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all with what he described them as and had belonged to him for many treating of. The history of these ex- years, he announced that he had distraordinary forgeries well deserves to covered an enormous number of emenbe written. Curiously parallel to the dations-roughly, they amounted to Chatterton forgeries are the Poësies about 20,000—in a handwriting of the de Marguerite Eléonore, Clotilde de seventeenth century. That a large Valon-Chalys depuis Madame de Sur- proportion of these were forged, there ville, poète Francais du XVe Siecle," can be no doubt, ink, pencil-marks, published in 1803, under the auspices and other peculiarities, showing this of M. Charles Vanderbourgh, the real conclusively. The labor involved in author of which was the Marquis Jo- such a work is obvious, and what moseph Etienne de Surville, a graceless tive could have prompted the forger, profligate, who afterwards took to rob- if the forger was Collier, to assign to bing diligences, and was shot in the a phantom the credit of emendations, Velay in 1798. Of the spuriousness of many of which place the corrector in these poems there can be as little the first rank of conjectural critics? doubt as of their great merit.
As, however, there can be no doubt One of the most impudent forgeries that on other occasions he forged and attempted in the last century was that faked many documents, it is probable of the "Memoirs of Cagliostro,” con- that he was the culprit. cocted by the Comte de Courchamps, Here I must break off; but one word mainly out of two novels by John let me add-for it is to the credit of a Potocki, a Polish Count, published re- great scholar-to Mr. Farrer's interspectively in 1813 and 1814. The esting account of the Simonides fraud was exposed before the work, forgeries. That arch-impostor had which was published in instalments, brought some of his manuscriptswas completed, when De Courchamps which I do not know, to "Bodley" had the face to assert that Potocki's Cox. “And what date," said the expublisher had surreptitiously got pos- pectant huckster, who had just taken session of his manuscripts. Unluckily, in Sir Frederick Madden, "should you however, for De Courchamps, it was assign to this?" placing a manuscript shown that one of Potocki's novels before him. Cox, after scrutinizing had been published at St. Petersburg, it for a few minutes, curtly replied, under another title, as far back as “About the middle of the nineteenth 1804, and this mean double fraud was century. Pack up and begone, sir!" triumphantly exposed. Perhaps the It is to be hoped that Mr. Farrer's most mysterious forgery of modern pleasantly written and scholarly voltimes was that attributed by many to ume will be followed by another of Payne Collier, the eminent Shake equal interest, for material is indeed spearean scholar. In a Third Folio of ample. Shakespeare, which belonged to him,
J. Churton Collins. The Natioa.
THE SPEED OF TRAVEL.
It is always a convenience to be able brought to our notice, we recognize its to mark an epoch in some distinctive significance. “Forty days" marks an way, to tick it off decisively before epoch. putting it away in the pigeon-holes of We do not recommend rushing round memory. If an epoch can be ex- the world in forty days. Yet it is inpressed by a good round number, so teresting to know that it can be done, much the better, because so much the and in the case of a busy man who easier to remember. Even in the cannot possibly get away for more most familiar subjects-in thinking of than six weeks there is something to our own epoch, for example, it is use be said for it. The swift panoramic ful, as it were, to take stock occa- view is often a wonderfully impressionally. What is a more familiar sive and vivifying one. It teaches no feature in our own time than that com- details, but it leaves a broad and sure plement and counterpart of industrial impression upon which memory works ism, the continuous acceleration of afterwards, as the etcher works upon the means of transport? Yet no intel- his plate. To the newspaper-reader ligent person, who exclaims once a distant parts of the earth can be little week at his breakfast-table that ships more than names, and the chief actors are becoming very large and the world upon those stages little more than very small, need be ashamed at not be shadows, till be has seen them. Let ing able to say exactly what increase him once see them, if only for a few of speed along the great routes of the hours, and the picture rises before his world has been achieved in a genera vision every time he reads of them tion. Many of us marked an epoch for the rest of his life. He fits the for ourselves when Jules Verne wrote facts into the frame. They are radi"Round the World in Eighty Days." ant with color. He has perhaps spent Perhaps it was not possible then to go a morning in Washington, and when round in eighty days; the book would he reads of a difference of opinion behave been less exciting to children if tween Mr. Roosevelt and the Senate it had been possible. But at all he sees the Senators thronging in exevents it was nearly possible, and citement about the Capitol, and the inany of us marked down the epoch. coming and going of officials at White Eighty days seemed to convey to us House. He may only have stayed a in more or less intelligible terms the few hours at Colombo, but when he size of the world. How many people reads of the bursting of the monsoon could say offhand to-day, however, to he knows what it means to agriculwhat those eighty days have been re- tural India; he sees again the trailing duced? A writer in the Daily Mail, black clouds, and the mist and the Mr. F. A. McKenzie, tells us that the waves scattered in towering spray as journey can now be done in forty they strike the breakwater. He may days, and that in comfortable trains only have driven rapidly round Meland ships, not by the desperate expedi- bourne and Sydney, but he cannot ents of Jules Verne. Possibly we read of Mr. Deakin or Mr. Reid withought to have known all about this, out putting him in his true setting and but, frankly, it had not occurred to us finding that he has a new interest for to think of it. Now that it has been him, or without beholding in his mind's eye Melbourne formal and rec- across a valley) should not be made as tangular, and Sydney, crooked and noble as a Roman aqueduct, like that, winding, perched on the shore above for instance, which tourists hasten to her majestic harbor. He may have see at Segovia. Mr. Rudyard Kipling spent as short a time in Cape Town, in this sense has been a truer prophet but he will always keep the memory to his own age. of Table Mountain lifted like an altar B ut how is the forty days' journey to the gods under the sky, and he will done? We are told that the tickets have learned an instant lesson of geo- cost only about £65 second-class, and logical formation. He may never £123 first-class. The journey is reckhave left the train for thirteen days oned in this way: London to Moscow, when travelling from Moscow to Vladi- two and a half days; Moscow to vostok, but he will have had an epit. Vladivostok, thirteen days; Vladivostok ome of racial differences and agricul- to Yokohama, two days; Yokohama to tural pursuits presented to him in the London via Vancouver, twenty-one peasants who thronged the stations and a half days; connections, one day. where the train stopped. The head- The Russians understand the art of long “looping" of the world, then, need comfortable railway travelling; their not be laughed out of countenance. carriages and buffets are models. It is only quite ridiculous in the Pag. Every long-distance traveller will conetts who claim special knowledge ac firm Mr. McKenzie's statement that a quired by cursory examination. No week or so in a train is not wearisome. one who has merely rushed, however, This is a curious fact, as in England has developed any of the virtues of most of us find a few hours in a train travel; his motives were not explora terribly tedious. The explanation tory; he should almost refrain from must be wholly psychological. In speaking of his experiences; he has England we made up our minds a litsimply allowed himself to be conveyed tle prematurely that space had been round so that he might have a map al- annihilated by modern invention, and ways in his head, a bird's-eye view of when we are faced with the need, the world for his guidance and inspira- which somehow perversely lingers on, tion. At most, in the words of "Locks- of spending seven or eight hours in a ley Hall," he “saw the vision of the train between London and Edinburgh, world and all the wonder that would we are provoked to the point of resentbe." To say even as much as this is, ment. An unscheduled delay of ten we know, a very un-Ruskinian senti- minutes for no explained reason tigment. "Your railroad," said Ruskin, ures in our minds as something like “when you come to understand it, is a monstrous attack upon the liberty only a device for making the world of the subject. Really we enter upon smaller." And again: "Going by rail- an English journey in the wrong road I do not consider as travelling at frame of mind. For a journey of seyall ... It is very little different from eral days the frame of mind is quite becoming a parcel.” Ruskin did not different; unconsciously we assure try to perceive the romance of ma- ourselves that it would be ridiculous chinery. He said it was an absurd to be in a hurry; the long-distance mixture of motives to attempt to deco- train is a kind of travelling hotel, and rate such an abominable necessity as we do not demand great speed of it; # railway station. He did not ask the journey is a rest-cure. Meals himself why a railway bridge (say a break in upon the day; one can sit set of over twenty spans sweeping outside on a platform, and fancy one
self on a verandah; and it is a com- days' scheme would break down for a mon experience to feel that the jour- heavy percentage of travellers when it ney has ended too soon because one came to spending only one day in Jahas not finished one's pile of books. pan, From Yokohama you would go But probably one would read hardly in a Canadian Pacific Railway liner to at all in the journey across Siberia. Vancouver, then to Quebec by the CaHere you can see at every wayside nadian Pacific Railway, and so from station, in every tract of territory, the Quebec to England. Such is the forty method by which Russia hopes to days' journey. The title of globe-trotcarve or recarve her Imperial fortune ter is scarcely applicable to this dein the East. This eastward march is lirious gallop. Taken in the right a renunciation even while it is an as- spirit, it might have the uses we piration; it is a renunciation of the have attributed to it. For ourselves, wise old policy which planned a mod- we should probably choose a much erating, civilizing, and exclusive con- shorter journey, and "specialize" in tact with Western Europe. Beyond our acquisition for knowledge. Still, Kharbin comes another change. The forty days is a good round numtraveller can see Japan experimenting ber, easy to remember and distinctly with her new manner and means of epoch-marking, and we are glad to colonization. We fancy the forty have heard of it.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.
The most recent report issued from numbers in 1903-4 had become, for the United States Bureau of Educa- men, nearly 72,000, and for women tion at Washington gives detailed in- nearly 31,000. formation respecting recent develop- The number of professors and inments of the various grades of educa- structors has increased in a similar tion in the States down to June 30, manner. In 1899-1900 the number of 1904, and in it the Commissioner of such teachers in institutions for men Education gives a prominent place to and for both sexes was 12,664 men and the work of universities and colleges. 1816 women; in 1903-4 these numbers The statistics now provided make it had become 15,342 men and 2272 possible to supplement the article pub- women. In institutions for women lished in these columns (vol. lxviii., p. alone the increase is not so decided. 25) dealing with university education The number of men teaching in these in the United States, and to give some institutions was in the former year indication of the progress which has 697, and in 1903-4 only 631. The numbeen made in American institutions of ber of women, however, shows a higher education during recent years. marked increase from 1744 to 1834.
There has been, in the first place, a It is interesting and instructive, large increase in the number of stu- too, to study the rise and fall in the dents attending universities and col- popularity of the various subjects leges in the United States. Whereas taken up by students. At the two in the year 1899-1900 the total number periods under comparison there were of men students was, roughly, 61,800, some remarkable differences. In 1899and of women students 25,300, the 1900 the number of students studying Classics and other subjects of general that the income derived from fees reculture (as the report calls it) was ceived from students forms only about roughly 37,000, but in 1903-4 the num- one-third of the total income, the reber had reached 65,000. In the earlier mainder necessary to meet the exyear the number of students in classes penses of the institutions being deof pure or applied science was well on rived from endowment funds, State towards 26,000; in 1903-4 this number aid, and miscellaneous sources." had increased to 32,000. The relative In 1903-4 the State and municipal popularities of humanistic and prac- aid to higher education amounted to tical studies may be said to have un 1,984,6001., as compared with 893,0001. dergone little change at institutions of in 1899-1900. the rank under consideration. But in It is thus seen that the striking disthis connection it must be remem- parity between public and private efbered that at the great technological forts in behalf of higher education in institutions, which are not included in the United States and Great Britain, these statistics, large numbers of men pointed out in the article to which are engaged entirely in studying reference has already been made, has, branches of applied science.
in the interval of four years with The total value of property pos- which we are here dealing, become sessed by the institutions for higher more accentuated; and, instead of haveducation in the United States ing made up leeway, we appear to amounted in 1899-1900 to about 72, have fallen even further bebind. 120,0001., and in 1903-4 this large sum T he annual amount raised by private had increased to 93,043,0001. The en- munificence for American universities dowment funds in the former year and colleges bas in a few years been were valued at 33,240,0001., while in doubled; and, as recent notes in these the latter year this provision for fu- columns have shown, there is no sign ture contingencies had grown to of any decline in the generosity of the 41,313,0001.
men of wealth in the States. The The value of gifts and bequests re- amount of money raised in this way ceived by institutions for higher edu- in the United Kingdom during the pecation during 1899-1900 was 2,399,- riod 1871-1901 was only one-eighth of 0002. in 1903-4 the amount had that contributed in the United States increased to 2.740.0001.; and last year in the same time; and if the present as much as 5,000,0001. was raised in scale of American gifts be continued, this way. Twenty-five institutions in the comparison at the end of 1931 will the former year received from private be such as to leave us at a still more donors gifts of as much as 20,0001.; hopeless disadvantage. and in 1903-4 as many as twenty-nine All the statistics here brought toinstitutions were equally fortunate. gether tell the same story; alike as re
For the first of the years with which gards number of students, number of we are concerned in this comparison, university teachers, total value of unithe total income, excluding benefac- versity property and total annual intions, amounted to 5,712,0001., of which come, from whatever point of view about 2,234,0001. was received in the looked at, there is evidence of a strong form of tuition and other fees. In and healthy growth in the system of 1903-4 the total income had reached higher education in the United States; 8,066,0001. In connection with this and, though it can by no means be sum, the Commissioner for Education suggested that similar work in this remarks:-"It is a well-known fact country has remained stagnant, the