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of our day; it is the geometrical as much music in them as smell. pyrotechny on the front lawn which There are others that will not grow gives the lilies and pansies of the on Parnassus: we shall never learn cottage alleys their distinction of care- to scan Rudbeckia laciniata, nor less and retired grace. We are ar Kniphofia Tucki, and the fact implies bitrary and short-sighted even in the something. A careless observer of the differences which we make; we take seri studiorum, who nowadays take for earliest antiques things which our up gardening with such easy enthusifathers experimented with; there are asm, would probably expect the chosen others from which time seems unable few to be all hardy "herbaceous" to remove the air of novelty. Within kinds, looking after themselves for fifty years we have seen the verbena half a lifetime without much care hackneyed almost to extinction, and from the gardener. As a matter of again beginning to appeal to a new fact, though with one or two excepgeneration as quite a pretty neglected tions all those named are quite hardy thing, a revival of Paxtonian graces. in average British winters, yet only It is difficult to imagine that any some half-dozen are real perennials; length of time will bring such things some, with due care as to dividing as fuchsias or petunias into the same and re-planting, are long-lived; some category with violets or pansies, even are biennial, the rest merely annual. with stocks or Canterbury Bells. All are robust and easy to growThough “old-fashioned” be an absurd with the sad exception of the white symbol, the class which it expresses Queen lily and the hollyhock, and, in is definite enough. A rigid purist some grounds, of the tulip, which are would probably confine his list of the threatened with extinction from speorder to the older summer-flowering cific diseases-but it is no part of roses-the damasks and mosses, the the old flowers' nature to fend entirely Provence and Gallica hybrids—the for themselves and to let the gardener white Queen and the orange lilies, off from his charge; the regular practulips, pansies, violets, wallflowers, tice of an art which conceals itself Canterbury Bells, pinks, double daisies, among the stoutly pushing stems and hollyhocks, pæonies of the officinalis thickspread leaves is perhaps more tribe, poppies, lavender, pot-marigold, needful here than anywhere else, to flag iris, lupins, and a few whose bring in the human element which names are part of their claim to be distinguishes the garden from the included-such as Sweet William, Hon- wild. esty, Heartsease, None-so-pretty, or Few things would better repay inLondon Pride; Thrift, Love-in-a-Mist, telligent gardeners who have space Love-lies-bleeding. An easier critic and the wherewithal than the plantmight admit sweet peas, China asters, ing of borders or quarters with the stocks, snapdragon, auriculas, mignon- less progressive flowers. In general, ette, some of the mallows, and a few the modest proportions and chaste more that stand near the doubtful hues of the older race would be an anline. There is a good deal of signif- tidote to the exaggerated force and cance in the names of garden-flowers; coarser tone of many of the modern some of those given above are clas- strains, and might suggest a philosical, and many of them go excellently sophic theory of a balance of losses in verse: gillyflowers and Love-in-idle and gains. Amongst roses, set a ness (though too many people have the Madame Plantier against Frau Karl vaguest notions of what they are) have Druschki, and the candid mind will note how the substance and the em- has an influence on selections of this phasis of color are developed at the kind. When, for instance, a writer expense of more recondite qualities, like M. Maeterlinck, in the essays which may be found at the full in the recently published in English with the dog-rose of the hedges. The retrospec- advantage of reproductions in color tive gardens might be furnished on of some very pretty drawings by Mr. several different plans; one arrange- Elgood, discourses upon old-fashioned ment might admit only plants enrolled flowers, the ordinary gardener may in authentic poetry-let us say (for be prepared to find the classificaEnglish soil) from Chaucer to Shelley tion a very personal one and rather and Tennyson: the authorizations and fitted for fantastic pleasaunces of rejections would make an instructive faëry than for the grudging soil collection. Another plot might be a of our material plots. When flowsort of almshouse for obsolescent and ers are made to twitter and lisp, and vanishing kinds, or might attempt by take the forms of eager carpets or moselection to reproduce the garden of a tionless dances, it is small wonder to past period. Necessarily the surround find the ageratum, the zinnia, even ings should be simple and as much as proh pudor!-the blue lobelia in the possible in keeping with the archaic class of “old-fashioned flowers" in comflowers. Straight borders three or four pany with the buttercup and the pansy. yards wide, beside a walk of rough The reader who is puzzled to know flagstones or scythe-mown grass, would why the phlox is called "paternal" be best, with as much as is practicable may guess the solution when he finds of cottage-garden atmosphere about the epithet serving as well for a windthem, wherein everything by a simple mill, and will understand how an cunning art looks as though it had author who in his first essay declares grown there by itself for a hundred his love for the simplest, the commonyears. Any attempt at "old-worldli- est, the oldest and the most antiquated ness" in the way of builders' work, flowers, in the last adores the exhitopiary art or other devices, is certain bition chrysanthemum as "the most to destroy the value of the experiment submissive, the most docile, the most at once.

tractable and the most attentive plant In the choice of subjects there is of all .... impregnated through and of course room for a considerable through with the thought and will of range of personal likings and knowl- man.” That the imaginative handling edge. One man might include, for in- of garden catalogues has its own danstance, the long-spurred hybrid aquile- gers our own recent growth of literary gias, careless of the fact that they hybrids sufficiently shows. are the extremely modern representa- A return to the cultivation of negtives of the old blue, white and lected and moribund strains of flowmurrey-colored columbines which are ers would be most profitable if it inbut a short step from the native form. creased in any degree the power to Another might admit the primitive hold the balance between the past and dahlias with globular quilled heads the present, between grace and force, and exclude the later developments of between such hedge-bottom vagrants the "cactus" class, though the ancestor as the "fast-fading violets covered up of both only reached England a little 1"Old-fashioned Flowers, and other Openmore than a century ago. The literary air Essays.” By Maurice Maeterlinck. Trans

lated by A. Teixeira de Mattos. With Illusgardening which has of late years be

trations by G. S. Elgood. London: George come such a well-worked province

Allen. 1906. 38. 6d. net.

in leaves" and the Tsars and Wellsi- discrimination thus encouragea might anas on their eight-inch stalks under be often serviceable beyond the garden the lights of the frame. A habit of bounds.

The Saturday Review.

BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

No time has been lost in pressing trating questions. It must be said in the suffragette into the service offic- defence of his use of this effective but tion. Messrs. Chatto announce "A possibly dubious way of obtaining inSuffragette's Love-letters," which is formation, that nothing could be more described as "a discreet transcription guarded and delicate than his way of from the letters of a very sprightly using it, and taken with his own specuyoung lady who was swept for a time lations it constitutes a remarkable and into the suffragist movement, half valuable little book. The Macmillan against her will."

Company

"An American Girl in India" is the Mr. Burdett Coutts announces that title of a book by Shelland Bradley, he is engaged in writing a life of the author of "The Doings of Berengaria," Baroness Burdett Coutts. He is not which will shortly be published by going to pay so much attention to the Messrs. Bell. It gives a humorous public aspect of her life, which has picture of Anglo-Indian life, and de- received adequate notice in the public scribes the brilliant pageant of Lord press for many years past, as to that Curzon's great Durbar from an Ameri- of which much remains to be told and can point of view.

more explained. Mr. Burdett Coutts

laments that there is no one remainStrange as it may appear, no thor- ing, no Dickens or Disraeli, who, comough and exhaustive life of Captain bining the finest literary art with long Cook has appeared since 1836, although and intimate personal knowledge, much new information concerning his could give an adequate characterlife and adventures has come to light study. He will therefore concentrate since then. The “Life and Adventures his attention on the facts of her life. of Captain Cook, R. N.," by Arthur Kitson, which Mr. John Murray has in Mr. Ellis Barker's “The Rise and Dethe press, is an attempt to fill this cline of the Netherlands" is intended gap, and gives a full record of his life, to be both a history, and a warning to and his active service in the war in the British statesman and economist, Canada in 1759, and of his voyages and to that end it carefully analyzes round the world.

the causes by which the once powerful

state of the Netherlands fell from its Mr. James Bissett Pratt's “Psychol- former position, and descended to its ogy of Religious Belief” deserves at present rank. Also, it is intended as tention because it is something more an exposure of certain fallacies as to than a piece of speculative philosophy, commercial relations possible and actbeing in part a summary of the an- ual, accepted because analogically at. swers received from persons to whom tractive, but without fundamental the author submitted a series of pene- support in history or in logic. It is

not a work for the reader in search of season as a strolling laborer, befriended pleasure, but for serious-minded stu- by a miller of the Friends' connection, dents of European policy and politics, and then, through another turn of Forand is both written and indexed rather tune's wheel, brought back into the for them than for the seeker after gay life of the day. The coaching, racknowledge made easy. The appearance ing, betting and dicing of the time of such a book is a hopeful sign of the contribute incident; the courts of jusgrowing inclination to prefer careful tice are graphically described: but the thinking to combinations of good taste most noteworthy feature is the picture and literary ability. E. P. Dutton & of the Quaker household, evidently Company.

drawn con amore. The story will bear

comparison with some of Stanley WeyMr. John Oxenham, whose work has man's or Conan Doyle's. McClure, been more uneven than his most dis- Phillips & Co. criminating admirers could wish, has kept at his highest level in his new Sir Spencer Walpole's “Studies in Bistory, "The Long Road." The book is ography" is a volume intended to be one of noticeable quality and power, the complement of the author's "Hisand, in spite of its painful theme, one is tory of England from 1815," although constrained to add-charm. Its hero, complete in itself. In his larger work, Stepan Iline, is the son of a household he considered the general course of naexiled to Irkutsk in Siberia in his child- tional history: in these nine essays, he hood, and the narrative follows him shows that the individual, although unthrough his sturdy youth, his romance deniably the product of his environment and young manhood, till the inevitable and heredity, may none the less be a encounter with the brutal governor of potent and permeating and enduring bis provinee sends him again onto the influence. Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Cob"long road.” Mr. Oxenham improves den, Mr. Disraeli, Lord Dufferin, Edto the utmost the opportunities for vig. ward Gibbon, Prince Bismarck, Lord orous description and dramatic incident Shaftesbury, Napoleon Third, and which such a plot offers, and adds with "Some Decisive Marriages of English rare art touches of simple, domestic History,” are bis topics, and so imparpathos which relieve its grimness tially has he treated each subject that while they increase its poignancy. readers to whom his political associaThe season will not offer many novels tions are unknown will have no small better worth reading. The Macmillan difficulty in divining them from these Company.

papers. To those desirous of attain

ing Gail Hamilton's ideal state of beThe jaded reader of historical fic- ing well smattered they will be tion can scarcely believe his good for- precious indeed, for each one is illumitune as he follows chapter after chap- nating in its own fields. E. P. Dutton ter of Ashton Hilliers's story, "Fan- & Co. shawe of the Fifth," and finds the plot still plausible and not too obvious, Mrs. C. W. Earle is a wonderful exthe characters still human, and his own ample of the possibilities of a well interest still unflagging. The period is spent life. Beginning at sixty years of the end of the eighteenth century; the age to publish the treasures of notescene, England; the hero, a younger books including a heterogeneous mass son, dropped from his regiment through of thoughtful observation and critithe malice of enemies, working for a cism of men, and women, gardens, books, affairs, abstract morals, history, and so carefully indexed and systemscience, and medical practice, she finds atically arranged as to make it an inherself now able to make a fourth vol- valuable arsenal of defence for those ume almost equal to her first, as lit- desirous of satisfying either themselves erature, and perhaps more valuable to or others that the last Plantagenet, althose seeking for information on cer- though not free from the faults of his tain subjects. Its most impressive trait time, could wear the white rose with is its wonderful freshness. The let out any glaring incongruity between ters bear date within the last year or his behavior and his cognizance. E. P. two, but each reads as if its subject Dutton & Co. were the topic uppermost in the writer's mind, the one matter of any con- Mr. Arthur Symons dedicates his sequence to her, the one upon which "Studies in Seven Arts” to his wife, in it was of the utmost importance that two pages to be attentively and grateher correspondent should be informed, fully read by those who find him so and each is commensurately impressive. coldly intellectual that they cannot beBy way of appendix, Lady Normanby's lieve that his judgment is based upon letters from Paris in 1848, and some consideration of a sufficient number interesting notes on the exhibition of of the qualities of human nature. Be 1900 are added and they are interesting it distinctly understood that it makes in their way and increase the value of the author no more agreeable to those a book poured forth from a mind ma- who hate the sensual and the sensuous, tured through years in which no hour regarding neither as a proper field for can have been wasted. E. P. Dutton true art, and deprecating the glorifica& Co.

tion of art based upon them, but it at

least shows that the author is not As nothing more encourages immo- wholly free from the bonds in which rality than the spectacle of successful the Christian moralist would bind the villainy, the researches which have world. The subjects of the essays are cleared the character of Richard Third Rodin, Moreau, Watts, Whistler, Beefrom the monstrous accusations of the thoven, Wagner, Strauss, Signora Duse, Tudors must be regarded as clear gain M. Jarry, modern painting and stage to civilization, and Sir Clements R. managing, the newest symbolism, and Markham's "Richard III" must be the decay of craftsmanship, and each counted as a beneficent modern influ- one, whether one like its matter or not, ence. Richard's cleverness is not dis- is a masterpiece in manner. But it puted, even by Shakespeare, perhaps can hardly be said that the book is the most mischievous of his maligners, powerful. If the subject of a given but when seen as the kind uncle and paper be agreeable one accepts it, but guardian of the boys whose claim to if the subject be unpleasant, the author the crown had been authoritatively de- leaves his reader where he found him, nied; as the loyal husband of the gen- unchanged in temperature and in poise. tle maiden who had been his play. He injures, therefore, only those in mate in childhood; as the staunch and whom he finds temperamental or edutrue ally of his brother he is revealed cated weakness and error, and is harmas far more able than the popular mis- less and even delightful to others, but conception has made him, and as one of that small dedication arouses the hope the most memorable of English Kings that a time may come when he will no whose reigns have been comparatively longer consider any but the noblest brief. The book is agreeably written, subjects. . E. P. Dutton & Co.

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