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note how the substance and the emphasis of color are developed at the expense of more recondite qualities, which may be found at the full in the dog-rose of the hedges. The retrospective gardens might be furnished on several different plans; one arrangement might admit only plants enrolled in authentic poetry—let us say (for English soil) from Chaucer to Shelley and Tennyson: the authorizations and rejections would make an instructive collection. Another plot might be a sort of almshouse for obsolescent and vanishing kinds, or might attempt by selection to reproduce the garden of a past period. Necessarily the surroundings should be simple and as much as possible in keeping with the archaic flowers. Straight borders three or four yards wide, beside a walk of rough flagstones or scythe-mown grass, would be best, with as much as is practicable of cottage-garden atmosphere about them, wherein everything by a simplecunning art looks as though it had grown there by itself for a hundred years. Any attempt at "old-worldllness" in the way of builders' work, topiary art or other devices, is certain to destroy the value of the experiment at once.

in the choice of subjects there is of course room for a considerable range of personal likings and knowledge. One man might include, for instance, the long-spurred hybrid aqulleglas. cureless of the fact that they are the extremely modern representatives of the old blue, white and murrey-colored columbines which are but a short step from the native form. Another might admit the primitive dahlias with globular quilled heads uud exclude the later developments of the "cactus" class, though the ancestor of botb only reached England a little more than a century ago. The literary gardening which has of late years become such a well-worked province

has an influence on selections of this kind. When, for instance, a writer like M. Maeterlinck, in the essays' recently published in English with the advantage of reproductions in color of some very pretty drawings by Mr. El good, discourses upon old-fashioned flowers, the ordinary gardener may be prepared to Bud the classification a very personal one and rather fitted for fantastic pleasaunces of faery than for the grudging soil of our material plots. When flowers are made to twitter and lisp, and take the forms of eager carpets or motionless dances, it is small wonder to find the ageratum, the zinnia, even— proh pudor!—the blue lobelia in the class of "old-fashioned flowers" in company with the buttercup and the pansy. The reader who is puzzled to know why the phlox is called "paternal" may guess the solution when he finds the epithet serving as well for a windmill, and will understand how an author who in his first essay declares his love for the simplest, the commonest, the oldest and the most antiquated flowers, in the last adores the exhibition chrysanthemum as "the most submissive, the most docile, the most tractable and the most attentive plant of all ... . impregnated through and through with the thought and will of man." That the imaginative handling of garden catalogues has its own dangers our own recent growth of literary hybrids sufficiently shows.

A return to the cultivation of neglected and moribund strains of flowers would be most profitable if it increased in any degree the power to hold the balance between the past and the present, between grace and force, between such hedge-bottom vagrants as the "fast-fading violets covered up in leaves" and the Tsars and Wellslanas on their eight-inch stalks under the lights of the frame. A habit of

1" Old-fashioned Flowers, and other Openair Essays." By Maurice Maeterlinck. Translated by A. Telzelra de Mattos. With Illustrations by O. 8. Elgood. London: George Allen. 1906. S«. M. net.

The Saturday Review.

discrimination thus encourageo. might be often serviceable beyond the garde* bounds.

BOOKS AND AUTHORS.

No time has been lost in pressing the suffragette into the service of fiction. Messrs. Chatto announce "A Suffragette's Love-letters," which is described as "a discreet transcription from the letters of a very sprightly young lady who was swept for a time into the suffragist movement, half against her will."

trating questions. It must be said in defence of his use of this effective but possibly dubious way of obtaining information, that nothing could be more guarded and delicate than his way of using It, and taken with his own speculations it constitutes a remarkable and valuable little book. The Macmillan Company.

•'An American Girl In India" is the title of a book by Shetland Bradley, author of "The Doings of Berengaria," which will shortly be published by Messrs. Bell. It gives a humorous picture of Anglo-Indian life, and describes the brilliant pageant of Lord Curzon's great Durbar from an American point of view.

Strange as it may appear, no thorough and exhaustive life of Captain Cook has appeared since 1836, although much new information concerning his life and adventures has come to light since then. The "Life and Adventures of Captain Cook, R. N.," by Arthur Kitson, which Mr. John Murray has in the press, is an attempt to fill this gap, and gives a full record of his life, and his active service In the war in Canada in 1759, and of his voyages round the world.

Mr. James Bissett Pratt's "Psychology of Religious Belief" deserves attention because it is something more than a piece of speculative philosophy, being in part a summary of the answers received from persons to whom the author submitted a series of pene

Mr. Burden Courts announces that he is engaged In writing a life of the Baroness Burdett Courts. He is not going to pay so much attention to the public aspect of her life, which has received adequate notice In the public press for many years past, as to that of which much remains to be told and more explained. Mr. Burdett Courts laments that there is no one remaining, no Dickens or Disraeli, who, combining the finest literary art with long and intimate personal knowledge, could give an adequate characterstudy. He will therefore concentrate his attention on the facts of her Ufa

Mr. Ellis Barker's "The Rise and Decline of the Netherlands" Is Intended to be both a history, and a warning to the British statesman and economist, and to that end it carefully analyzes the causes by which the once powerful state of the Netherlands fell from its former position, and descended to Its present rank. Also, It Is intended as an exposure of certain fallacies as to commercial relations possible and actual, accepted because analogically attractive, but without fundamental support In history or In logic. It is not a work for the reader in search of pleasure, but for serious-minded students of European policy and politics, and is both written and indexed rather for them than for the seeker after knowledge made easy. The appearance of such a book is a hopeful sign of the growing inclination to prefer careful thinking to combinations of good taste and literary ability. E. P. Dutton & •Company.

Mr. John Oxenham, whose work has been more uneven than his most discriminating admirers could wish, has kept at his highest level in his new story, "The Long Road." The book is "one of noticeable quality and power, and, in spite of its painful theme, one is constrained to add—charm. its hero, Stepan iline, is the son of a household exiled to irkutsk in Siberia in his childhood, and the narrative follows him through his sturdy youth, his romance and young manhood, till the inevitable encounter with the brutal governor of his province sends him again onto the '•long road." Mr. Oxenham improves to the utmost the opportunities for vigorous description and dramatic incident which such a plot offers, and adds with rare art touches of simple, domestic pathos which relieve its grimness while they increase its poignancy. The season will not offer many novels better worth reading. The Macmillan Company.

The jaded reader of historical fiction can scarcely believe his good fortune as he follows chapter after chapter of Ashton Hilliers's story, "Fanshawe of the Fifth," and finds the plot still plausible and not too obvious, the characters still human, and his own interest still unflagging. The period is the end of the eighteenth century; the scene, England; the hero, a younger son, dropped from his regiment through the malice of enemies, working for a

season as a strolling laborer, befriended by a miller of the Friends' connection, and then, through another turn of Fortune's wheel, brought back into the gay life of the day. The coaching, racing, betting and dicing of the time contribute incident: the courts of justice are graphically described: but the most noteworthy feature is the picture of the Quaker household, evidently drawn con amore. The story will bear comparison with some of Stanley Weyman's or Conan Doyle's. McClure. Phillips & Co.

Sir Spencer Walpole's "Studies in Biography" is a volume intended to be the complement of the author's "History of England from 1815," although complete in itself. in his larger work, he considered the general course of national history: in these nine essays, he shows that the individual, although undeniably the product of his environment and heredity, may none the less be a potent and permeating and enduring influence. Sir Robert Peel, Mr. Cobden, Mr. Disraeli, Lord Dufferin, Edward Gibbon, Prince Bismarck, Lord Shaftesbury, Napoleon Third, and "Some Decisive Marriages of English History," are his topics, and so impartially has he treated each subject that readers to whom his political associations are unknown will have no small difficulty in divining them from these papers. To those desirous of attaining Gall Hamilton's ideal state of being well smattered they will be precious indeed, for each one is illuminating in its own fields. E. P. Dutton & Co.

Mrs. C. W. Earle is a wonderful example of the possibilities of a well spent life. Beginning at sixty years of age to publish the treasures of notebooks including a heterogeneous mass of thoughtful observation and criticism of men, and women, gardens. books, affairs, abstract morals, history, science, and medical practice, she finds herself now able to make a fourth volume almost equal to her first, as literature, and perhaps more valuable to those seeking for information on certain subjects, lts most impressive trait is its wonderful freshness, The letters bear date within the last year or two, but each reads as if its subject were the topic uppermost in the writer's mind, the one matter of any consequence to her, the one upon which it was of the utmost importance that her correspondent should be informed, and each is commensurately impressive. By way of appendix, Dady Normanby's letters from Paris in 1848, and some interesting notes on the exhibition of 1900 are added and they are interesting in their way and increase the value of a book poured forth from a mind matured through years in which no hour can have been wasted. E. P. Dutton & Co.

As nothing more encourages immorality than the spectacle of successful villainy, the researches which have cleared the. character of Richard Third from the monstrous accusations of the Tndors must be regarded as clear gain to civilization, and Sir Clements R. Markhams "Richard lll" must be counted as a beneficent modern influence. Richard's cleverness is not disputed, even by Shakespeare, perhaps the most mischievous of his maligners, but when seen as the kind uncle and guardian of the boys whose claim to the crown had been authoritatively denied; as the loyal husband of the gentle maiden who had been his playmate in childhood: as the staunch and true ally of his brother he is revealed as far more able than the popular misconception has made him, and as one of the most memorable of English Kings whose reigns have been comparatively brief. The book is agreeably written,

and so carefully indexed and systematically arranged as to make it an invaluable arsenal of defence for those desirous of satisfying either themselves or others that the last Plantagenet, although not free from the faults of his time, could wear the white rose without any glaring incongruity between his behavior and his cognizance. E. l'. Dutton & Co.

Mr. Arthur Symous dedicates his "Stndies in Seven Arts" to his wife, in two pages to be attentively and gratefully read by those who find him so coldly intellectual that they cannot believe that his jndgment is based upon consideration of a sufficient number of the qualities of human nature. Be it distinctly understood that it makes the author no more agreeable to those who hate the sensual and the sensnous, regarding neither as a proper field for true art, and deprecating the glorification of art based upon them, but it at least shows that the author is not wholly free from the bonds in which the Christian moralist would bind the world. The subjects of the essays are Rodin, Moreau. Watts, Whistler, Beethoven, Wagner, Strauss, Signora Duse. M. Jarry, modern painting and stage managing, the newest symbolism, and the decay of craftsmanship, and each one, whether one like its matter or not. is a masterpiece in manner. But it can hardly be said that the book is powerful. lf the subject of a given paper be agreeable one accepts it, but if the subject be unpleasant, the author leaves his reader where he found him, unchanged in temperature and in poise. He injures, therefore, only those in whom he finds temiieramental or educated weakness and error, and is harmless and even delightful to others, bul that small dedication arouses the hope that a time may come when he will no longer consider any but the noblest subjects, E. P. Dutton & Co.

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