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traduction to Saul (in chapter xvi., as a minstrel, who becomes Saul's armor-bearer; in xvil., through his defeat of Goliath in single combat, although too little to bear arms); (6) of his betrothal to a daughter of Saul (in xviii. 17-19, to Merab, as the promised reward of the death of Goliath; in xviii. 20-23, to Michal); (7) of his flight from court (in xix. 18-24, to Raman; in xxi. to Ahimelech at Nob); (8) of the origin of the proverb, "Is Saul also among the prophets?" (x. 11; xix. 24); (9) of David sparing the king's life (in xxiv., at En-gedi; in xxvi., in the waste laud of Ziph); (10) of his stay with Achish of Gath (xxi. 11-16, when he feigned madness and did not remain; and again in chapter xxvii., when he served under Achish and remained a year and four months); and, lastly, (11) of the death of Saul (in 1 Sam. xxxi.. by his own hand; and in 2 Sam. i., by the hand of an Amalekite).

This is indeed a formidable list, and, if cumulative evidence count for anything, the duplication of narratives in the Books of Samuel may be taken as proved. If, however, we go through the Indictment count by count, we may find that it can be considerably reduced. In the first place one of the duplicate narratives in items five and six is wanting in the Greek text. In the first count (the warning of Eli) the latter of the two narratives explicitly refers back to the former (iii. 12). The double account of David's simultaneous flight to Raman and to Nob has only arisen because the critics have struck out verse 1 of chapter xx., in which we are told that he continued his flight from Ramah to Nob. In the last count of the bill, the second narrative of the death of Saul is. of course, that of the Amalekite. and the whole point of the story lies in the fact that the Amalekite is lying, and reaps the just reward of

his knavery (2 Sam. iv. 10). The critics, however, maintain that the narrator in that case should have pointed that out to the reader. But, if this is unnecessary for the average English child, it would have been doubly superfluous for an Oriental reader. Again, in chapters xxiv. and xxvi. there are only six expressions common to both—namely, that Saul went "with the three thousand picked men of Israel to look for David," that he stopped "by the way," that David was told that God had given "his enemy that day into his hand," that his reply was "God forbid that I should stretch forth my hand against the Lord's anointed," that Saul said, "Is this thy voice, my son David?" and that David asked Saul why he "chased one flea." In all other respects the two narratives are wide asunder, and the one ground for seeking to identify them Is that in each David spares the king's life. Even in the apparently divergent accounts of the institution of the monarchy the reconciling point may be the wise diplomacy of Samuel in obtaining the election of the very man whom he had himself already anointed as king.

By way of general observation it is hardly necessary to mention that the Hebrew language suffers from poverty of vocabulary, and that it is impossible to describe similar events iu it without employing Identical expressions, and so great is the Hebrew's love of assonance that this is accounted the reverse of a blemish. Moreover, the style of the classical Hebrew historian has all the simplicity and naiveti of that of the professional story-teller in the markets of Cairo or Damascus. His every second sentence begins with "so." and is a repetition of the last but one. "So the Philistines took the ark of God, and brought it from Ebenezer to Ashdod. So the Philistines took the ark of God, and brougbt it into the house of Dagon" (1 Sam. v. 1, 2).1

Enough has perhaps been said to show that the duplication of narratives in the Books of Samuel is at least— to use the Scots term—"not proven," and that, in Sir Roger de Coverley's classic phrase, much may still be said on both sides of the question. Yet, after all, it must be confessed that the "two source theory" appeals strongly to the logically constituted and scientifically trained Western mind by the drastic fashion in which it cuts those knots which the learning and ingenuity of generations have been expended in attempting to untie. The difficulties, inconsistencies and contradictions in the Old Testament are so numerous and so hard to account for on any other hypothesis that this theory has proved a veritable harbor of refuge to the exegete. it has become the most valuable weapon in his armory, and the most indispensable of his tools.

in order, however, that he may use this Damascus blade with least danger to himself, it behooves him to observe the manner of fts operation in other Semitic literatures besides that of the Hebrews; and in looking about for illustrations of Biblical phenomena we turn naturally to Arabic, and, first of all. to the Korftn.

in the Korftn we find all the literary phenomena which meet us in the Old and New Testaments. it abounds with repetitions and duplicate narratives and laws, with anachronisms and inconsistencies. As a persecuted prophet, Muhammad loved to dwell on the ill usage and rejection of earlier apostles by the peoples to whom they were sent. in their afflictions he saw a reflection of his own sufferings at the hands of his unbelieving fellow

i Wellhausen appears to have been tempted to strike oat one of these clauses, " aber das lst die Art hebralscher ErzHhlang," he adds.

townsmen. "They do not say to thee ought else than was said to the apostles before thee." "if they have made thee a liar, apostles before thee have been called liars." "The apostles before thee were laughed to scorn." The stories of these apostles and prophets are told over and over again. Hence we find in the Korftn duplicate accounts of Abraham, of Had the apostle of the tribe of Ad, and of Jesus, and the rest . But of all others the prophet whose case Muhammad felt most nearly resembled his own was Moses—"he who talked familiarly with God." The result is that the story of Moses is reiterated, with more or less detail, some thirteen times in the Korftn. These narratives do not all cover identical ground, some enlarge upon one period of Moses' life, others upon another. if we combine them so as to form one continuous narrative, we obtain in outline the familiar story of the Book of Exodus.

Pharaoh, with his vezir Haman. tyrannizes over the israelites, killing their male children. God befriends the oppressed. Moses is committed to the Nile in an ark of bulrushes and found by the daughter of Pharaoh, who begs for him as he will "cool the eyes" of her father and herself. He refuses to suck the breasts of the Egyptian women, and his sister, offering to find a Hebrew nurse, brings their own mother. One day when grown up he finds an Egyptian misusing an israelite and kills him. The next day the same israelite is quarrelling again. Moses rebukes him and receives the retort, "Wilt thou kill me as thou tookest a life yesterday?" At the same moment Moses is warned that the magistrates are about to arrest him, and he flees and takes refuge in Midian. There he assists two women to water their sheep. Their father offers one to Moses as wife in return for eight or ten years' service. At the end of that period Moses departs with his wife. He sees the burning bush in the valley of Towa. There he is taught the two signs, and bidden go to Pharaoh. He replies that he is afraid, and that he is not eloquent, but is reminded of his wonderful preservation in infancy, and is given Aaron as spokesman. He appears before Pharaoh and performs the two signs. Then follow the plagues, the crossing of the Red Sea and the destruction of the Egyptians. in token of the ratification of the covenant at Sinai the mountain is lifted up. During the absence of Moses the people, at the instigation of As-Samiri, and with the connivance of Aaron, worship a calf of gold. Moses in his anger breaks the tablets of laws which he had received, and, seizing Aaron by the beard, upbraids him fiercely. Next we have the miraculous feeding of the people with manna and quails and water from rocks, and the institution of the sacrifice of the red heifer. The people fear to invade Canaan, and are forbidden the country for forty years. Moses sets out to find a person generally called Al-Khidr, and identified with Elijah.

if we now proceed to disintegrate this compilation and to distribute its elements among the several components of which it is made up, we find that Haman (along with Karun or Korah) appears in two only of the original sources—in Chapters 28 and 40— the slaughter of the israelite children in five. The scene of the burning bush is named the Valley of Towa in two (20 and 79). The central event in all the narratives is the destruction of the Egyptians in the Red Sea for rejecting the preaching of Moses; but even this is not always explicitly mentioned. in Chapter 40 a Courtier of Pharaoh takes Moses' part . Chapter 7 speaks of six plagues. Chapter 17 of nine signs, whilst other chapters do not refer to

the plagues at all. in Chapter 2 the feeding with manna and quails is subsequent to the worship of the golden calf; in 20 the reverse is the case. The lifting up of Mount Sinai is mentioned in Chapters 2 and 4. As-Samiri (the Samaritan) appears in Chapter 20 only. in some of the narratives Moses alone is the hero {e.g., 32); in others Moses and Aaron together (21). in one chapter the story of Moses will precede that of Abraham; in another the chronological order will be followed. The curious midrash of Moses and Al-Khldr occurs only once, in Chapter 18. Chapter 5 merely mentions the refusal of the people to enter Canaan, and their suggestion that Moses should go by himself, with its result .

A study, even the most cursory, of the Koran shows clearly that to the Semite there was nothing incongruous in repeating the same narrative or discourse over and over again in the same volume, any more than in repeating the same bars in the same piece of music. We are apt to forget that we have the musical element to reckon with both in the Korftn and in the Old Testament (Cf. especially Korftn 55; is. ix. and x.; Ezek. xxxil., etc.). But, leaving the poetry out of account, and taking the Korftn and the Old Testament as mere prose compositions, we can learn a good deal from a comparison of the two.

in the first place, not only does the author of the Koran repeat himself, but he does so without any glaring inconsistency. in all the narratives of Moses the phraseology may vary, but the matter or sense, when two or more narratives coincide, is the same. The Semite, therefore, is quite as incapable of logical inconsistency as the European. Neither an author nor an editor would have allowed two inconsistent accounts of the same event to be set down side by side. To account for the apparent inconsistencies of the Old Testament, therefore, by a difference of authorship is no explanation at all, because we still require to know how these inconsistencies came to be passed by the editor, who combined the divergent accounts. This editor or redactor, moreover, is a personage absolutely unknown to Semitic literature. There we have authors and books, but the "editing" of an author in the way in which the Old Testament writers are said to have been edited is an entirely modern and European practice. The Koran was edited in the califate of Abu Bekr by collecting its verses from palm-leaves and from shoulder-blades and from the breasts of men, and setting them down exactly as the prophet had uttered them. Of one thing we may be absolutely certain: if Abu Bekr or Zaid ibu Thflbit or Othmftn had chosen to piece together the many duplicate passages in the KorAn, as is supposed to have been done with the Old Testament books, there is not a critic in Europe who would have been able to disintegrate them again.

The most serious flaw in the equipment of the Arab as a writer of history —as indeed of European writers, including Chaucer—is his lack of the sense of historical perspective. He throws all his figures upon a screen and they are all equally distant from him. in the Koran Nimrod is contemporary with Abraham; Haman (of the Book of Esther) is the vezfr of the Pharaoh of the Exodus; and Mary, the mother of Jesus, is the daughter of imran. and therefore identical with Miriam the sister of Moses. When a series of prophets is mentioned the chronological sequence is not observed, and in duplicate versions of the same story the order of events is not always the same. So. too, in the historical books of the Old Testament there is no reason to suppose, for example, that the events recorded in 2 Sam, ix.-xxiv.

are set down precisely in the order in which they occurred. in these books the one really inexplicable difficulty, which, like the two divine names in the Pentateuch, is the agate knifeedge upon which the whole critical analysis is suspended, is the fact that in 1 Sam. xvi. 14-23, David is Saul's favorite armor-bearer, whereas in Chapter xvil. he is (it is supposed) too young to bear arms, and is quite unknown to Saul and Abner (xvil. 5558). The Greek text, it is true, omits the verses last cited, but still presents the (supposed) difficulty as to David's age. if we could believe xvi. 14-23 to be subsequent in time to xvii., we should get rid of both difficulties.

in addition to the two narratives of which the Books of Samuel are composed it is believed that there can be detected traces of a third hand—that of the "Deuteronomic redactor." This editor who is imbued with the spirit of Deuteronomy gives an occasional religious turn to the narrative where that was lacking in the original. The warnings given to Eli by the man of God in Chapter ii., and through Samuel lu Chapter iii., as well as much of Samuel's farewell address on his demission of office in Chapter xii., are couched in the language of the Book of Deuteronomy. it is admitted, however, that the Deuteronomist is far more in evidence in the Book of Judges than in Samuel. There he gives bis hand free play and is, in fact, responsible for the form and setting of the whole book. in it each one of the greater judges is introduced and dismissed with similar phrases and in the same set terms. "The israelites do evil in the sight of Jehovah. He sells them into the hand of some tyrant; they serve him so many years; then they cry to Jehovah; he raises up a deliverer; the tyrant is subdued; and the land has rest so many years." 1t is agreed that these introductory and final formulae are from the hand of the Deuteronomlc editor, and that the stories to which they form the setting are by much older writers—it is generally supposed by the two authors mentioned at the beginning of this article. Now let us turn to the Korfl.n. iu the Koran we find certain chapters made up in whole or in part of stories about the prophets; for example, in Chapter 7, about Noah, Hud (the prophet of the tribe of Ad), Salih (the prophet of the tribe of Thamrtd), Lot, Shoaib (the prophet of Midian), Moses. Similarly, in Chapter 21—which is called the Chapter of the Prophets— mention is made of Moses, Abraham, Lot, isaac, Jacob, Noah, David, Solomon, Job, ishmael, idris (Enoch), Dhu'l Kifl, "He of the fish" (Jonah), Zacharias, the Virgin Mary. So in Chapter 18 we have the stories of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, of Moses in search of Al-Khidr, and of "the man of the two horns" (Alexander the Greati. in Chapter 19 we have the stories of Zacharias. John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary, of Jesus, Abraham, ishmael— "who was true to his promise"—and others.

These stories are repeated over and over again, and the motive is always the same. A tribe—Ad or Thamud or Midian—rebel against God; God sends an apostle to bring them back to their faith; they declare the apostle to be a liar; God destroys them; and the prophet possesses his soul in patience. Between the longer stories there intervene some sentences of a hortatory or parenetic nature, dwelling on the moral to be drawn from the tale. in Chapter 7 the story of Hud concludes (v. 70), "And We delivered him and those who were with him, with mercy from Us, and We cut off the last of those who said that Our signs were lies, and who did not believe." Similarly, after the stories of Noah (v. 62), Salih (vv. 76, 77), Lot (vv. 81, 82),

Shoaib (vv. 88-91). Again, in Chapter 21, after the mention of Abraham, 1saac and Jacob, we read (v. 72): "Each of them We made pious and We made them guides to lead at Our command, and We showed them how to do good, and to pray, and to give alms, and they served Us"; again, after naming ishmael, idris and Dhu'l Kifl (v. 85): "Each one was of the number of the patient, and We caused them to enter into Our mercy; every one of them was of the pious"; and, again, after referring to Jonah (v. 87): "We delivered him out of his affliction, and in like wise will We deliver those who believe." Similarly, in Chapter 18, between the story of the Sleepers of Ephesus and that of Moses there is inserted a parenetic discourse too long to quote.

in the Koran, therefore, we meet with the same phenomena as are found in the Book of Judges, and, to a less extent, in the Books of Samuel—series of stories of heroes set in a religious or "Deuteronomlc" framework. The prevailing view at the present time in regard to the Old Testament books is that the stories come from the pen of the author, or authors, of the books, and that the framework in which they are embedded is from the hand of an editor who wished to turn these narratives to a religious purpose. The analogy of the Koran shows that the supposed redactor is, in fact, the author of the book, of the narrative as well as of the hortatory parts. The narrative portions had no previous literary existence as far as he was concerned. They were the folk-lore of his day, popular tales with which every one was familiar, but which no one had committed to writing, or, indeed, would have thought of committing to writing for their own sake, and which would perhaps never have been written at all, had it not been for the religious use to which they could be put. Even so

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