 195
Food and Fable. By Walter Richards. GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 203
The Enemy's Camp. Chapters V. and VI. (To be continued) .

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 210 The Coming of the Flying Machine. By Bernard S. Gilbert

MONTHLY REVIEW 218 English Oral Tradition. By G. Monroe Royce .

NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER 228 A Business-like Parliament. By Wilfred Johnston . .

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 235 A Milanese Mystery. By Charles Edwardes. (Conclusion)

CHAMBERS's JOURNAL 239
Stevenson's Poems.
poems.

.
.

.

. . . . . . . TIMES 245
The American Woman, . . . . . . . NATION 249
The Roumanian “Jacquerie.” . . . . .
Vacation Christianity. . . . . . .

OUTLOOK 254
A PAGE OF VERSE
April. By Wilfrid L. Randell . Pall MALL MAGAZINE 194
A Song in the Heart. By Arthur E. Waite . . . . .

194 The Likeness. By William H. Davies . . . . . .

194 The Song of the Boy. By Justin Sterns . .

194 Parting. By John Erskine . . . . . BOOKS AND AUTHORS . . . . . . .

255 . .

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SPROTATOR 252

XII. XI. XIV.

XV. XVI.

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194

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APRIL Strephon, wayward, debonair,

In the long ago Made him two sweet songs and rare,

Then, that none should know, One of lusty laughter hid

By the silent meadow-meres, And in darkest forest-aisles

One of tears.

THE LIKENESS
Wheu I came forth this morn I saw

Quite twenty cloudlets in the air; And then I saw a flock of sheep, Which told me how those clouds came

there.

That flock of sheep, on that green

grass, Well might it lie so still and proud! Its likeness had been drawn in heaven,

On a blue sky, in silvery cloud.

Maiden April, light of heart,

Came one primrose-dawn,
Found the songs, and called apart

Dryad, bird and faun,
Sang to them of lovers' dreams

Eke of lovers' sorrow,
Told how one must laugh to-day,

Weep to-morrow.

I gazed me up, I gazed me down,
And swore, though good the likeness

was, 'Twas a long way from justice done To such white wool, such sparkling grass.

William H. Davies.

Ever since those golden years

When the world was glad, April laughs through falling tears

April's smiles are sad: Yet to mortals on her way

Whispers she a secret boon“Joy, O Heart-for Fairy May Cometh soon!"

Wilfrid L. Randell. The Pall Mall Magazine.

THE SONG OF THE BOY. Oh! The joy of being alive! To be sound of body and brain, With pulses that leap to strive, And muscles that crave the difficult

feat, To battle with wind and rain, To struggle with snow and sleet, In the tumbling surf to meet That strongest foe of man, the sea. To feel her tug at the feet, And buffet the face with a heavy hand; And measure strength with her brain

less strength, And in spite of her might, to stand Or leap or swim at the will's command, Oh! Life is sweet!

Justin Sterns.

A SONG IN THE HEART. Thou dost hear the ocean's tale In the moonlight, very pale, Since thy chamber opens wide One great casement towards the tide. But another window looks Over marshes and their brooks; And thy garden paths between Brooks and window intervene: When the evening breezes blow, Hear we in these paths below!

PARTING. Not in thine absence, nor when face

To face, thy love means most to me, But in the short-lived parting-space,

The cadence of felicity.

Lest the great, insistent sea-
Day and night adjuring thee-
By the secret word it sings,
Take too far from human things;
For a little space apart
Hear the singing in my heart!
Or if things eternal make
So much music for thy sake,
Hearken, from thy seat above,
The still vaster deep of love!

Arthur E. Waite.

So music's meaning first is known,

Not while the bird sings all day long, But when the last faint-falling tone Divides the silence from the song.

John Erskine.

CANADA, ENGLAND AND THE STATES.

the to

Washington Passing onded

Less than one hundred and forty declined, so that little or nothing is years ago there might be seen posted heard of it in the mustering of forces up in England a proclamation of the for presidential elections. Privy Council in which the Province The great bond and symbol of peace, of Ontario was called “the town." the neutrality of the lakes, secured by After the passing of the Treaty of the exclusion of ships of war, has been Washington, a speaker at a meeting faithfully observed on both sides. Al in one of the most intelligent of Eng alarm of American infraction was lish cities congratulated a Canadian raised some years ago, but proved on the passing of the treaty, saying groundless. On that occasion some that he "hoped, now the Alabama fervid Canadians proposed to introduce question was settled, there would be British gunboats into the Lakes. They nothing to divide England and Canada were thinking only of the lower lakes, from each other.” At that time, edu- as of course was Wellington when he cated people in England were still penned his dispatch. They forgot Like found believing that Canadians were Superior, where the Pacific Railway red. Englishmen know far more about might be easily raided and the DominCanada now. The opening of the ion cut in two by an American flotilla marvellous North-West has done much issuing from Duluth. to attract their attention. A British In attempting a forecast, several statesman, however, can still tell us things must be taken into account. that Great Britain has only one mili- One is the state of American institutary frontier, that of Northern India. tions, which shows the truth of Ba

That there is not a single annexa- con's saying that what man does not tionist in Canada Englishmen are con- change for the better, Time, the great stantly being told. It is true in this innovator, will be changing for the sense, that nobody either in Canada worse. In the United States Time has or the United States is now talking or been concentrating power in the Senthinking of that question. Nor does ate, while the Senate, in which the it seem likely that anybody either in smaller States have equal representaCanada or in the United States will tion with the greatest, has become a be talking or thinking about it for conclave of special interests with no some years to come. No octogenarian policy but "stand-pat," and incapable has any practical interest in it. The of forming or pursuing any great deidea that the people of the United sign. Nor can we yet tell what effect States have any design against Cana the Panama Canal, if it succeeds, or dian independence may be entirely dis- extended relations with Mexico, may missed. The present writer has for have in drawing the United States nearly forty years conversed with southwards. The awakening of Japan, Americans of all classes and parties probably with China in her train, and without hearing anything of the kind her apparent tendency to get a footor encountering any appearance of hos- ing on the Pacific Coast, are also to be tility to Canada. The Irish quarrel considered in casting the horoscope of was embraced by American politicians the future. for the sake of the Irish vote, the im- The movement at present on foot portance of which has of late greatly and apparently gaining strength is

that of commercial reciprocity only five per cent. tariff in the early days leaving the question of political res of the North-West to force the poor lations untouched. Protectionism has settler in Manitoba to buy his reaping never defined its area. The political machine at a distant factory in Onarea is defined by nationality. Nature tario when the works of Minneapolis has defined the commercial area as were at hand. He sometimes bought simply that of profitable exchange. at Minneapolis in spite of the duty.

On the other hand, events march and British Columbia, the Canadian Provnatural forces show their power. The ince on the Pacific, is clasped between action of the great forces often is long the adjacent State of the American suspended by that of secondary forces; Union and the American territory of but in the end the great forces pre Alaska. vail. It was so in the cases of Italy There is already to a great extent and Germany. Statesmen renowned practical fusion of the people of for sagacity said, after the failures in Canada with people of the United each case, that union would never States. There are 1,200,000 native come. It came, with the hour of des- Canadians on the south of the line. tiny and with the man. So to all ap- A Canadian boy thinks no more of gopearances it will be in the case of this ing to New York or Chicago for a start northern Continent of America.

in life than a Scotch or Yorkshire boy To know what Canada really is, the thinks of going to London, and the inquirer must use not the political but Canadian in the American market the physical map. The political map finds himself at a premium. Of presents her as an unbroken expanse French Canadians there are believed embracing half of the North American to be 150,000 in Massachusetts alone. Continent, including the North Pole; There is a counter current of Americolored red in the Jubilee stamp, and cans into the North-West. Churches more than equalling in extent all the interchange ministers. Associations rest of the British Empire. In reality and fraternities of all kinds span, some the Dominion consists of four different totally ignore, the Line. The sporting sections of territory forming a broken worlds of the two countries are one. line across the Continent and separated The summer resorts are in common. from each other by wide spaces or Canadians read the American magagreat barriers of nature, while each of zines. American newspapers have a them is closely connected in every way considerable circulation in Canada. with the country to the south. The American currency circulates everyrailway which links them bas to carry where but in Government offices. wide unpaying tracts as well as the New York is the Canadian Stock Exliabilities of a subarctic climate. Apart change. American investments in from the present movement into the Canada are rapidly increasing. Internewly opened wheat fields of the marriage is frequent; and as Canada, North-West, there is little interchange in deference to the Catholics, is withof population. There would hardly be out a divorce court, Canadians resort to any commercial interchange were it not the divorce courts of the United States. for the tariff. Ontario draws her coal The writer attended the other day :1 from Pennsylvania, wbile Nova Scotia great farmers' picnic, at which met the sends her coal to New England. An sections of a clan settled, one on the attempt by means of a protective tariff Canadian, the other on the American to force Ontario to buy her coal of side of the Line. In fact, nothing Nova Scotia failed. It took a thirty separates the two portions of the Eng

lish speaking people on this Continent tario under a leader afterwards but the political and fiscal lines. The knighted passed a vote of censure on spirit and largely the form of the po- Lord Salisbury for renewing the litical institutions is the same.

Crimes Act. The other day the Prime The relation of a dependency to the Minister of the Dominion, a member Imperial country can hardly fail to of the Imperial Privy Council, welcause friction when the dependencies coined an Irish Nationalist of distincare aspiring to be nations. Again and tion fresh from the Fenian platform of again the pen of the present writer New York, attended his meeting, has been taken up to defend the Brit- moved a vote of thanks to him and ish Government against the charge of subscribed to his fund. It is true these betraying the interest of the Colonies demonstrations have been confined to in disputes with the United States and the politicians who alone needed the to show that British diplomacy has Irish vote. There has been nothing done all that was in its power, while of the kind among people at large, and it would have been absolutely out of Sir Wilfrid Laurier must have evolved the question to ask the people of Eng. out of his own consciousness the asland to go to war about a boundary surance that "all true Canadians were question in North America. Consid- in favor of Home Rule." erable. peril was faced in the cases of That there is such a thing as antiMaine and Oregon. Now Newfound- American feeling in Canada is true. land is claiming diplomatic Home Rule It resides chiefly in certain circles, esto be enjoyed and enforced at the risk pecially those of the descendants of of Great Britain. There is a difficulty, U. E. Loyalists or of the Tories of which is daily showing itself, in com- the Family Compact. Perhaps a cerbining with the character of a depend- tain sense of social superiority also is ency that of a nation.

flattered by looking down upon the On the other hand, Canada is up- Yankee. We have had some efforts braided by Englishmen because she of late to stimulate this sentiment, but fails to contribute to British arma- they were very limited in their range ments. If Canada contributes to Im- and very meagre in their fruits. Disperlal armaments, will the Empire un- tinct from anti-Americanism, though dertake the defence of Canada's open akin to it and connected with Imperifrontier of four thousand miles, and alism, is the worship of the flag, which of her two sea frontiers, one of them in the United States has reached an facing the Japanese Navy, the other extravagant height and has its evangeall the navies of Europe? To settle lists in Canada. It cannot be supposed ap angry question, let any high that sentiments or fancies of this military authority give a candid opin- ' kind will in the end prevail over the ion as to the practicability of a com- manifest interests of the great body bination of England with Canada for of the people on both sides of the line. the purposes of military defence.

Of Imperial Federation it is hardly That British sentiment is not all necessary to speak. It has been powerful with Canadian politicians preached for a generation without seems to be shown by their votes of presenting a plan. We have only been sympathy with the Irish movement for exhorted to "think Imperially" and Home Rule, the real tendency of which propagate the sentiment. What is the they could not fail to know. The first government of the Imperial Federaof those votes drew on them an Im- tion to be? How is it to be elected perial rebuke. The Legislature of On- or appointed? What are to be its

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