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THE SPEED OF TBAVEL.
it is always a convenience to be able to mark an epoch in some distinctive way, to tick it off decisively before putting it away in the pigeon-holes of memory. if an epoch can be expressed by a good round number, so much the better, because so much the easier to remember. Even in the most familiar subjects—in thinking of our own epoch, for example—it is useful, as it were, to take stock occasionally. What is a more familiar feature in our own time than that complement and counterpart of industrialism, the continuous acceleration of the means of transport? Yet no intelligent person, who exclaims once a week at his breakfast-table that ships are becoming very large and the world very small, need be ashamed at not being able to say exactly what increase ef speed along the great routes of the world has been achieved in a generation. Many of us marked an epoch for ourselves when Jules Verne wrote "Round the World in Eighty Days." Perhaps it was not possible then to go round in eighty days; the book would have been less exciting to children if it had been possible. But at all events it was nearly possible, and many of us marked down the epoch. Eighty days seemed to convey to us in more or less intelligible terms the size of the world. How many people could say offhand to-day, however, to what those eighty days have been reduced? A writer in the Daily Mail, Mr. F. A. McKenzie, tells us that the journey can now be done in forty days, and that in comfortable trains and ships, not by the desperate expedients of Jules Verne. Possibly we ought to have known all about this, but, frankly, it had not occurred to us to think of it. Now that it has been
brought to our notice, we recognize Its significance. "Forty days" marks an epoch.
We do not recommend rushing round the world in forty days. Yet it is interesting to know that it can be done, and in the case of a busy man who cannot possibly get away for more than six weeks there is something to be said for it. The swift panoramic view is often a wonderfully impressive and vivifying one. it teaches no details, but it leaves a broad and sure impression upon which memory works afterwards, as the etcher works upon his plate. To the newspaper-reader distant parts of the earth can be little more than names, and the chief actors upon those stages little more than shadows, till he has seen them. Let him once see them, if only for a few hours, and the picture rises before his vision every time he reads of them for the rest of his life. He fits the facts into the frame. They are radiant with color. He has perhaps spent a morning in Washington, and when he reads of a difference of opinion between Mr. Roosevelt and the Senate he sees the Senators thronging in excitement about the Capitol, and the coming and going of officials at White House. He may only have stayed a few hours at Colombo, but when he reads of the bursting of the monsoon he knows what it means to agricultural india; he sees again the trailing black clouds, and the mist and the waves scattered in towering spray as they strike the breakwater. He may ouly have driven rapidly round Melbourne and Sydney, but he cannot read of Mr. Deakin or Mr. Reid without putting him in his true setting and finding that he has a new interest for him, or without beholding in bis wind's eye Melbourne formal and rectangular, and Sydney, crooked and winding, perched on the shore above her majestic harbor. He may have spent as short a time in Cape Town, but be will always keep the memory of Table Mountain lifted like an altar to the gods under the sky, and he will have learned an instant lesson of geological formation, He may never have left the train for thirteen days when travelling from Moscow to Vladivostok, but he will have had an epitome of racial differences and agricultural pursuits presented to him in the peasants who thronged the stations where the train stopped. The head loug "looping" of the world, then, need not be laughed out of countenance. lt is only quite ridiculous in the Pag etts who claim special knowledge acquired by cursory examination. No one who has merely rushed, however, has developed any of the virtues of travel; his motives were not exploratory; he should almost refrain from speaking of his experiences; he has simply allowed himself to be conveyed round so that he might have a map always in his head, a bird's-eye view of the world for his guidance and inspiration. At most, in the words of "Locksley Hall," he "saw the vision of the world and all the wonder that would be." To say even as much as this is, we know, a very un-Ruskinian sentiment. "Your railroad," said Ruskin, "when you come to understand it, is only a device for making the world smaller." And again: "Going by railroad l do not consider as travelling at all ... lt is very little different from becoming a parcel." ituskin did not try to perceive the romance of machinery. He said it was an absurd mixture of motives to attempt to decorate such an abominable necessity as a railway station. He did not ask himself why a railway bridge (say a set of over twenty spans sweeping
across a valley) should not be made as noble as a Roman aqueduct, like that, for instance, which tourists hasten to see at Segovia. Mr. Rndyard Kipling in this sense has been a truer prophet to bis own age.
But how is the forty days' journey done? We are told that the tickets cost only about £65 second-class, and £123 first-class, The journey is reckoned in this way: London to Moscow, two and a half days; Moscow to Vladivostok, thirteen days; Vladivostok to Yokohama, two days; Yokohama to London via Vancouver, twenty-one and a half days; connections, one day. The Russians understand the art of comfortable railway travelling; their carriages and buffets are models, Every long-distance traveller wUl confirm Mr. McKenzie's statement that a week or so in a train is not wearisome. This is a curious fact, as in England most of us find a few hours in a train terribly tedious, The explanation must be wholly psychological. ln England we made up our minds a little prematurely that space had been annihilated by modern invention, and when we are faced with the need, which somehow perversely lingers on, of spending seven or eight hours in a train between London and Edinburgh, we are provoked to the point of resentment , An unscheduled delay of ten minutes for no explained reason figures in our minds as something like a monstrous attack upon the liberty of the subject , Really we enter upon an English journey in the wrong frame of mind. For a journey of several days the frame of mind is quite different; unconsciously we assure ourselves that it would be ridiculous to be in a hurry; the long-distance train is a kind of travelling hotel, and we do not demand great speed of it; the journey is a rest-cure. Meals break in upon the day; one can sit outside on a platform, and fancy oneself on a verandah; and it is a common experience to feel that the journey has ended too soon because one has not finished one's pile of books. But probably one would read hardly at all in the journey across Siberia. Here you can see at every wayside station, in every tract of territory, the method by which Russia hopes to carve or recarve her imperial fortune in the East. This eastward march is a renunciation even while it is an aspiration; it is a renunciation of the wise old policy which planned a moderating, civilizing, and exclusive contact with Western Europe. Beyond Kharbin comes another change. The traveller can see Japan experimenting with her new manner and means of colonization. We fancy the forty The Spectator.
days' scheme would break down for a heavy percentage of travellers when it came to spending only one day in Japan. From Yokohama you would go in a Canadian Pacific Railway liner to Vancouver, then to Quebec by the Canadian Pacific Railway, and so from Quebec to England. Such is the forty days' journey. The title of globe-trotter is scarcely applicable to this delirious gallop. Taken in the ri^ht spirit, it might have the uses we have attributed to it. For ourselves, we should probably choose a much shorter journey, and "specialize" in our acquisition for knowledge. Still, forty days is a good round number, easy to remember and distinctly epoch-marking, and we are glad to have heard of it.
HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.
The most recent report issued from the United States Bureau of Education at Washington gives detailed information respecting recent developments of the various grades of education in the States down to June 30, 1904, and in it the Commissioner of Education gives a prominent place to the work of universities and colleges. The statistics now provided make it possible to supplement the article published in these columus (vol. ixvlii., p. 25) dealing with university education in the United States, and to give some indication of the progress which has been made in American institutions of higher education during recent years.
There has been, in the first place, a large increase in the number of students attending universities and colleges in the United States. Whereas in the year 1899-1900 the total number of men students was, roughly, 61,800, and of women students 25,30*1, thi;
numbers in 1903-4 had become, for men, nearly 72.000, and for women nearly 31,000.
The number of professors aud in structors has increased in a similar manner. in 1899-1900 the number oi such teachers in institutions for men and for both sexes was 12,664 men and 1816 women; in 1903-4 these numbers had become 15,342 men aud 2272 women. in institutions for women alone the increase is not so decided. The number of men teaching in these institutions was in the former year 697, and in 1903-4 only 631. The number of women, however, shows a marked increase from 1744 to 1834.
it is interesting and instructive, too, to study the rise and fall in the popularity of the various subjects taken up by students. At the two periods under comparison there were some remarkable differences. in 18091900 the number of students studying classics and other subjects of general culture (as the report calls It) was roughly 57,000, but in 1903-4 the number had reached 05,000. In the earlier year the number of students iu classes of pure or applied science was well on towards 26,000; in 1903-4 this number had increased to 32,000. The relative popularities of humanistic and practical studies may be said to have undergone little change at institutions of the rank under consideration. But in this connection it must be remembered that at the great technological institutions, which are not included in these statistics, large numbers of men are engaged entirely in studying branches of applied science.
The total value of property possessed by the institutions for higher education in the United States amounted hi 1899-1900 to about 72,120,000/., and in 1903-4 this large sum had increased to 93,043,000/. The endowment funds in the former year were valued at 33.240.000J., while in the latter year this provision for future contingencies had grown to 41.313,000/.
The value of gifts and bequests received by institutions for higher education during 1899-1900 was 2,399.0001.; in 1903-4 the amount had increased to 2,740,000/.; and last year as much as 5,000,000/, was raised in this way. Twenty-five institutions In the former year received from private donors gifts of as much as 20,000/.; and in 1903-4 as many as twenty-nine institutions were equally fortunate.
For the first of the years with which we are concerned in this comparison, the total income, excluding benefactions, amounted to 5,712,000/., of which about 2,234,000/. was received in the form of tuition aud other fees. In 1903-4 the total Income had readied 8.000,000/. In connection with this sum, the Commissioner for Education remarks;—"It is a well-known fact
that the income derived from fees received from students forms only about one-third of the total income, the remainder necessary to meet the expenses of the Institutions being derived from endowment funds, State aid, and miscellaneous sources."
In 1903-4 the State and municipal aid to higher education amounted to 1,984,000/., as compared with 893,000/. in 1899-1900.
It is thus seeu that the striking disparity between public and private efforts in behalf of higher education in the United States and Great Britain, pointed out in the article to which reference has already been made, has, in the interval of four years with which we are here dealing, become more accentuated; and, instead of having made up leeway, we appear to have fallen even further behind.
The annual amount raised by private munificence for American universities and colleges has in a few years been doubled; and, as recent notes in these columns have shown, there Is no sign of any decline in the generosity of the men of wealth in the States. The amount of money raised iu this way In the United Kingdom during the period 1871-1901 was only one-eighth of that contributed in the United States in the same time; and if the present scale of American gifts be continued, the comparison at the end of 1931 will be such as to leave us at >i still more hopeless disadvantage.
All the statistics here brought together tell the same story; alike as regards number of students, number or university teachers, total value of university property aud total annual income, from whatever point of view looked at, there is evidence of a strong and healthy growth in the system of higher education in the United States; and, though it can by no means be suggested that similar work in this country has remained stagnant, the
most optimistic student of British at- plement their number. Students of
fairs will hardly maintain that our science do not need to be reminded of
universities and colleges can show the intimate connection between cause
progress and development at all com- and effect, but it behooves them to
mensurate with that the report of the take every opportunity to convince
Commissioner of Education reveals statesmen and the public that indus
as true of the United States. it is trial supremacy is, in the long run,
clear that patriotic men of science one of the effects of an adequately
among us cannot afford to relax their equipped and generously endowed sys
efforts to increase the efficiency of our tem of higher education, universities and colleges, and to sup- A. T. 8.
When Britain rose from out the azure main
With guardian flood her happy coasts that laves.
She loosed the soul enthralled by error's chain,
She smote the shackles from the hands of slaves
And spake unto the nations: "fle who saves
His selfish life shall lose it. They who cast
The bread of liberty beside all waves
Shall surely reap a thousandfold at last."
She cried: "Go forth, my children, fill the vast
Unpeopled continents of north and south
'Neath freedom's banner streaming down the blast.
its praise re-echoing from each patriot mouth
Prophetic of an empire of the free.
For Britain's boast shall still be liberty."
Throned in the West our Lady of the Snow
The Southern Cross with favor contemplates