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go to the devil. He had already tried expressed his ideas about life, however
his best, no doubt; and he tried again serious these ideas might be. "The
and again in poems like “The House Celestial Surgeon" has a theme as seri-
Beautiful." "The Canoe Speaks" (which ous as any one could wish; and yet
is half Marvell, half Herrick), "To H. F. Stevenson is content, in expressing it,
Brown," and "To Andrew Lang," all of to throw himself back into a seven-
which are full of cadences remembered teenth century state of mind and to
from Marvell and of words used in his write like Herbert-
manner. Stevenson was playing a game
even when he wrote the most serious of Lord, thy most pointed pleasure take
these; but then he took life, work and And stab my spirit broad awake;
play alike, sickness and travel, duties

Or, Lord if too obdurate I,

Choose thou, before that spirit die, and pleasures, all as a series of games;

A piercing pain, a killing sin, and even death itself he liked to think

Avd to my dead heart run them in. of as the sleep of a tired child among its playthings

The idea in the poem is expressed by This be the verse you grave for me: means of a series of symbols, and the Here he lies valiere he longed to be ; very style is a symbol of the fact that Home is the sailor, home from sea,

Stevenson is trying to take life more And thie hunter home from the hill.

simply than a man of his age, his train

ing, and his nature could really take it. He played a game in his stories as

That was always his desire, to take well as in his poems. He always

life simply; and that was the reason treated the English language as if he

why he had such a love of games and were playing a game with it, and liked

toys, for they seemed to provide him to fit words together like parts of a

with a version of life simpler than the brightly colored puzzle. But we enjoy

reality. In his later poetry there are his games, as we enjoy the games of a child, because he threw his whole heart

fewer echoes, but there is the same atinto them. All that he wrote was a lit

tempt at simplicity. In the ballads

he tells very simple stories; but he tle artificial. His romance is to the ro

could not find a narrative style in verse mance of natural epic or saga what

as he found one in prose, and there for sport is to the hunting of men who can

once one feels that he has mistaken his get no food otherwise; and this arti

medium and ought to be writing prose. ficiality is plainer in his poems than

They are good narrative, as he said, elsewhere. Yet, in spite of it, he ex

but when he doubted whether they pressed himself in them, as in all that

were poetry his doubts were justified. he wrote; for games became to him a

His later lyrical poems are more uneven natural means of expression. No doubt

than "Underwoods.” Some of them are his ill-health made him feel that all his

mere failures. You can see what he life was a little unreal, and that the

is aiming at in them and you can see best philosophy, for one so eager for

that he has failed. But in some the the fulness of life and so seldom able to experience it, was to content him

air of simplicity expresses the desire for self

simplicity with a peculiar though indiwith games. Thinking never seemed to him to be real life,

reet poignancy. Theories and ideas were well enough,

I will make you brooches and toys for but not serious business like the en

your delight countering of dangers. Therefore he of bird-soug at morning and star-shine Wis seldom in deadly earnest when he

at night.

I will make a palace fit for you and me was not a great poet; but he had the or green days in forests and blue days power of expressing himself in verse at sea

as in prose, and the very indirectness

of the expression when he makes beAnd then there is the beautiful song "In lieve to be simpler and happier than he the highlands, in the country places," is and to be contented with toys when where he ceases to play the game of he cannot get the reality, this moves us simplicity, and confesses that the life more perhaps than the greater and more he longs for can never be his, that he direct eloquence of poets, who cry out is a child of the North exiled among the for what they lack without restraint children of the South Seas, not to be and think there is nothing in life so consoled with their games or with the well worth doing as weeping because alien beauties of their country. He Paradise is unattainable here and now.

The Times,


The American woman is often repre. in character, intelligence, and individsented as playing in the European mar- uality; and the complacency with which riage-market the same triumphant and the American man will accept and endevouring rôle which the Hebrew man dorse this testimony to his inferiority plays in the money-market. Indeed, is accepted as quite conclusive conthe dramatization of the feelings of firmation of his judgment. When so the aristocratic English matron with keen and so experienced an observer as marriageable daughters towards the Mr. Henry James chronicles “the abforward policy of Transatlantic con- dication of man,” and the completeness querors has become a hackneyed topic of "this failure of the sexes to keep of modern comedy. This, however, is a pace socially," further questioning of small and incidental aspect of the far fact may seem unnecessary. America more interesting theme, the place and has produced its sort of man, a creature influence of the American woman in of business and politics, but as a man, her own country. Upon few social he is pronounced a failure; the woman “phenomena” do we find a larger cho alone is a conspicuous success. Yet, rus of enthusiastic agreement; nowhere “male and female created He them.” is there exhibited a more general fail. The natural history aspect of this uniure to realize the underlying facts of sexual evolution ought at least to stir the situation. That women play a more some curiosity, perhaps to evoke some commanding part in American society inquiry into the standard of "success" is obvious to the casual visitor; both in that is applied. the home and in each wider social circle Such inquiry, pushed from the field she not merely reigns but rules; and of biology into the adjoining sociology the males of her kind appear as admir- would, we more than conjecture, upset ing, submissive, and rather unworthy the whole fabric of illusory estimates subjects. European visitors use lan supporting this false valuation of the guage which suggests that the women sexes in America. What strikes the are a distinct and a superior human sometimes envious English woman as species to the men, superior not only in the most extraordinary achievement of grace and physical attractiveness, but her American sister, the fact that she appears to have retained all the pre- cial sway of the woman is due to the rogatives of the age of chivalry, while different valuation of "society” by the absorbing all the larger practical liber- American man from that in European ties so completely that she can afford to countries. What Mr. James and other ignore "political rights," is not difficult critics affirm, that the American man is of explication to one who looks to the business man, politician, clubman, but foundations of American society. In leaves society with its graces and its the pioneer life of a new world, woman culture largely to his wife and daughnecessarily attains a large measure of ters, is quite true. But what apparindependence, both of status and of ently they fail to recognize is the charcharacter, together with some special acteristic mental attitude of the male considerations, due to her scarcity. American towards this social life. The When this primitive condition has given extravagant wife and daughters, with place to the life of the modern indus- their receptions, diamonds, trips to Eutrial city, with the swift emergence of a rope, sprightly talk on books and art, new rich class, the women of this class are to them primarily a big entertainhave not had time to lose all the trans- ment, an expensive and elaborate mitted energy and personal efficiency "show," which they can afford to keep of the earlier womanhood, and adopt to up, and like to pay for. The average the new circumstances of a leisured life successful male American would no some of the traditional independence. more think of competing with his wife This has made her peculiarly fitted for in the display of these social arts and performing the great economic func- graces, than the average Londoner who tion of the woman in a triumphant plu- visits Maskelyne and Devant's would tocracy, such as has arisen in America. think of vying with the mystery men As the ablest analyst of American so who perform there. Society in Amerciety, Professor Veblen, has pointed out, ica is woman's sphere; a stimulating atthe first need of the industrial male mosphere, and an absence of rigorous conqueror is to display bis financial traditions make it afford scope for culpower through ostentatious waste and tivating those minor arts of contrivconspicuous leisure. Since natural in- ance in which women everywhere perclination and habit preclude the suc- haps excel. (essful trust-maker, railroad man, or But the notion that woman's superiorWall Street speculator from performing ity in these arts implies either the “abthese rites in his own person, his wife dication" or inferior success of the and daughters become the apt instru- American man rests on a total misunments of the vicarious expenditure of derstanding of the male attitude. time and money that attest his eco- These are not the serious male purnomic prowess. Hence he remains a suits for any order of American man; business man; they become society la- but his real control over the social ordies, carrying into this career the en- der is not less deeply rooted, because ergy, contidence, and resourcefulness of his somewhat extravagant good humor the backwoodman's granddaughters and liking for a "show-home" lead him

The chief misjudgment of the situa to stick to the business of producing, tion by the European speculator con- and hand over the consuming funcsists in imputing to the American tions more completely to the woman woman a quite unrealized domination. than is the case in European plutocraMale ascendency is as real and at least cies. The American nouveau riche has as strong in America as in any Euro- no remnants of revivals of feudal state pean country short of Turkey; the so- wherewith to make display of ostentatious waste; even great retinues of is apt to cloud the wits, and confuse lackeys and splendid equipages are not the conquering arts of woman; weakquite orthodox. Everything in the re- ened or controlled, it gives piquancy cent circumstances of America's life and zest to intercourse. Possibly the tends to make of the woman, her social conquering American woman owes activities, her ways of going on, the much of her triumph in the circles single relief element for the strenuous where self-possession counts for so life of the pioneer turned “hustler.” much, to this touch of inner chill.

Of course, nothing is really so simple That she owes anything to her intelas this sounds. There are other factors lectual superiority over the male of her affecting directly the sex relation. kind cannot be conceded. For no such Some cause, possibly climatic, has cer- superiority exists. She reads more and tainly reduced the intensity of sex emo- talks more, because that belongs to her tion. This is, of course, a suggestion decorative function. The thought of incapable of proof. But few who have America owes little to her. Though studied closely the conventional bear she has long enjoyed ampler opportuniing of American men and women to- ties of education than the other sex, wards one another will doubt it. The her contribution towards serious literavery freedom of association between ture, art, or science is small, almost young men and women attests it, pos- negligible. Almost all the best brainsibly induces or assists it. It would work in America, even in the fields perbaps, be too much to say that sex where women are most occupied, is emotion has faded into sentimental in- done by men. Nor are women the best terest; but the change is something of talkers, though the business man's wife this nature. The conventional simper gleans from her books and women's of admiration in the man, the free clubs a larger assortment of ideas, glance and firm tone of confident self- which she handles with more skill and possession in the woman, attest it. freedom than is common in an English Much vivacity of feeling on the surface, drawing-room. This sprightly talk selcoldness below. Read that most pol- dom rises above the patter of the social ished example of the American society stage, and the custom which always novel, “The House of Mirth." What do "gives the word", to the woman usually you find? The whole run of circum- acts as a preventive of real conversastances in the plot is that of a romance tion. Most inquiring English visitors of passion; the author evidently thinks are sadly familiar with the experience she is telling such a tale. But no spark of companies where some man of inof passion is kindled, though the com- tellect and judgment worth listening to bustibles are heaped up with almost is kept in silence by the chatter of his reckless extravagance of art. Nor is commonplace wife and daughter, who this a solitary witness. So far as fic- deem it their rôle to entertain the guest. tion holds the mirror to American na- Woman in a word is the "show" in ture, it exhibits a quite significant pau- successful America, somewhat overcity of sex emotion in its more sponta- done and too exacting to the eyes neous and mastering flow. If this is of a European audience, but clever well founded, it goes some way to ex- and very creditable to the manageplain not only the facile relation of the ment. sexes, even in the most conventional. It is probable that the real net intiuized American society, but the skill ofence of woman in America may be the women in the arts and crafts of so- greater than elsewhere, but that is not cial intercourse. For strong sex emotion the influence of the American woman

of the wealthy classes. The strength citizens in the farms and villages and of American womanhood lies in the smaller cities, where the steady presbetter habits of comradeship and do- sure and the sober earnestness of daily mestic equality among the great hard- life do not lend themselves to feminine working settled masses of American excesses.

The Nation.


This Roumanian jacquerie is for many band double, and in some cases triple, reasons a most serious affair. In the the accustomed rents, which were altirst place, it is an explosion based upon ready heavy; and this takes from the grievances which are felt, not only by people-who, it must be remembered, the six million peasants of Roumania, have no alternative mode of living-the but by the twelve million or so whole produce of their toil beyond the peasants of Eastern Austria, and barest and roughest means of subsistthe eighty million peasants who, ence, means so attenuated that they in a rough way, cultivate and main- are compelled to live in rotten huts tain the Russian Empire. That the and to starve not only themselves but movement has commenced first of their wives and children. It is probable all in Roumania is due to a change in that the bailiffs, belonging as they do estate management; but the substance for the most part to an oppressed and of the peasants' grievance exists, though detested class, use their new position not in so acute a form, throughout East. without mercy, and, like the intendants ern Europe. The Boyars, or great of the great French estates before the landlords, of Moldavia and Wallachia, Revolution, insult and worry the peasthe two great Turkish provinces from ants with a certain sense of gratificawhich the little kingdom was formed, tion. The new system has been borne constitute a class by themselves. Their through a few fertile years, but the moral has been destroyed by their long land has been overcropped, and now subjection to Turkish tyranny and now that a lean year or two have arrived that they are free they are the most the peasants-who, it must not be forluxurious, most dissolute, and most ex- gotten, have all passed through the travagant of all European nobles. They military mill-have risen in insurrecare all in debt. They are compelled to tion. They know nothing of passive wring the last farthing out of their ten- resistance, they are boiling with a hate ants, and they have recently discovered which has risen to bloodthirstiness, and, a new and most successful method of like all peoples who have been trodden exaction. Being, like most men of their into savagery, they have in them, like kind in Southern Europe, very lazy, the French before the Revolution, an they dwell in the towns, and farm their element of Eastern cruelty. They plunestates to bailiffs for a fixed quit-rent, der and burn out the bailiffs, and leaving them to obtain from the peas. slaughter the landlords, sometimes with antry the utmost they can squeeze circumstances of abhorrent cruelty. The majority of these bailiffs are clever There are stories, for instance, which Jews, who, armed with the whole pow- are believed, at least in isolated cases, ers of the landlords, and backed by the to be true, of their plunging their vicotticials whom they "conciliate," de. tims into boiling petroleum. The Gov

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