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share in the advantage of these regu- central Governments to torture, violate, lations

slaughter in cold blood, and generally The least that the civilized Powers exterminate the members of a subject can do is to agree to a convention with race will gradually be recognized as regard to subject races similar to Tbe equally inhuman and absurd, even in Hague Convention, from which I have times of rebellion. But, as a matter of quoted. Such a convention would not history, the oppression of subject races ensure good government or security has led to interference with internal from ordinary oppression, but it would affairs time after time. We, with gradually ensure a limit to the atroci- other Powers, interfered on behalf of ties of punitive expeditions and the Greece eighty years ago, and on behalf suppressions of risings. There would of Crete ten years ago. France interbe no direct means of enforcing its op- fered on behalf of Italy in 1859, and servance; there are no direct means of Russia on behalf of Bulgaria in 1877, enforcing the terms of The Hague Con- and five Powers are interfering, howvention as it stands. It all rests upon ever feebly, on behalf of Macedonia international public opinion-upon “the now. The claim of Governments and laws of humanity, and the require- empires to do what they like with their ments of the public conscience." But own, to practise any extreme of atrocity no one doubts that the cause of human. upon their subjects, and to disregard ity has gained enormously by the mere all the usages of civilized warfare in statement and definition of the Con- dealing with the rebellions and risings vention's principles, and by the knowl of subject races, has been the occasion edge of each Power that a flagrant of terrible wars within the last cenbreach of its provisions will lead to ex- tury; and for that reason alone, if for clusion from the comity of the civilized no other, the subject demands the atworld. Ultimately this exclusion may tention of The Hague Conference, Or even involve a refusal of loans, or a if it is too late now to extend the prodiplomatic boycott such as we imposed gramme of the official delegates at the upon Servia after the murder of her meeting in June, a subordinate and unlate King.

official conference should be held siInevitably the cry of interference multaneously among representatives of with internal affairs will be raised. It the many British, European, and Ameris the same cry as was raised when ican societies, which have no other obthe right of slave-owners to "wallopject to serve than the extension of freetheir own niggers" was first questioned. dom and the protection of the opWithin fifty years that cry has com- pressed. pletely died away, and the claim of

Henry W. Nerinson. The Nation.


The most hopeful symptom at pres dently wished to intimate in his speech ent in the social politics of the United at the Jamestown tercentenary, is in a States is the attitude of the people to confused, and even dangerous, condi. wards President Roosevelt. That di- tion. Owing partly to that admixture vision of politics, as Mr. Roosevelt evi- of blood which, as the President pointed out, has been continuous for three cen- freeholders, may pass under the sway turies, and partly to the enormous re- either of a plutocracy or a mob. Either sources which Americans have discov- result, we need not say, would be fatal ered within their dominion, the dangers to the hopes which philanthropists which now threaten it are not those throughout the world have founded on which the founders of the Republic an- the growing prosperity and power of ticipated. They were great builders, the great Republic,-the mightiest selfand a hundred years after they were in governing community which history their graves a million of men died to records. protect the Constitution which they had framed; but their foresight was not Amidst the many darkening clouds quite equal to their constructive capac, which are rolling up on the American ity. The foresight of politicians rarely horizon there is one definite spot of is. A few among them apprehended light. All depends upon the decision danger from the existence of slavery in of the American people, who are, as the their midst; but they did not foresee President says, in America the “sov. that slavery would produce in the ereign" power, and the American peoSouth a civilization radically hostile to ple have decided that their real leader the civilization of the North, and they is Theodore Roosevelt. This is adleft the incipient cancer not cut out. A mitted by the opposite, or Democratic, good many expected what used in our party as much as by the Republicans own country to be called "the ugly who gave Mr. Roosevelt his place --by rush" of the masses against property, those who distrust and detest his perand provided against it in the Consti- sonality as much as by those who are tution itself; but none foresaw the in- devoted to his name. They all agree dustrial growth of the Union, or the that if Theodore Roosevelt will stand bitterness which, under a régime of for a third term resistance will be as nominal equality, comparative poverty impossible, or at all events as is certain to produce. It has produced useless, as resistance to Abraham Lin. it, nevertheless, to such an extent that coln proved to be at his second election strikes in the Union have frequently in 1865. So intensely is this felt that been petty civil wars which the State Republicans denounce his threatened Militia have been unable to control; retirement as treason to the country, and no one, of course, foresaw such a while Democrats believe that at the development of wealth that many of its last moment he will be, as it were, owners now rival the old Barons of Eu- stoned by opinion, and coerced against rope in audacity, influence, and, we his own judgment and his own must add, carelessness for any interests wishes into once more standing for the wider than their own. So savage have chair. Study that fact in the light of the differences of class become that the his record, and you will see that the next election will be a struggle between immense majority of the people, who the "Haves" and the “Have-nots," and constitute, as he himself says, the true the relation of the Trusts to the future Sovereign of the States, must be clean of the Republic will be avowedly or se- of the wish to support either plutocracy cretly the pivot of the contest. There or mob-rule,--that the people wish both will be real danger, as the President to be avoided or put down, whatever acknowledges in his deeply significant the effect and whatever the sacrifice. speech of April 26th, that the Republic, This is the more remarkable because which was to have been governed by a Mr. Roosevelt affronts and defies two majority of more or less comfortable other sections of the voters besides the plutocracy and the mob; namely, those have been accumulated to "go out of --and they are a multitude-who still business," and assume dignified posiconsider State Rights more important tions among the leisured class. The than national claims, and those-and excessive fierceness of the industrials, they also are a multitude--who profit again, may be due in part to the alien by the most visible disease of America, blood which for a century has been the prevalence of corruption in the Gov. pouring into the States in a stream of ernments of the great cities. If, as all increasing volume, and which is now Americans declare, the heart of the to a great extent Latin and Slavic American people goes out to Theodore blood, and in part to the natural acRoosevelt, the heart of the American tion of a Republic in making all its people is still pure; and whoever has citizens hate the very idea of inequalbeen corrupted by the over-sudden ac- ity. It is, however, a curious fact cess of wealth or by the spread of eco- to be carefully remembered that Renomic fallacies, it is not the American publicanism, with its corollary, the Nation. Mr. Roosevelt has not had oc- right of self-government, though it casion to fight pecuniary corruption as extinguishes many evils, such as the openly and strenuously as he has fought permanent terror which arises from the Trusts and mob-rule, but his senti- autocracy and the permanent servility ments on the subject--we may add, which often accompanies Monarchy, his resolutions on the subject-are does not extinguish, or even greatly thoroughly understood. The "bosses' diminish, social dangers of an acute dread and hate him as much as the kind. Socialism is much stronger in multi-millionaires do, or the managers France, where the Republic is obviof the fighting Trade-Unions.

ously succeeding, than in England,

where newspapers still record the It is a little difficult either to ex- comings and goings of Monarchs as plain or to understand the sudden if they were the most important of magnitude which the two economic occurrences, and where titles are still questions have attained in America. sought with almost unintelligible The amazing success of the syndi- avidity. The probable truth is that, cates of capitalists called Trusts is as human beings cannot look forward due no doubt at bottom to Protection, even for a day with any feeling of without wbich their profits would be certainty, the founders of Constitutoo uncertain to tempt them into tions cannot provide against all the such combinations. That explana- evils those Constitutions will produce, tion cannot, however, be complete, for or foresee the cross-currents of thought the railway magnates are not pro- and feeling which will modify the tected by the tariff, and when Protec- working of institutions. Scotland is tion was at its zenith in Great Brit. probably the most truly democratic ain there were no syndicates. There country in the world, but there is must be something else, probably the no country in which the aristocracy absence of the temptation which ex- hold a loftier or a safer position. ists in Europe, when great fortunes

The Spectator.


A distinctive feature of the twentieth I remember in days that are no more century House of Commons is the dis- a quite different state of things. In appearance of the orator. Time was, the Seventies, even in the Eighties, at and since the period of Pitt and there were giants of oratory. GladFox, when the House of Commons was stone was the last survival. Even he a stage from which eminent men de towards the end of his career was inlivered elaborate discourses. Within fluenced by the newer turn of thought my comparatively brief experience a which dominated Parliamentary degreat change has been wrought in this bate. He could not help being elorespect. There are many able men in quent when deeply moved; but he was the present Parliament; there is not a more direct in his methods, less volusingle one who poses as an orator. minous in his speech. New times, above all new Rules of. His manner in speech-making was Procedure, make new manners. There more strongly marked by action than really isn't time now for a Member to was that of his only rival, John Bright. lay himself out for a two hours' speech, He emphasized points by smiting the as was a common custom even so re- open palm of his left hand with sledgecently as a quarter of a century ago. hammer fist. Sometimes he, with With the House meeting at the prosaic gleaming eyes, pointed his forefinger hour of a quarter to three o'clock and straight at his adversary. In hottest abruptly closing debate at eleven, there moments he beat the brass-bound Box is no opening for such elaborate per- with clamorous hand that sometimes formance.

drowned the point he strove to make. Moreover, habit in respect of debate Again, with both hands raised above is changed. In the good old days 660 his head; often with left elbow leaning Members were content to form an audi- on the Box, right hand with closed ence enraptured by the eloquence of fist shaken at the head of an unofeight or ten. Now, with special wires fending country gentleman on the feeding local papers, every one feels back bench opposite; anon, standing called upon to deliver a certain quan- half a step back from the Table, left tum of remarks on important Bills or hand hanging at his side, right uplifted, resolutions brought before the House. 80 that he might with thumb-nail The average Member has more satis- lightly touch the shining crown of his faction in talking than in listening. head, he trampled his way through the This, combined with disposition to re- argument he assailed as an elephant in gard progress of legislative business as an hour of aggravation rages through of more importance than flowers of a jungle. oratory, has completed the change of It is no new thing for great orators fashion. In these prosaic days a Mem- to indulge in extravagant gestures. ber, however eminent, rising with evi. Peel had none; Pitt but few, these modent intent of delivering a set oration, notonous and mechanical. But Pitt's would first be stared at, then left to father, the great Chatham, knew how discourse to himself, the Speaker, and to flash his eagle eye, to flaunt his an admiring family circle in the Ladies' flannels and strike home with his Gallery.

crutch. Brougham once dropped on his

knees in the House of Lords, and with to stand balancing himself on heel and outstretched hands implored the Peers toe with hands in his coat-tail pocket. not to reject the Reform Bill. Fos In this pose, with head hung down as was sometimes moved to tears by his if he were mentally debating how best own eloquence. Burke on a historic to express a thought just born to him, occasion brought a dagger into debate, he slowly uttered the polished and poiand at the proper cue flung it on the soned sentences over which he had floor of the House of Commons. Sher spent laborious hours in his study. idan, when nothing more effective was Those familiar with his manner knew to be done, knew how to faint. Grat- a full moment beforehand when he was tan used to scrape the ground with his approaching what he regarded as the knuckles as he bent his body and most effective place for dropping the thanked God he had no peculiarities of gem of phrase he made-believe to have gesture. In respect of originality, mul just dug up from an unvisited corner tiplicity and vehemence of gesture, of his mind. They saw him lead up Gladstone, as in some other things, to it. They noted the disappearance beat the record of human achievement of the hand in the direction of the

Disraeli lacked two qualities, failing coat-tail pocket, sometimes in search of which true eloquence is impossible. a pocket-handkerchief brought out and He was never quite in earnest, and was shaken with careless air, most often not troubled by dominating conviction to extend the coat-tails whilst, with Only on the rarest occasions did he af- body gently rocked to and fro and an fect to be roused to righteous indigna- affected hesitancy of speech, the bon tion, and then he was rather amusing mot was flashed forth. Not being a than impressive. He was endowed born orator, but a keen observer recog. with a lively fancy and cultivated the nizing the necessity noted by Hamlet art of coining phrases, generally per- in his advice to the players of accomsonal in their bearing. When these panying voice by action, he performed were flashed forth he delighted the a series of bodily jerks as remote from House. For the rest, at the period I the natural gestures of the true orator knew him, when he had grown re- as the waddling of a duck across a spectable and was weighted with re- stubble field is from the progress of a sponsibility, he was often dull. There swan over the bosom of a lake. were, indeed, in the course of a session, John Bright, perhaps the finest orafew things more dreary than a long tor known to the House of Commons in speech from Dizzy. At short, sharp the last half of the nineteenth century, replies to questions designed to be em- was morally and politically the antithbarrassing he was effective. When it esis of Disraeli. Before, in the closcame to a long speech the lack of stam- ing years of a long life, he reached the ina was disclosed, and the House lis- unexpected haven of community with tened to something which, if not occa- the Conservative Party on the question sionally incomprehensible, was fre- of Home Rule, political animosity quently involved.

passed by no ditch through the mire When he rose to speak he rested his of which it might drag him. But it hand for a moment on the Box, only never accused him of speaking with unfor a moment, for he invariably en- certain sound, of denouncing to-day deavored to gain the ear of his audience what yesterday he upheld. by making a brilliant point in an open- To an orator this atmosphere of acing sentence. The attitude he found knowledged sincerity and honest conmost conducive to happy delivery was viction is a mighty adjunct of power.

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