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fairer chance in Jamaica than else- tion," he says, “in our present Ameriwhere:

can sense of that term, seems to be

substantially solved." He attributes The civilization and morality of the

the solution to "English administration Jamaican negro are not high (he writes); but he is on a markedly differ

and English reticence"-much higher ent level from his grandfather. the achievements and qualities than those plantation slave, and his great-grand which our Imperialists celebrate with father, the African savage. The ne- brazen trumpets. Coming fresh from gro in Jamaica has been so far raised,

the apparent hopelessness of the quesso much freedom of civic mixture be

tion in the States, Professor Royce is tween the races has been made tolerable, by the continuous application to

certainly over-sanguine. The problem the race of the theory of humanity and still remains, even in Jamaica, and equality; equality, that is, in the essen there, as in other places, it is one of tial sense of endowment in the In the most serious in our Empire. But finite-a share, however obscure and Mr. Olivier may be trusted to follow undeveloped, in the inheritance of what

and develop the tradition of adminiswe call the Soul.

tration and reticence, of humanity and The result of this theory of human equality. He goes to a difficult enterity and equality is that in Jamaica of prise with peculiar knowledge and pefences against white women are un- culiar sympathy. Above all, he goes known, and both racial hatred and ra- with hope, and hope has a way of cial desire are dying out. The evi- bringing its own fulfilment. That is dence of Professor Royce, of Harvard, why all nations honor the men who is remarkable: "The negro race-ques do not despair of the republic. ·

The Nation.

WILD FLOWER GARDENS.

Here and there not man, but the questions about care and planning, genius of the place, seems to say to she can reply not only that it is somehimself, "I will make a garden.” On times the most careful gardeners who the clean slope of a Sussex hill, in the meet with the most surprising failures, deep quiet of a Surrey wood, in a high but that her knowledge is absolute and hedgerow, on the level surface of a makes care unnecessary; she cannot Thames backwater, he-or rather she, make a mistake. She has always for the genius of flower places cannot made her gardens where she pleased, but be feminine-she, then, sets so and has only set in thein the flowers splendid a profusion of blossom, and which she knew would be pleased to with such care for the exact condi- grow. tions under which her towers will F or sheer prodigality of blossom and bloom most sweetly, that the word color there is, perhaps, nothing in Eng*garden" must not be disallowed her. lish countryside scenery to compare If it is urged that she asks for a word with the flowers of a Swiss or Tyrowhich carries with it a sense of plan lese valley in early summer. But if and of enclosure, even then she will the effect for a few weeks is unnot be without excuse. Her bound- equalled, it is not lasting; there are ary may be a furrow, or it may be many weeks in the year in which the the horizon, but it is never the wrong Swiss valleys can show nothing to set boundary; and if she is to be asked beside the changing carpets of English woodlands and meadows. Taken sheaths behind their periapths are beweek in, week out throughout the year, ing danced backwards and forwards the “wild gardens" of our own coun- against their glaucous, spiky leaves. try need not fear comparison with That is an even earlier and simpler those of any other of moderate climes. sound of April than the first sharp The genius of the gardener begins notes of the chiffchafi tumbling among work earlier and ends it later. The the beech-twigs. With the fading of first wild flower-show of the year is daffodils, indeed, the first simplicity of not, as the nursery-books would have spring ends; after that the gardener it, a garden of snowdrops, but the of the woods begins to try effects of chequered and shining gold and green color; she strews the most delicate carpet of the aconite, urging curved yellows and crinkled greenery of priinnecks through rain-sodden, frost- roses under plum-tinted birch-twigs cracked mould and leaves hardly a and bronze bracken, and paints into month fallen,—the earliest and bravest her picture corners and edgings of dogof all winter flowers. Snowdrops will violets and white violets; or while the be shaking their bells in the north- primroses are still pale and new among easter a fortnight later; but it is doubt their lengthening leaves, she spreads ful whether they may be allowed to be high and wide over the bank a curtain long, after all, to the flowers of the of bluebells, and dots into the skirt of wildest gardens. Probably, if their it burning spires of orchids, the most record could be traced back as far as jewel-like of all flowers of May; or possible, they would be found, even among the young meadow grasses of when they seem growing absolutely Oxfordshire waterways scatters purwild, to have been planted, perhaps in ple-spotted fritillaries, "snake's heads” the plot of some long since tumbled in the field to match the snake's head down cottage, or you will catch sight of the wryneck peering behind the of the gnarled and lichened stem of willow boughs. Are there, though, some old apple-tree, showing that the any fritillaries still left at Oxford ? ground on which it stands was not al. Perhaps they are not all yet grubbed ways uncared for. Indeed, there is a up for an unworthy market. pretty legend that where you find O n occasion, there can be a distinct snowdrops growing in profusion you sense of pleasure in a set boundary to may be sure that you are on “Abbeya wild garden, of all the farmers' land," and near the site of a monastery enclosures, the hayfield is the most or nunnery. But there is no doubt as riotous and inchecked in wealth of to the essential wildness of the hill- growth, and of all wild gardens there gardens and wood-gardens of a couple is none more shining than a field of of months later. Nothing in all the buttercups in sunlight; you could alyear has quite the same fresh gaiety most see your face in a bunch of those as the "host of golden daffodils” of burnished yellow chalices. It is not Wordsworth's inimitable song of quite the yellowest field there can be, spring. He came upon them suddenly; for that supreme yellow belongs to a and to see daffodils as they should be field of weeds, or herbs, as those who seen, you must come upon them sud- believe in dandelion-tea may like to denly in tens of thousands on the slope call them. A field which has, so to of a hill in sunlight and with a wind speak, been captured by dandelions is blowing. Daffodils need a wind as an astonishing piece of ground to look other flowers need the sun, and do not at; the brilliance of the color is even begin talking on the hill until the dry more continuous and dazzling than that of buttercups, yet with the glamor of the coolness of the solid stone, that it strangely and most delicately veiled, not even the fiercest suns will wither with thousands of school-children's the sea-lavender on the gray frontiers "flower-clocks" floating and fainting of the Welsh coastline, or the red va. in the wind above it. Here, without lerian lining the banks of the South doubt, the sense of a set boundary Country railway cutting, or the walladds a charm of its own. All round flowers and snapdragons on the ruined and outside the hedges of that one castle gateway. Or the genius of the field are the ordinary life and growth roadside may decide upon a fernery, of the farm; inside, a haunted garden and set hart's-tongue and lady's-fern of filmy shapes moving over glowing and maidenhair above West Country flowers. Only one other field of wild dipping wells, or clothe the long unflowers has something of the same sought combes by the sea with the magic, and that is a stretch of corn rufous spikes and six-foot fronds of field ablaze with poppies,--green colon- the Royal fern, the noble Osmunda renades and palaces hung with crumpled galis. Or she may decide to lead you scarlet satin. That is, perhaps, the out over the most difficult garden of most brilliant garden of chalk downs all, sand and rock and shingle, and yet near the sea; the far boundary a strip show you twenty acres starred and of blue water laced with white, and splashed with rock-rose and thyme near you, along the level furrow, dusty and bedstraw, broom and bright-eye, pink convolvulus creeping out over the and gray-green sea-holly waiting for bank to the road.

August suns to burn it into blue; and For pure waywardness of choosing then take you down from those sandy and planting there is nothing wilder, hills to change the garden into a sudnor with secrets better kept, than the den stretch of watered pasture, with natural wall-garden. It is the easiest cattle knee-deep in forget-me-not and thing in the world, with the most care- meadow-sweet and yellow iris, their ful planting, to fail dismally in mak- dark backs rubbing up into dog-rose ing a wall-garden, or for that matter and honeysuckle. Each is a true gara rock-garden, which to many people's den, defined and enclosured, though the notions should consist chiefly of rocks. boundary may be wilder and less easily It might be worth some unsuccessful known as a boundary than an iron railgardener's while to leave his old wall ing or a laurel hedge. (if it is really an old wall, and not a Bacon kept part of his ideal garden new one with earth jammed in artifi- to be hung with bird-cages, and it cially by the local Balbus) entirely might be amusing to guess what birds alone and to watch what happens to be would have put in them. There is it. For in the crevices of old and a bird proper to each wild garden, but crumbling walls, and in pockets on the a wilder genius than Bacon's opens sun-burnt façades of sheer cliffs, birds the cage-door of the lark, and send and the wind and rain contrive to him climbing up his own blue ladder. place some of the most wonderful of He belongs alike to the earliest and all wild gardens. Nothing could very latest gardens of all; but there are well look more parched or inhospitable others belonging only to one. There than those weather-scarred surfaces; is the snipe, drumming high zigzags but so deep down into the stored crev. over the marshflowers, and the cuckoo ices can the roots of the rock plants calling never later than the roses--or drive and search for moisture and for a thorough lusty call of spring, food, and so level and unchanging is what is to be set beside the triumphant, harsh cry of the cock pheasant, later gardens, there are still two or with the loud roll of his tlapping wings three winged creatures which add brilto follow it as he stands glorious be- liance to the flowers on which they sun fore his meek brown mate among the themselves. Even into October the primroses? That is a call from the peacock and red admiral butterflies very heart of the spring; and if, be- strut and fan their glowing wings on cause the singing birds are silent later flower after flower of the patches of in the year, there is no bird which purple scabious, the latest of the wild chiefly associates itself with all the gardens of the year.

The Spectator.

THE ENIGMA OF LIFE.*

(1) Dr. H. Charlton Bastian re-affirms and Origin of Living Matter” have his conviction that living organisms been already reviewed in Nature, and continue to arise from not-living ma- we have now before us an account of terial. It is a long time since, in his his recent researches on "archebiosis" "Beginnings of Life" (1872), Bastian and a clear exposition of his views as sought to establish the reality of this to "The Evolution of Life." It is im"archebiosis" and also of heterogenesis possible not to admire the author's --that strange process by which organ- strong desire to get at the truth, the isms or parts of organisms of definite courage of his convictions, and his inkind give rise to organisms of a quite comparable good humor. different kind, as when the ovum of Dr. Bastian begins by indicating the rotifer Hydatina produces the in- some of the objections to the term fusorian Otostoma. In 1876-7 there "spontaneous generation,” which is alwas a notable and useful controversy inost as bad as "generatio equivoca"; between Bastian, on the one side, Tyn- he advocates the use of the word dall and Pasteur on the other, the issue “archebiosis"—the past or present origof which seemed to most experts to be ination of living things from not-liv

ing material-and he contrasts it with case for the present-day occurrence of "heterogenetic reproduction," which spontaneous generation. The claims presupposes pre-existing organisms. of professional work forced the heretic In the first part of his book he points to renounce his investigations for about out that inorganic evolution (recently twenty years, but he has recently been studied in ways not a little upsetting) able to return with una bated vigor to has not stopped, and argues against the study of both heterogenesis and the dogmatism of those who, while adabiogenesis. His “Studies in Hetero- mitting that archebiosis probably ocgenesis" and his work on "The Nature

curred very long ago, refuse to discuss * 1 "The Evolution of Life." By Dr. H. Carl the possibility of its occurrence now. ton Bastian F.R.S. Pp. xviii + 319; with dia Because it has been shown that maggrams and many photomicrographs. (London: gots are not really produced by the Methuen and Co., n.d.) Price 7s, 6d. net. 2" The Nature and Origin of Life in the

flesh in which they crawl, it does not Light of New Knowledge." By Prof. Felix follow that minute specks of living Le Dantec. An introductory preface by Rob- matter may not arise de novo in suitaert K. Duncan, author of "The New Know). edge.” Pp. xvi + 250; 21 figures. (London:

ble not-living fluids, and to base the Hodder and Stoughton, 1907.) Price 6s. net. formula omne vivum ex vivo on the

that Bastian failed to m

od his

"past experience of mankind" is ridic- potential, or at least helpful, in bringulously naïve. It has become the ing about the combinations in quesfashion to call "spontaneous genera- tion. In spite of these disadvantages, tion" a "chimera," and the study of it Dr. Bastian found living creaturesa search for a mare's nest. But "nei- “Bacilli, Vibriones, Cocci, Streptococci, ther Darwin, Huxley, nor Spencer ever Torulæ, and other germs of Fungi"-in undertook any experimental work on saline solutions within tubes that had this subject themselves," and as for been heated at 115° C. to 130° C. for Tyndall and Pasteur, both were con- from ten to twenty minutes, and the vinced beforehand. The whole story present subdirector of the Pasteur Inis gone over again (pp. 93-228) and it is stitute has declared, in regard to spores (psychologically, at least) very instruc- of bacilli in all such fluids, that “a tive. Since 1878, Dr. Bastian had not, temperature of 115° C. sterilizes them before the present work, published completely and most rapidly.” Some anything on the subject of archebiosis, of the photomicrographic figures of save one chapter in his 1905 volume, “organisms” are not very like organand it is interesting to read his retro- isms at all, but others are. The alterspect of a famous controversy and his native interpretations are (1) that Dr. undismayed conclusions in spite of all. Bastian's methods were not rigorous

"Mere observation," the author enough; (2) that the fatal temperature points out, "can never settle the ques- has been estimated at too low a figure; tion whether Archebiosis does or does (3) that contamination occurred during not take place at the present day.” In the preparation of the photographed a fluid believed to be quite not-living, slides, or (4) that archebiosis actually minute living creatures appear, but ob- takes place. Personally, we are not servation cannot decide whether they disposed to accept the last interpretaarise from invisible germs of pre-ex- tion until every possibility of error isting organisms or "whether they has been excluded, and we are not conhave come into being in the mother vinced by Dr. Bastian's "final decisive liquid as a result of life-giving syn- experiments." We suspect that the thetic processes." Therefore we must sterilization was imperfect; we suspect resort to experiment, and the fallacies that there were "germs"-where we to be guarded against are two. The have often seen them on the slides and heat employed in the sterilizing process cover-slips; we suspect everything to a must be adequate to kill all pre-ex degree that Dr. Bastian--with a tolisting living things within the experi. erant smile--would say outrages commental vessels, and there must be mon sense. For we belong to the prej. no subsequent contamination with at udiced, illogical, conservative sect of mospheric germs. Therefore Bastian St. Thomas who doubt and doubt. heated his fluids to 115° C. or 130° C., The whole business is so analogous to and hermetically sealed the tubes. belief in "spooks" that no amount of But these precautions involve disad- argument is of any use until we have vantages; the degrading effect of the seen for ourselves. Why, then, Dr. initial purifying heat process may ren- Bastian says, will you not experiment? der the medium unfit for the occur. And why will you not, in the name of rence of future processes that may St. Thomas, point out precisely where lead to life-origination, and the glass my experiments are fallacious? As to of the hermetically sealed vessel in the first question, we think the anwhich the fluid is contained partially swer is that we regard archebiosis as excludes actinic rays which might be so great a miracle that we do not ex

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