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No. 3283 June 8, 1907.



CONTENTS. 1. Peasant Studies in French Fiction. . EDINBURGH REVIEW 579 II. The Life and Letters of Leslie Stephen. By G. W. Prothero

NINETEENTE CENTURY AND AFTER 598 III. The Enemy's Camp. Chapter XVII. (To be continued) . .

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 607 IV. The Need of the Poor. By Will Crooks . . . . .

GENTLEMAN'S MAGAZINE 612 V. The Romance of a Bookseller. By Katharine Tynan . . .

CORNHILL MAGAZINE 616 VI. My Moorish Friends. By Stephen Gwynn . . . .

MACMILLAN'S MAGAZINE 624 VII. The Rights of Subject Races. By Henry W. Nevinson NATION 630 VIII. President Roosevelt and the American People. . SPECTATOR 632 IX. Some Orators at Westminster. By Henry W. Lucy . . .

ALBANY REVIEW 835 X. A Transformed London . . . . . . OUTLOOK

A PAGE OF VERSE XI. The Pale Worker. By B. Paul Neuman. . . SPECTATOR 578 XII, In The Forest. By Wilford Wilson Gibson . . ACADEMY 578

BOOKS AND AUTHORS . . . . . . . . . 639



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And falters frail-a thing of fluttering


Before some shadow-plumed antago(From the Yiddish of Morris Rosenfeld.)

nist. Lo! yonder I see the pale worker, Stitch, stitch, without pause, with Quaking, I ride; yet know not what I out stay,

dread. Since first I remember him, stitching. Naught stirs the boding silence save And paler and weaker each day.

the sound

Of beeclimast crackling 'neath my The slow months roll on in their horse's tread, courses,

Or some last leaf that rustles to the The years are as days that have ground; been,

And long it seemeth since the sun. And still the pale worker, bent double,

blood-red Fights hard with the cruel machine. In sea on sea of night-black boughs

was drowned. I stand and I gaze on his features,

Yet dark has not yet fallen; wavering On his face with the sweat and the

gloom soil,

Sweeps through the brake, and brims Ah! it is not the strength of the body,

each hollow dank; "Tis the spirit that spurs him to toil.

Empty of light the stirless pine trees

loom But from dawn till the sunset and darkness,

Against the glistering sky; and gray

and lank The tear-drops fall heavy and slow,

The shadows rise, as ghosts from out Till the seams of the cloth he is stitch

the tomb, ing Are wet with the vintage of woe.

And, closing, follow at my horse's

flank. I pray you, how long must he drive it. But then I fear not; nor the beasts This wheel tbat is red for a sign?

that lurk Cau you reckon the years of his bond- Beneath the cavernous branches, age,

crouching low, Aud the end-that grim secret Whose famished eyes burn on me divine?

through the mirk;

Spell-bound they spring not; 'neath the Too hard are such questions to answer, cleaver's blow,

But this I am bold to declare, Their desperate fangs would snatch When Death shall have slain the pale the blinded stirk worker,

Yet quail before the doom to which I Another will sit in his chair,

goB. Paul Neuman. The Spectator.

The unknown, death-plumed horror

that at last From its old ambush in the heart of


Leagued with long-th warted perils of

the past, Though I have borne the brunt of 'bat Shall swoop upon me with unswerving tled spears

fight. Unflinching: 'neath these boughs that Drink, while ye may, the light that writhe and twist,

fades so fast, My heart is as a wren's heart when 0 eyes, that shall not see the morning she hears

light! The litch-owl calling through the even

Tilford Wilson Gibson.

The Academy. ing mist;


Arcadian peasants, the porcelain fig. æstheticism of taste, and their process urines of the eighteenth century, berger was based upon the assumption that it and bergère of tinted ivory, in their is the office of art to superimpose pogreen-room setting of well-watered etry on nature. They left it to their meadow and shady woodland; the gen successors to enunciate the converse tle shepherd with crook and panpipe, doctrine: that it is the function of the the shepherdess with white-fleeced flock artist to draw poetry from nature and and beribboned distaff, “Robin et to elicit from existing actualities the Marion," breathed their last when mod poetry they enclose and emanate. ern fiction supplanted the old lyric "Dégager l'idéal du réel" became the travesties of village and rural life. In dictum of the new schoolmen, who in animate effigies too far removed from their turn were destined to view the reality even to counterfeit nature, they advent of a later creed when a total were swept away like faded paper divorce was effected between the ideal flowers, and relegated to the dusty in- of beauty and the presentment of truth. diguities of unremembered shelves Pastoralism died, without hope of where the muse dear to one generation resurrection, and for a period the peasof readers is, according to time-hon- ant, as a theme in art, lay in abeyance; ored custom, consigned by the next. nor, when after the lapse of years, "on Their doom was a foregone conclusion; découvrait de nouveau le paysan et le the root of stability, truth to a living village comme on les avait déjà découmodel, was lacking. The aim of the verts une fois à la fin du 18ième pastoralists had been to present that siècle," was any single feature of the aspect, and only that aspect, of rus- older type rejuvenated. The whole ticity which they imagined could be en- sentiment of pre-Revolution days was dued with romance or invested with revoked; the levity, the wit, lavished as they conceived of poetry-poetic on scenes and dialogues drawn from glamor. Their method was to engraft rural life, had vanished; the colored mental preconceptions of beauty and glasses through which peasant and lagrace upon "things as they are." They borer, cottager and villager, were created with adventitious adornings a viewed, were broken. The new literary type whose refinement and charm were epoch testified to a more vigorous grasp an artificial response to an artificial on life and the actualities of life. The • 1 “La Mare au Diablo."

peasant's countenance, his gesture, his

Par George Sand. Paris, 1851.

environment, were delineated from a 2 “Les Paysans." Par H. do Balzac. Paris, totally changed standpoint; gaiety, or 1845. 3. “VEnsorcelée.” Par Barboy d'Aurovilly.

what bore a somewhat dubious likeness Caris, 1854.

to it. had passed away; the light4 “Un Cæur Simple.” (Trois Contos.) Par hearted loves and ephemeral sorrows of Gustave Flaubert. Paris, 1877.

the village-green tradition were sup5 “La Fillo de Forme." (" La Maison Tollior.'') Par Guy do Maupassant. Paris, 1881.

planted by serious, often by disastrous, 6 “ La Fortune des Rougon." Par Emile passions. The peasant had ceased to Zola. Paris, 1871. 7 "La Torre qui Mourt.”

be the toy of art, he had become in lit

Par Roné Bazin. Paris, 1900.

erature, as in fact, a social, political or (And other works.)

philanthropic problem, and his discov

ery was to conduct novelists into many number. Alphonse Daudet reverts to hitherto unexplored bypaths and by the novel of sensational convention in many untrodden thoroughfares.

"Le Trèsor d'Arlatan," and the morbid The phases traversed by nineteenth- temptations that obsess the peasant century peasant fiction were diverse. heroine are paralleled with the obsesIdealism found in Mme. Sand its elo- sion of the young Parisian by the memquent exponent, and in her peasant idylseries of “Madeleine des Délassements.” she achieved a compromise between Pierre Loti has contributed his quota sympathetic sentimentalism and verac- to the gallery of peasant portraits, and ity. Romanticism asserted itself in sun- a kindred atmosphere of personal symdry side-studies, as in Barbey d'Aure- pathy-though otherwise the two auvilly's portrayal of the village outcast, thors pursue different paths--pervades La Clotte, where the sinister extrava- the peasant novels of René Bazin, in ganza of the romantic of romantics is whose works a visionary imagination vivified with something approaching is never cut asunder from facts intiaesthetic sincerity. Nor is the romantic mately known and accurately inscribed. element less pronounced in one or To take a mere handful of studies more of M. Zola's works in which, from the mass of French fiction which abandoning the average man, he deals deals with peasant themes during half with exceptional humanity, with Miette a century is obviously only to indicate in "La Fortune des Rougon," with An- some special type-formulas, some difgélique in “Le Rêve.” Naturalism, fering methods of treatment, characterwith MM. Erckmann-Cha trian, pre- istic of certain authors or of certain sented itself in lengthy sketches of phases of the author's art. The daily life scenes. whether in war or sketches so given are sketches of conpeace, a naturalism ignoring the grosser trasts rather than of likenesses, and as elements of existence accentuated by contrasts preclude broad generalizathe more venturous disciples of the tions. Nor are they links in the chain school. Balzac, the first of the mod

of the scientist, for whom each inerns, demonstrated in "Les Paysans" stance must be shaped to illustrate a that the object of peasant fiction was

p peasant fiction was stage of literary tendency or psycholog. to depict nature, not in the idealiza ical development. Moreover, their tions it inspired, but in and for itself: truth or untruth as "représentation de that the aim of the novelist should be la vie" is left unchallenged. Their to lay hold on life and transcribe in interest lies otherwbere. It lies in the the clearest manner the clearest percep

just appreciation of esthetic effects, tions attainable of the actual, however whenever such effect is so welded with base, and the true. however ignoble. the peasant-theme that to transpose Flaubert, in his “Un Cour Simple," i sentiment or plot to any other social showed the possibility of attaining background would have precluded its esthetic perfection by faithful nar- special æsthetic merit. rative of commonplace peasant sen- As the outcome of idealism, George timent in the prose frame-work Sand's scenes from the rural life of of servant life. Maupassant, a Berry, if not the earliest in date, are in humorist who never laughs, has ex

? Histoire d'une Fille de Ferme (in “La posed in his contes and nouvelles the

Maison Tellier”), Le Vieux. Le Gueux, Le Fertragic comedies, the melancholy farces, mier (in "Contes du Jour et de la Nuit"), Clo. enacted in farms and cottages without

chette (in “L'Horla "), Clair de Lune (volume of same title); Le Diable, Le Vagabond,&c.,&c.

3 La Mare au Diable, 1851; La Petite FaI Trois Contes.

dette, 1851; Les Maîtres Sonneurs, 1853.

spirit more closely allied to an earlier great-granddaughter of Maurice de school than those of other nineteenth- Saxe; it claimed comradeship of equalcentury authors. For that pre-emi. ities with Aurore Dupin's village playnently feminine genius--the interest fellows and obtained for her in of whose personality grows in inverse maturity an inestimable literary advanratio as the literary interest of her tage: the familiarity of knowledge that work declines—the peasant had not as- kinship of class, and kinship alone, can sumed the semblance of a problem. secure. Writing of the villagers of the Patient observation of his customs, ac- neighboring parishes of Saint-Chartier tions and surroundings, were not for and Nohant, she was content to lay her, as for her great contemporary, Bal- aside the tedious exposition of moral zac, the fountain-head of inspiration, and social theories, founded upon her She wrote of rural life, not as an in- devious lines of moral conduct, which vestigator, but as a participant. Her abound in other sections of her novels. men and women, Berrichon and Ber- In “La Mare au Diable" and its companrichonne, were the boys and girls, cat. ion narratives the subject governed her tle- and sheep-keepers, with whom she treatment of it; the theme governed liad companioned during childhood and the author. The George Sand of "Inyouth at Nobant; comrades and play. diana," "Lélio” and “ Consuelo," the mates, whose children and grandchilGeorge Sand of obtrusive reflections, dren she had watched growing to man- rhetorical philosophy, and declamatory hood and womanhood in later years. sentimentality, exercised her gift of The pages of her fictions are confess- adaptability, and transferred her pliedly pages of affectionate memories, able talent into the required key. “Si reminiscences of country joys, sorrows, on me demande ce que j'ai voulu faire, and gaieties; they are the tribute her je répondrai que j'ai voulu faire une exuberant intellectuality and her over- chose très-touchante et très-simple," she colored imagination paid to surviving explains in a prefatory note to “La simplicities and old attachments. The Mare au Diable." According to a furexperiences of half a lifetime had ther statement, appended to "La Petite passed over her head; an intimate ac- Fadette," she had sought a refuge from quaintance with the passions of men the stormy cataclysms of 1848 at Noand with her own effervescent emotion- hant, where "troublé et navré jusqu'au alisms, the disillusions of marriage, fond de lâme je m'efforcai de retrouver the agitations and disenchantments of dans la solitude sinon le calme, au her shifting enthusiasms, had been moins la foi," in the composition of her paraphrased in novel after novel; • she romans champêtres. had at length reached the mile-stone Mme. Sand justified and perfected where remembrances displace curiosi- her æsthetic ideal of rural pathos and ties, and had withdrawn awhile from homely grace. She retained of her speculation to survey the comparatively former literary manner extreme ease of placid season of childhood. Her treat invention and fluent spontaneity of dicment of peasant character was essen- tion-gifts that constituted the main tially dictated by sympathy; her appre- charm of her romances while they ciation was more than sympathetic, it undermined any constructive faculty was instinctive. Her mother's blood, and eclipsed all powers of condensathe blood of "une femme du peuple," tion in sentiment and conciseness in ran aggressively in the veins of the narrative she may have possessed; she • See “ Histoire de ma Vie." G. Sand

• Consuelo, Comtesse de Rudolstadt # Indiana. Lélio, &c.

L'homme de Neige, &c

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