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cerebration which stimulates exces- been made, seeks to organize the emo. sively the emotional centres while roh. tional life so as to win an atmosphere bing the ordinary motor and sensory of permanent inner tranquility for the system of its normal work. Though soul, the true service of religion to Dr. Saleeby dogmatically denies the this life of man. possibility of overworking the brain, But to our mind there is something the prevalence of "nerves” among the suspicious and unsatisfactory in the professional and other intellectual artificiality of these organized, elaboclasses gives a strong primai facie sup- ated cures. The rest cure and the port to the hypothesis; and the view, soothing patter of Christian Science are powerfully urged, among others, by not adequate. Dr. Saleeby gets nearer Dr. Nordau, that the rapidity and mul- to the heart of the trouble when he ditiplicity of changes which each decade agnoses it as "practical materialism." brings in the material and intellectual It is false valuations of life, repre. environment has over-taxed the capac- sented in and fostered by our too disity of mental and emotional adjust tinctively industrial struggle, and ment, is not lightly to be dismissed. It stamped by this diseased environment is indeed quite evident that the rapid, upon the plastic nature of our children changeful, and unstable life of the mod so that they grow up into hardened men ern city is breeding an impulsive, emo- and women “of the world"—this is the tional, and anxious people, whose hur enemy of mankind. The savage, who ried, gaunt, and tight-set faces are vers knows not whether or how he may get far removed from "the perfect recti- food to-morrow to keep himself and tude and insouciance of the movement his family alive, does not worry: no naof animals,” and who are habitually tion ever possessed so abundant and disobedient to the Gospel prohibition so sure a command of food as ours, no of worry, which is so ill-translated: nation ever worried more. Here is the "Take no thought for the morrow." paradox. It can only be solved by

There are two schools for the cura- paying heed to the criticism which a tive treatment of this "disease of the sage belonging to one of those Oriental age,” one approaching it from the nations whom we are trying to "civilphysical, the other from the spiritual ize" passed upon us after an exhaustside. The one prescribes periods ofive study of our science, our political complete bodily rest, massage, exercises institutions, our games and our rein the art of recovering repose; the ligions: "You do not cultivate your other, to which allusion has already soul.”

The Nation.


Professor Harnack has published a and more round the mind of Christ. new book in conjunction with Profes. The laity are troubling themselves less sor Herrmann ("Essays on the Social and less about the mind of the Church, Gospel,” Williams and Norgate, ts. though allusions to it are still frequent 6d.), a large section of which deals with in pietistic literature. Few care to learn "The Real Mind of Jesus.” There can when the Church began to say tbis be no doubt that the theological inter- or to think the other, or to trace the est of the modern layman centres more development of such-and-such a dogma

from its suggestion to its full definition. or even in order to acquire merit. He The Councils are regarded by most or reads that he may learn "the way of dinary men as historical rather than as God more perfectly," that he may make religious landmarks, and they are for himself a conception of the Chrisscarcely prepared to accept the rin tian revelation. Such a change in the media of many of the reformers, who, focus of religious thought can hardly while denying their authority, never be without far-reaching results. Even theless accepted their conclusions, re- in the Roman Church we see the influbasing those conclusions upon certain ence of the new spirit. Christ has besentences of Holy Scripture which come once more the centre of Chrisseem nowadays hardly able to support tianity, the Christ of the Gospels, not their weight. There is little life left the Divine Child of latter-day Romanin the controversies of the past. The ism or the sacrificial Lamb of an ultraprofessional theologian alone can fix Protestant theology, but He who his mind upon them. But the spirit “spake as never man spake." We are of Christ continues to "draw all men.” entering upon a fresh religious phase. “Who hath known the mind of the but as yet we have no religious enthuLord? . . . But we have the mind of siasm. New altars have been preChrist,” said St. Paul; and again, “Let pared, but no fire has descended from this mind be in you, which was also in heaven. What will happen when the Christ Jesus"; and the words of the spark comes, for come it must? Every great Apostle are ringing in the ears period of religious doubt has been folof the present generation. Perhaps lowed by a religious revival. What never since Paul was martyred have will be the effect upon Christendom if they sounded so insistently. In the the mind of the faithful, now concenMiddle Ages the bulwarks of dogma trated upon the mind of Christ, is once arose so fast around the Divine Fig. more "endowed with power from on ure as often to obscure it altogether high"? Nothing is less likely than the from the wayfaring man, and at the sudden coming of the millennium. The time of the Reformation the mists of religious world will not become Christcontroversy replaced the shadows of like all in a moment. Where individthe past.

uals are concerned the rate of moral In the days of our grandfathers the and religious progress cannot be caiordinary religious man, the man who culated with any approach to accuracy; went to church and read the Bible at but taking men in the aggregate, it stated intervals, thought very little seems to be in the order of Providence about the character of Christ; he might that all progress should be gradual. even have thought that the phrase had Every revival is a Second Coming, and a heterodox sound. If he were an in every revival the sad words of our Evangelical, his faith rested upon Lord once more prove themselves. He the Atonement; if a High Churchman, who prayed that His followers might upon the efficacy of the Sacraments. all be as one foresaw how many were Nowadays, whatever denomination be the struggles to be gone through before may belong to, the ordinary man, if he that prayer could be fulfilled. Men thinks about his religion at all, thinks would be “set at variance," He said, first about the mind of ('hrist, about by the new doctrine. Those of one the attitude towards life and towards household would find themselves in indeath of the Founder of his faith. He tense opposition. It is not possible for reads his Gospels, not in order to con- men to meditate freely, and without firm a catechism or illustrate a creed, fear of coming to unauthorized conclusions, upon the character of Christ, reason-if we insist on making of and remain altogether satisfied with Christ what He distinctly refused to be, the social status quo; and human na- a ruler and judge, instead of the Light ture is such that the conscientiously of the World-we may set up tyrannies dissatisfied seek refuge in a new sys- as bad as, or worse than, those institem. How did Christ look at wealth? tuted by Roman dogmatism. There the student of Christ's character can will be no new Torquemadas, but how not but ask himself. What was His much suffering may not be caused by attitude towards those who take the a new Tolstoy. sword? Why, in apparent contradic Upon isolated sentences of Jesus ahtion to His dictum upon the subject. solutely conflicting systems may be did He say there were times when it erected, and a measure of fanaticism is man who had two coats should sell one natural to man. The object of Profesfor a weapon? What was His attitude sor Harnack and Professor Herrtowards commerce, and why did He up- mann's book is to warn men against hold the rights of contract with such the dangers of this new turn of relitremendous sternness? Why did He gious thought. They have convinced seem at times verily and in deed to re. themselves that the Gospel contains no prove the world, not only for sin, but. economic programme. Only, they say, as St. John said, for righteousness? if it be regarded as a legal code can With what extraordinary severity cer- social and political laws be found in it. tain typical sinners are dealt with in Christ was no legalist, but "He who the parables and what wonderful kiud- emancipates the conscience." Chris. ness is shown to others. Dives lifts tianity is the religion of liberty, and up his eyes in torment because he was "its duties are specially imposed upon indifferent to the suffering and the sick you, and upon me, and upon every age ness of the poor, and no mercy is as an individual problem for each to shown towards the overseer who be- solve." Christianity as a religion, they came in his master's absence a tyrant say, would be at an end if the over his fellow-servants. On the other Gospel were changed into a social hand, the young man who repented his manifesto. It cannot be forced into riotous life is met by his father while a system, and no system, however he is yet a great way off. The Phari- literally carried out, would satisfy see whose heart was not right before the aspirations of man. "The liv. God is condemned, though there is no ing God of the conscience is inexorareason to suppose that his own esti- ble in His demand that we ought to mate of his outward respectability was do what, in our own conscience, we a false one, while the publican is justi. recognize as perfection," for "a man fied by his repentance alone. When can do what is good only if his will is the servant is condemned for exacting directed towards the pursuit of truth, money owing to him at a moment when as he perceives it." The tendency of his own debt had been cancelled, the the human mind to dogmatize will not righteousness of his claim is not even die because men have ceased to think taken into consideration. A rough-and- dogma the most vital part of Chrisready justice on the part of the man in tianity. It is possible so to interpret authority is distinctly held up to ad- the words of Christ as to overthrow miration, while in the Sermon on the the fabric of civilization and to cause Mount we are told at all costs to avoid His name to be blasphemed among the retribution. If we refuse to look at Gentiles, these two liberal theologians the Gospel as a whole and to use our plead, and surely their warning is needed. Not that they ask or hope force for good-above all, if it is to be that religious men should rest satisfied once more quickened into intenser life with things as they are. "The want -it behooves all thinking Christians to and misery of our fellow-countrymen" bold fast the wise words of St. Paul should, they think, "act like a goad spoken to the early Church at a time urging us on to study and investigate of great social unrest and expectancy: the construction of the social organ- "Let your moderation be known unto ism, to examine which of its ills are in- all men. The Lord is at hand.” But evitable, and which may be remedied we may not forget that there is an inby the spirit of self-sacrifice and en- difference which plumes itself on its ergy.” What they deprecate is the moderation, and is even more opposed growing notion that Godliness is a way to the spirit of Christ than fanaticism. of gain for whatever Christianity may No step in advance can be made withteach a man to do for others. “None out great searchings of heart and many dare ultimately expect more for him- mistakes, and it is difficult to contemself from the message of the Church plate without misgivings the sacrifices than a firm, consolatory faith, able which a new Reformation may demand to triumph over all the troubles of life." from the individual or the nation. If Christianity is to remain the great

The Spectator.


What cry was that? Methought I heard a cry,
Faint and far off and pitiful and weak.

No, no, it was the sigh
Of the west wind that stirred the opening leaves;

Or did some swallow, late-returned and meek,
Twitter her humble gladness from the new-found eaves?

Again! It is a cry! And yet again!
And first it swells, and then it seems to fade-

A cry of infinite weariness

And deep distress;
A cry of little children spent with pain,

A cry to make the boldest heart afraid,
* THE following is an extract from a letter which Mr. Punch has received from
DR. KENNARD, formerly House Physician at the Children's Hospital, Great Ormond
Street, and now resident at Samara, Russia :-

“There are over 300,000 children in Samara alone who need milk and and cannot get it : cows give no milk, for they in their turn feed off the decayed straw from the roof tops; then for want of milk these children and babies of the earliest age are forced to eat black bread, raw young cucumber, and anything that comes along - 'shto Bok poslaet' (whatever God happens to send), as the peasants pathetically state in their appeals. I have myself seen young babies with their mothers eating 'bread' which has amongst its other constituente acorns and powdered oak bark, and the mothers have wept bitterly when this was taken from them as a specimen, for, as they said, it was their food for one day. The result of this terrible diet is, of course, death and disease; and it is on behalf of these unfortunate children that I appeal to Mr. Punch to touch the great fountain of sympathy always to be found in the British public.”

A cry of mothers fighting off with prayer
The black-winged angel of despair,

Or mourning by the grave
Of children whom nor love nor tears availed to save.

Louder than rolling drum,
More piercing than the clamorous bugle's notes,

From Russia's stricken wastes the cry has come
Of many thousand tender little throats,

Soon to be dumb
Unless- But we are very very far,

And we have much to do
Under our brighter and more fortunate star

The whole day through-
Joyance and high delight and festival

For great and small
At home, and our own children claim their share:

We have no gift to spare
For Russia's children, and this cry of fear
Was but a dream-sound buzzing in our ear.

Is this our answer? No, it cannot be!
We cannot choose but hear. This is no dream

That makes imagined things to seem:
This is God's truth that pleads for charity.
For God, who set the nations far apart,

Estranged by thought and speech,

He bound us each to each,
Heart that can suffer unto suffering heart.

In His high Name we cannot let the cry
of little children go unheeded by.

For He was once Himself a little child,

Humble and mild,
And loved all children; and I think His face

In that eternal place
Where still He waits and watches us will smile

For love of pity if we stretch our band
And let our gifts go forth o'er many a mile

Of stormy sea and many leagues of land.
Hark, how the little children make their plea,
Their pitiful plea for help. What shall our answer be?

R. C. Lehmann.


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