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Little Prophet, driving his contrary ble piece of work, giving its author cow, though Miss Dearborn, taking great prominence, possibly pre-emiRebecca behind the pine-trees to nence among American women who “make her prettier" for the flag-rais- write verse. The Macmillan Coming, is quite irresistible. For pure pany. fun, Rebecca's composition, with the experiments that furnished data for It is the current controversy over the it_“Which has the Most Benefercent "Virgin Birth” which has led to the Influence on Character, Punishment or preparation of Professor Alexander Reward?”—will provoke as many V. G. Allen's volume on “Freedom in chuckles as any chapter in the book. the Church." Stated with admirable Houghton, Miffin & Co.

clearness, and strengthened by copious

quotations from authorities patristic, Miss Sara King Wiley's “The Com- mediæval and modern, Professor Aling of Philibert" is a play, written for len's points are, briefly, these: there the closet rather than the stage and is a certain undogmatic character in therefore destitute both of the detail the formularies of the Anglican church necessary to explain character to the which has been one of its greatest unthinking, and of the artificial stim- charms for thoughtful minds; it is it uli demanded by the flagging attention misapprehension that the Church enif the groundlings. Its plot is sim- forces upon her clergy an oath to beplicity itself, its action being merely lieve and recite the Apostles' Creed that produced by the Artacian King's · with some authoritative sense attached determination that, on the very eve of to each phrase, under penalty of inhis coronation, the twin brother from curring the stigma of dishonesty and his birth concealed by their father, perjury; accusations of dishonesty, if shall be brought to court. Philibert, brought must be brought equally reared simply, but instructed in all against clergy and laity; not the truth knightliness, creates confusion and but the sense of the Creed is at issue consternation among the courtiers and in the present discussion: history ministers by every word and act, but shows that the purpose of the Creed in his better truth and loyalty opens was to assert not the unique and to his brother the only road by which miraculous character of Christ's birth, he can be redeemed from the deprav- but its human reality; the sensitive. ity ingrained in his nature by court ness now felt has its root in a diverbreeding, and the little tragedy has a gence of view regarding the Incarnagleam of light at its close. The play tion although the silences of St. John is dedicated to the President in a few and St. Paul would seem to imply that verses quoted from the description of belief in the Virgin Birth is not essenPhilibert himself as it is given by tial to belief in the Incarnation; the two characters who have dispassion- vow which the Church imposes on her ately studied him, and it is improbable clergy to be “diligent in reading of the that he will receive any finer literary Holy Scriptures, and in such studies compliment for many a day, for Phil- as help to the knowledge of the same," ibert is a creation, and the play, almakes progress possible. The Macthough somewhat shadowy as to its millan Company. female characters, is a strong and no

SEVENTH BRRIES
VOLUME XXXV.)

No. 3282 June 1, 1907.

FROM BEGINNINO

Vol. COLIII.

CONTENTS.
1. WHI the British Empire Stand or Fall? By J. Ellis Barker .

NINETEENTH CENTURY AND AFTER 515 11. Euripides and his Modern Interpreters. By E. D. A. Morshead .

CHURCH QUARTERLY REVIEW 524 III. The Enemy's Camp. Chapters XIV and XV. (To be continued).

MAOMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 532 IV. Berthelot. By Emily Crawford . . CONTEMPORARY REVIEW 541

V. Boys and Birds. By Horace Hutchinson . CORNHILL MAGAZINE 549 VI. Njati. (The Lone Buffalo.) By Kusiali . MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 553 vni. Mr. Raleigh's Shakespeare . .

. . TIMES 560 VIII, The Soul of the Black . . . . . . . . NATION 564

Wild Flower Gardens . . . . . . . SPECTATOR 567 X. The Enigma of Life. By J.A. T. . . . . . . NATURE 570 Life's Little Difficulties. The Shade of Blue . . . PUNCH 573

A PAGE OF VERSE XII. The Hill of Pines. By Louis V. Ledoux

. . . . . . 614 XIII.

Fifty Years On. By R. C. Lehmann . . . . . Punch 614 XIV. To a Mother. By Q. . . . . . . . SPECTATOR 514

BOOKS AND AUTHORS . . . . . . . . . 575

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THE HILL OF PINES. Your figure will be ampler, and, like a Stretched out beneath a mountain-pine,

buzzing hive, I watch the mottled woods below;

Your boys and girls will tease you The distant hills their clear-cut line

when you are fifty-five. Through soft October sunlight show. "Your hair will not be brown. dear;

you'll wear a decent cap; A busy sparrow hurries by,

Maybe you'll have a grandchild a-crowAnd now a hawk above me veers

ing on your lap; Gray wings against an azure sky;

And through the winter evenings the A droning bee about me steers.

easiest of chairs

Will give you greater comfort than This nodding little bluebell seems

romping on the stairs. A vagrant bit of Heaven furled; The nestling lake like diamond gleams, “And sometimes too, I fancy, when all Its sapphire calm in ripples curled.

the world is snow,

You'll smile as you remember the days I see the light on hill and plain,

of long ago; I see the sky's resplendent blue, And every now and then, dear, you'll But all my thought turns back again

spare a thought for me, To other days fulfilled with you. When Helen's fifty-seven and baby's

fifty-three.” You shared my love of flower and tield;

R. C. Lehmann. Your comradeship to Nature brought Punch. A deeper joy than she can yield To me bereft of answering thought.

TO A MOTHER. About the hills a memory clings, ON SEEING HER SMILE REPEATED IN It haunts the forest's rustling ways,

HER DAUGHTER'S EYES The doubled pleasure sharing brings,

A thousand songs I might have made I miss these clear October days.

Of You, and only You;
Louis V. Ledoux.

A thousand thousand tongues of fire,
That trembled down a golden wire
* To lamp the night with stars, to braid

The morning bough with dew.
FIFTY YEARS OX.

Within the greenwood girl and boy "When you have turned a hundred and

Had loitered to their lure,
I am fifty-five"-

And men in cities closed their books So spoke without a warning the plump

To dream of Spring and running brooks est girl alive

And all that ever was of joy "I wonder, oh I wonder how both of

For manhood to abjure. us will be, With Helen fifty-seven and baby fifty

And I'd have made them strong, so three."

strong,

Outlasting towers and towns, The sum was done precisely; each item The naked shepherd 'neath his thorn was correct;

Had piped them to a world re-born, The grisly shade of Cocker had nothing And danced Delight the dales along to object;

And up the daisied downs. And yet I could not praise her, or sanction a display

A thousand songs I might have made: Which tossed about the fifties in this But you required them not; collected way.

Content to reign your little while

And, abdicating with a smile, But still the maiden pressed me, and To pass into a private shade, so I made reply,

Immortal, and forgot! “I'll tell you what I think, dear, about your by-and-by;

The Spectator.

WILL THE BRITISH EMPIRE STAND OR FALL?

Three centuries ago England was a those who are ignorant of history and backward and ignorant agricultural of the great physiological and historicountry, without enterprise, without cal laws which rule the world can trade, without wealth, without colo- condemn the triumphant progress of nies. But England, though poor, was the Anglo-Saxon race. This world is ambitious. Her leading men wished not a world of ease and peace, but a her to become a World-Power. Sir world of strife and war. Nature is Walter Raleigh wrote: “Whosoever ruled by the law of the struggle for excommands the sea commands the istence and of the survival of the fit. trade; whosoever commands the trade test and the strongest. States, like commands the riches of the world, and trees and animals, are engaged in a consequently the world itself," and never-ending struggle for room, food, Lord Bacon declared “The rule of the light, and air, and that struggle is a sea is the epitome of monarchy," and blessing in disguise, for it is the cause advised this country to conquer the of all progress. Had it not been for wealth and the colonies of Spain be- that struggle, the world would still be cause Spain's power was no longer suf a wilderness inhabited by its aborig. ficient to defend her vast and wealthy inal savages. possessions. Following the advice of The abolition of war would be a her greatest statesmen, England made misfortune to mankind. It would lead war upon Spain, not for political or not to the survival of the fittest and religious reasons but because Spain strongest, but to the survival of the owned the wealth of the New World. sluggard and the unfit, and therefore Spain declined and Holland became by to the degeneration of the human race. war and by work heir to the larger However, there is no likelihood that part of Spain's wealth. Then Eng- universal peace will be established. land transferred her hostility from As long as human nature remains what Spain to Holland. Attacked by Eng. it is, as long as self-interest, not beland, who was later on joined by nevolence, is the predominant motive France, the Netherlands declined, Eng- in men and in States, those nations land and France fell to fighting over which are ambitious and strong will the great Dutch inheritance, and war seize the possessions of those which are had to decide whether the New World rich and weak. Thus Nature conwas to become French or English. stantly rejuvenates the world and comThus by three centuries of war, firstly pels States to increase in civilization against Spain, then against Holland, and strength by the same means by aud lastly against France, was the which she compels individuals to cultiBritish Empire won, and the struggle vate both mind and body, and those for empire ended only in 1815 when at States which disregard the supreme last Great Britain had vanquished all law of Nature and of history disapher European rivals. British colonial pear, and commercial supremacy is barely a All States and Empires are founded century old.

upon power. By the exercise of The rise of the British World-Em- power families have grown into tribes, pire has been similar to that of all tribes into States, and States into emother States and Empires, and only pires. The word "Power" happily expresses the essence of the State, for soon as the connection between the the State is not only founded upon various parts of the Empire can be power but is power. Power is the severed at will by a Power supreme on only valid title by which a nation holds the sea, the British Empire exists only its possessions, and only by power can by permission of that Power. Interit retain them. That is the law of imperial trade in peace would be at the Nature and the law of history. The mercy of that nation which rules the fate of nations depends therefore sea, and which conceivably might inchiefly on their strength and on their terfere with the free flow of inter-imfitness for facing the universal strug. perial trade with the object of benefitgle for existence, and wars will hardlying its own citizens. A State supreme be abolished by international agree on the sea might, therefore, drain the ment unless the universal law of the British Empire of its wealth by naristruggle for existence and the sur- gation laws and wanton fiscal interfervival of the fittest and strongest be ence against which diplomatic protests previously abrogated. It is true that might prove unavailing. If the British the prophet tells us “They shall beat Empire should be engaged in war their swords into ploughshares, and with a third Power, concerted action their spears into pruning-hooks: nation and mutual assistance would become shall not lift up sword against uation, impossible for the members of the Emneither shall they learn war any pire except by the permission of the more", but he shrewdly adds that that supreme naval Power, and our poshappy event will come to pass only “in sessions would inevitably, one by one, the last days," and these are not yet. fall to the nation supreme on the sea,

In Lord Bacon's words, "For Em- which alone would be able, econompire and greatness it importetl: most ically and militarily, to protect them, that a nation do profess arms as and which would be able to acquire their principal honor, study, and oc- them at its leisure either by war or by cupation.” The great commercial economic or diplomatic pressure. With world-empires of the past from the disappearance of British naval suPhænicia to the Dutch world-em- premacy the British Empire would expire have been conquered and have ist merely on sufferance, and Great declined and decayed because they Britain could keep only that portion neglected cultivating their strength of her oversea trade and those of her and providing in time for their de- colonies which the supreme naval fence. May not the loosely jointed Power would allow her to retain. and ill-organized British Empire have Like Spain and Portugal, Great Brita fate similar to that of its great prede- ain would be deprived of her most cessors, and may we not, if we recog valuable possessions and be left only nize that possibility in time, take in with those which would not be worth time the necessary steps to guard our the taking. Therefore the end of Britselves against such a calamity ?

ish naval supremacy would certainly The maintenance of naval supremacy mean the end of the British Empire. is an absolute necessity for the de. Hence the most important question fence of the British Empire, for it can arises, Will Great Britain be able to hardly be doubted that the disappear continue maintaining her naval suance of our naval supremacy would premacy? inevitably, and very speedily, be fol- Our naval policy is at present based lowed by the peaceful dissolution or by upon the two-Power standard. Great the violent break-up of the Empire. As Britain endeavors to maintain a fleet

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