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out of touch with modern Continental have been expelled from other parts literature. Calos and Hontefeuille, of international law. Three men of a who are quoted, are the old-world au- high order of intelligence-Stowell, thorities. They do not express the Portalis, and Story-labored to rationideas to-day dominant in France and alize and systematize these rules-but Germany among those likely to be the not to much effect; they still bear trace advisers of foreign Governments as to of their origin in a time when com"commerce in war."
merce was of small account, and its It is not fair to criticize a good book, rights were feebly and timidly aswritten with great industry, and with serted. They were interpreted and exone distinct purpose, because it is not pounded in the courts of belligerents written with another. I am anxious by judges who unconsciously looked at not to fall into this error, while I say most questions from the point of the how much it is to be regretted that at interests of belligerents. Among all this time, when the rigbts of neutrals the judges who presided in the chief are about to be considered at the Prize Courts, I can think of only one, Hague Conference, no one has giveu Pemberton Leigh, who was adequately that which is so much needed, a criti. impressed by the gravity of the intercal examination of the rules affecting ests of neutrals. The best-known of commerce in time of war in the light those judges, Stowell, had all Blackof modern necessities; an examination stone's propensity for finding lofty reajuridical, economical, and moral. sons in the nature of things for any There have been some such critical in- accidental practice of his time. He quiries; but one must go back to the devoted his great acumen to supporteighteenth century, with its lucid rea- ing, in a style more Johnsonian than son and wide outlook, to find an ex- Johnson's, rules, some of which now amination which did not start from the seem absurd and unjust. He meant assumption that the necessities of war to be fair. But he meant also to be must always be supreme. The critical patriotic. His Court was worth to his examination here suggested, which country, one cannot doubt, several would assume the supremacy of the ships of the line; and, in reading some interests of peace, would be of great of these haughty or disdainful senvalue as a guide to diplomatists. It tences, in which he rejects neutral would enable them to appraise ac- clauses, one can understand the anicurately the rules described in this vol- mosity still felt towards him by forume a collection of odds and ends, eign jurists, who, acknowledging his the survivals of past ages, the outcome commanding talents, believed that the in great part, of a policy under which interests of neutrals and of commerce those "cursed neutrals" (to quote a suffered much at his hands. famous English Admiral's phrase) had Such a critical examination as I have a bad time of it. "Ye Laws of Land indicated would help to guide nations Warfare" are a collection of rough to a reasonable solution of some of the compromises agreed to by States of questions discussed by Mr. Atherleynearly equal weight-one result, it may Jones and of others---for example, the be said, of the Balance of Power. The position of wireless telegraphy and the rules in force at sea in time of war laying of submarine mines—which he have not this merit; they are largely does not deal with, but which are the outcome of the naval predomi- likely to be mooted at the Hague. It nance of one or two Powers, and they is now too late to expect such a guidretain elements of barbarism which ance. But it is not too late to avert a
serious mistake which there is dangeredents are more respected than ours; of committing. In the eighteenth cen- in most cases neither are perfect. It tury, our rules of warfare at sea were is to be hoped that the instructions framed with reference to our fears of of the English representatives will perFrance. A little later, we had the mit them to make large concessions as United States chiefly in view; we in- to all these points; concessions which sisted upon exercising the right of will involve no real sacrifice, but which search with exasperating harshness. will be prized abroad, because, for genRussia was, for a time, the object of erations they have been the cause of alarm; and now, if we are to credit fierce controversies not always contined some rumors, no small part of our pro- to paper, between England and Contigramme is to be framed with distinct nental Powers. reference to the contingency of a warI do not expect that at the second with Germany. Rights which we Conference the whole body of law as would give up if we had to con- to commerce and war will be put upon sider only France, Russia, and the a reasonable basis. The technical adUnited States, we are asked to retain, visers of our Government, and of other because they might be helpful in a Governments also, may oppose strong struggle with Germany. Under any objections to many changes which circumstances, the policy would be must come when the interests of peace perilous; it would seem to be a blun- receive full attention. But there is no der, in view of the objection of Ger- room for discouragement. We shall see, many to discuss the subject of limita- in all probabilitly, an assertion of the tion of armaments. It is this distrust Drago doctrine, and an end thereby of principles, this undisguised oppor- of the bullying of small States which tunism, which gives plausibility to the do not perform their obligations, a polcriticisms of foreign Governments as icy seen at its worst in the conduct of to England bending rules to meet her England in the Don Pacifico case. An interests; which prompts M. Fontin, ugly chapter in international history for example, in his recently-published will be closed, let one hope, for ever. "Guerre et Marine," to say: "L'ingle. For the first time, so far as I know, terre a toujours fort bon marché des in the history of diplomacy, there will règles du droit international."
be an opportunity of fully presenting One other suggestion, partly prompted the claims of neutrals. I say nothing by Mr. Atherley-Jones's volume, may of the larger questions, which the be made. There are points in the law Prime Minister has luminously and of "Commerce in War" as to which impressively discussed in these colContinental rules and practice differ umns! I have in view only "Commerce from ours; they chiefly relate to con- in War"-in expressing the belief that traband, blockade, and convoys. It is something will be accomplished and scarcely worth while discussing the that much will be begun next June at question whether the Continental prec- the Ilague. The Vation.
John Macdonell. 1 The Living Age, March 23, 1907.
THE POET OF “LES HABITANTS."
It is customary to compare the late nal shpree." Drummond's types of the W. H. Drummond with the creator of habitant, like his glossary of words Hans Breitmann, and there is no deny- and phrases, are the outcome of long ing that they possessed the rare gift and loving observation. Both the of psychical mimicry in an equal de matter of his poems and the manner gree. Indeed, in this respect the au- of their diction were collected and colthor of "A Burgher Don Quixote" is lated during the never-ending journeys the only rival of the twain. But the of a country doctor in Quebec. Inliterary rule-of-three-as Leland was deed, the linesto the German-Americans. So was
But dere's wan man got hees han' full Drummond to the French-Canadians
t'roo ev'ry kin' of wedder, which is a commonplace of Transat
An' he's never sure of not'ing but work lantic criticism, is seen to be value
an' work awayless when we remember that Leland's Dat's de man dey call the doctor, w'en variant of Panurge was not an Ameri
you ketch heem on de contree, can type at all. He was not of the An' he's only man I know-me, dont got soil as were Parson Wilbur and Hosea
no holiday"Biglow, or even the Yankees invented
form an essential part of the dead by Judge Haliburton. He was alto
poet's autobiography. There is nothgether an alien immigrant; a flamboy
ing in his poems which has not come ant foreigner, in physique, philosophy,
from the lips and hearts of the Frenchhabits, ideals, and language. The
Canadian peasantry. Such didactic macaronic jargon of the Hans Breit
couplets asmann ballads has not the slightest resemblance to Pennsylvania Dutch, or
Mooshrat dats swimmin' so proud tothe various forms of Germanized Eng.
day lish sometimes heard in Milwaukee, Very offen to-morrow is on de hash, Cincinnati, and the other GermanAmerican cities. In point of fact, it which are out of tone with the effortis a mechanical combination of Ger- less simplicity of his verse, and seem man, English, and American slang at first sight to be the author's conceits, which was the invention of Leland invariably represent old local proverbs himself. On the other hand, the slightly adapted to suit the metrical quaint medium in which Drummond form. works is a living patois, the everyday To nine in ten English-speaking Calanguage of the habitant or small nadians the genesis of Drummond's farmer of Quebec who thinks in work, and the perfect self-abnegation French before he tries to express his (which is lack of originality from one thoughts in English. In a manner of point of view) of the artist, are unspeaking, it is the result of chemical known and unappreciated. To such combination between the two Cana- critics he is merely a popular humordian languages. Nor is the verse of ist who wins the laugh, which is not Drummond dominated by a single per- an intellectual thing, by means of versonage comparable with the big, fat, bal trickery. Some of his humorous metaphysical, beer-drinking German pieces--"Mon Choual (= Cheval] Caswho solves the infinite "ash von eter- tor,” “M'sieu Smit'," and "The Wreck of the 'Julie Plante'"-are stock recita- faux, jamais la bizarrerie ne dégénère tions from end to end of the Dominion, en puérilité burlesque." Assuredly it as sure bids for Homeric laughter in is an artistic triumph to have earned an Eastern theatre as at a shack-build- this appreciation from a severe critic ing bee in some remote corner of the by keeping the rules of tact and taste Western prairies. Everybody laughs which are the essence of the French at them; few know why. A stanza manner at its best. The white simfrom the story of the great storm on plicity of the Drummond pastoral, Lac St. Pierre, in which the wood with never a single purple patch cry. SCOW "Julie Plante" "bus' up wan ar- ing out to be quoted, is seldom apprepent from de shore," should suffice to ciated by English readers at a first elucidate this point:
hearing. Afterwards they haunt the
tar,--as does the shimmering sound of De captinne walk on de fronte deck, An' walk de hin' deck too
sleigh-bells, the little laughter of muHe call de crew from up de hole,
sic, when it has passed by into the He call de cook also.
moonlit silence. The veritable odor of De cook she's name was Rosie,
the Laurentian earth breathes in the She come from Montreal;
homely verses. And so the time comes Was chambre maid on lumber barge
when the reader conceives a true tenOn de Grande Lachine Canal.
derness for the busy, simple, kindly, It is recorded that an English lady re
transplanted Normans (each with a garded the statement in the last two slight reversion to the aboriginal Norlines as a striking instance of Cana
man, which comes of renewed contact dian prosperity. Probably these reci
with the wilderness), and then, intations would be a dismal failure in a deed, the great end of Drummond's life London music-hall.
is fully accomplished. To the writer But it was not as a token of grati. he confessed that his chief object was tude for these laughter-provoking
to confirm the entente which is the rhymes that Dr. Louis Fréchette, the psychical basis of Confederation, to Poet Laureate of the Doininion. bridge with a tear or a smile, or the handed on to Drummond the compli
two-in-one, the slowly narrowing racial mentary phrase "path-finder of a new antithesis. It is impossible to prove land of song," which Longfellow had this much by means of quotations, given to him. “Qu'il mette en scène," His pastorals are too long to quote in says the one French-Canadian poet their entirety; to give excerpts is to who is read in France, after paying
tear some simple wild-flower in pieces. this pretty compliment, "le gros fer
Still, we can drink health to the Canamier fier de son bien ou de ses filles dian magpie, the constant comrade of à marier, le vieux médecin de cam- the exiled habitant, with its queer pagne ne comptant plus ses états de bottle-shaped body and name of a service, le jeune amoureux qui rêve bottle:au clair de la lune, le vieillard qui re.
W’isky Jack, get ready, we drink you! passe en sa mémoire la longue suite
Toujours à vot’bonne santé! des jours révolus, le conteur de lé
Baptême! gendes, l'aventurier des pays d'en haut,' et même le Canadian exilé qui Or echo the wish of the eldest Jean croit toujours entendre résonner à son Ba'tiste:oreille le vague tintement des cloches But leetle Bateese! Please don't forget de son village; que le récit soit plaisant We rader you're stayin' de small boy ou pathétique, jamais la note ne sonne yet!
The month of April witnesses every old houses, and in belfries, caves, and year in northern climates one of the other remote recesses where they are strangest and least understood of the completely free from disturbance, they phenomena of wild nature the re- lang during the cold months of the sumption by a number of our native year packed closely together in large animals of their normal functions numbers. The condition of bats durafter a winter's sleep lasting months, ing this period of winter rest is charwhich in many cases has been death- acteristic, for the bat and the hedgelike in the almost complete suspension hog share the distinction of being the of vital activities. When the swallows two of our native animals in which the return in spring to fit between the conditions of true hibernation most budding hedges and skim again over thoroughly prevail. A remarkable fact the pools and rivers, it may be noticed about winter sleep in animals in which that their place is taken toward dusk tbe state of torpor becomes profound in the warmer evenings of the month is that there appears to be all but conby the bats which have also been ah. plete cessation of all the bodily funcsent during the winter. Our native tions. To the ordinary mind it seems bats do not like the swallows, fiy hard to imagine a living creature exsouthward after the sun with the isting without either food or air. Yet waning year. They pass the winter a bat or a hedgehog in the midst of its ciose to their usual haunts. Hidden winter torpor goes for months withaway in hollow trees, in the roofs of out food and practically ceases to