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popular party, in an epoch of great grammes of political economy. He crisis, can be misled by a self-seeking must be ready also to take proper care character. Social Democrats in Ger of that first requisite in a nation's life: many might learn something from this its security against manifest danger authenticated occurrence.

from abroad.

Germany, especially, has good reason II.

not to neglect that latter consideration. Perhaps I may be allowed to add She is geographically placed so that here that the very name of Social she may be attacked from four quarDemocrat, with the addition of Repub. ters, on land and on sea. The Thirty lican, dates by no means from recent Years' War, the Seven Years' War, and times, as is often erroneously assumed, the Napoleonic wars have been a sebut from 1848. It was used then in vere lesson to her. They sometimes France, and in Germany as well. brought her to the verge of annihilaWhen we were near having our bodies tion. Surely it speaks much for stretched on the sand-heap by court the prevalence of a spirit of dissatmartial bullets, or our heads severed isfaction with home government that, by the executioner's sword, we did not nevertheless, millions of votes, even shrink from using the word. The if only cast in great part by “Mitläulargest possible social reforms were fer," are still cast now in Germany our confessed aim. Not only the full for the Social Democratic party. That est unity and freedom, but also the should be a lesson to Government. security of our Fatherland, were dearB ut there is a point at which a lesto us. Many held the same doctrines son also is given to Social Democracy as are preached now; but the large itself. And this lesson has just now majority even of these felt that it is been read to it by the loss of so many useless to try forcing a people into seats in a number of important towns, what it regards as an impossible which pre-eminently count in politics Utopia.

when large issues are decided. Whatever far-reaching system of 8)- It is no use saying that, after all, the cial transformation men may aspire to, aggregate Socialist vote has not been no one with any experience of human diminished, but slightly even increased. nature can doubt that the masses them. Here it must not be forgotten that, selves, in spite of all the sufferings of proportionally speaking, that increase, which they have a right to complain, as compared with that of the other are not prepared to accept a down- parties, is exceedingly small; for it right Communistic organization of so- has to be remembered that, owing to ciety. In their wretched condition the rapid growth of the population, as they may eagerly listen to a glowing well as to the participation of millions description of a Golden Age; but they who until now had not voted at all, will not, when things come to the point, there has been a vastly larger number give up a certain degree of individual of men who exercised the suffrage in freedom. The sensible social reformer 1907 than there were in 1903. has to heed that which has become in Socialist writers and speakers themgrained in human character during selves acknowledge now that they have thousands of years. He must show lost many of their former “Mitläufer," that he is willing and able to work for in whom suddenly a patriotic sentithe practical relief of misery, or else ment was awakened when they saw he will suddenly be left alone with the Pope's band joining the party with his most splendid philosophical pro which they had allied themselves. The

chief fact, however, is, that the Social- in the Catholic Church with its orthoist loss has occurred in the most influ- doxy and infallibility." This state of ential centres of political movement, things "leads to an ossification of inand of industry and trade. That tellect among the party, and so a stecounts far more than mere numbers in rility of our whole action.” Such proconstituencies of second third or cedures are compared to the Romanfourth-rate importance. The fall from ist "tribunals against heretics," and so eighty-one seats (as they were origi- forth. nally in 1903), or seventy-nine, as they M ore than that. There are Socialists were afterwards, to forty-three that is now who acknowledge that, in the in

impossible to get over.

. word might be said for a proper coloNor are men wanting both in the nial policy; that, after all, the people advanced and in the more moderate, or must live; that it is not advisable to "Revisionist,” wing of the Social Dem- offend the national sentiment, or to ocratic party who fully acknowledge the act in a way which would only be to tremendous lesson they have received the profit of foreign capitalism. In The defeated Socialist candidate in the saying this, they point to the betterfirst constituency of Berlin, a highly ment which has taken place in the lot cultured man of University training of the working class. They declare that and standing, has said since before a the “famine parole,” which has been meeting of his adherents:

given out by the party leaders in this

election, is a manifest exaggeration, Though our organization is satisfac- and that working men who, from extory, we have committed heavy faults perience of their own, can prove that in our agitation. Since we have be

an amelioration has taken place, are come a party of 3,000,000 we have been struck with a mental arrogance which

becoming shy of other party dogmas has hindered us from a proper manner which they cannot control, but which of agitation. e paraded our strength now they suspect; feeling, as they do, in braggart manner, and did not un- that they have been imposed upon on derstand how to act upon men of an- the particular subject with which they other way of thinking. Before Trades

are best acquainted from their own Union colleagues, who were not organized, we acted the swaggering part

daily life. of the superior, invincible Social Dem. These avowals of self-knowledge ocrat, spurning them instead of trying have been produced by this signal electo gain them over. Such people we toral defeat; but their scopo migit yet should not treat as if they were asses, be extended. So long as the chief but rather as somewhat backward leader's declaration is repeated: "I am younger brothers. Therefore, away

the mortal foe of the whole civic sowith that haughty pride, and let us behave as our comrades did years ago!

ciety!" neither advanced social reforms,

nor the movement for greater parliaIn the Revisionist camp of the party, mentary rights, will have much better still more significant language is held chance. It is by such needlessly as, for instance, in the Sozialistische threatening and yet powerless utterMonatshefte of February. There the ances that reactionary and despotic old complaints are repeated about the tendencies manage to thrive. "intolerable suppression of all free discussion at Party Congresses,” the

III. “proclamation of dogmas which nobody One thing that cannot be omitted by is allowed to touch, even as is done way of explaining the great change

brought about by these elections is and all nations, over Monarchies and this. When it was seen, in Germany, Republics, in matters both spiritual that in the foreign press the Ultramon- and temporal! tanes were patted on the back as if When the present High Pontiff was they were genuine "Liberal opponents installed by his priestly confe lerates, of personal government,” whilst the it was done in the same audacious Socialists, with their programme of the words as of old. He was declared to nationalization of all means of produc- be the Master of all Kings and Princes tion, distribution, and communication, and nations. There were those who, were, remarkably enough, compared to nevertheless, believed that Pius the “simple English Moderates, or even Tenth would turn out differently. I parliamentary Conservatives," many foretold in an English magazine at German readers asked themselves: once that this was a hollow hope. "What is the meaning of such strange Even as of old, there are, besides the statements? Is it sheer ignorance? White Pope, who bears the Pontifical Why, that is impossible! If not igno- name, the Black Pope and the Rei rance, what lurks behind this sudden Pope of the Inquisition and of th care for our Clericalists and for a Propaganda, and the whole Jesuitry party which the very same foreign pa- connected with it. It is the Black pers most bitterly fight against at Pope and the Red Pope who keep the home, as against Utopian Impossibil. White Pope up to the mark. If eve: ists and uprooters of the whole founda- he did swerve from the line, the fate tion of society?"

of Pope Ganganelli is before him. Then it was suspected that the ob- The fear of being anathe ratized by ject was, to encourage two parties this foreign priest and his dependents "qui hurlent en se trouvant ensemble," of a Church which remains semper as the French phrase is—to a common eadem, makes it very difficult to diminprolonged strife against the powers ish the strength of the “Tower" of the that be in Germany, so as to throw Catholic Centre. A Protestant or freethe country into an interminable strife nịnded Government can only overcome and utter confusion, and thus to para- its influence by a Progré ssist policy. lyze the nation in general. The Ger- It is to the discredit of successive im. man press, I may say, is very well in perial administrations in Germany that formed, day by day, about foreign af- they have so long humored this medifairs and opinions. It is better in- ævalist party by concessions, in order formed than the English press is from to get support from it for the personal abroad. The effect of the articles in policy of the head of the Empire. question has, no doubt, been to rally Often enough, however, even as in the the patriotic sentiment against the Middle Ages, a conflict arose between "Unholy Alliance."

the two-So much so that Bismarck The idea of describing the Ultramon- once spoke the winged word: “To Catane, obscurantist, Vaticanist, at heart nossa we shall never go!" not patriotic men of the Centre, who It was a well-known allus ou to the mainly go by the counsels and behests fate of Henry the Fourth. In windy of the Pope, as specimens of an Op weather, in deep slow, he had to do position against "Personal Govern penance, during several days, clad in ment" is too rich not to evoke laughter. a shirt, in the courtyard of the castle Why, they acknowledge the personal of Canossa, in Italy, whilst the haughty government of a foreign priest claim. Bishop of Rome, and-to speak politely ing theocratic dominion over all kings -his lady friend, lookel down from

the window upon this edifying specta- icy of underhand negotiations with the cle of a king's humiliation. In honor Ultramontanes as had finally been of Bismarck's saying, a column was yielded to by Bismarck, was carried erected in the Harz Mountains, with on under subsequent Chancellors. the words in question as an inscription. Prince Bülow was sadly at fault in But then Bismarck, rather than give this. Things would, nevertheless, not up his own autocratic ways towards a have come to that pass had not that refractory Parliament, did "go to Ca- section of Liberals, who are called nossa"! He at last yielded to the Cen- "National Liberals,” in the course of tre, against whose obscurantist doings years approached more and more to the "Kulturkampf” had been initiated, the reactionary group in Parliament, as our friend, Virchow, the great sci- and had not the more advanced Proentist, had called it.

gressists and Democrats split up into To cap the deplorable issue, the col three groups. Amidst such divisions, umn in the Harz Mountains was one Court policy and Jesuitical craftiness day struck by lightning and split. easily ruled the roost. Thereupon the priestlings of the Cen- However, of late, all over Germany tre, always ready with their stock of a movement has made itself felt for rissupernatural miracles, exclaimed that ing against the unbearable personal inthe "finger of God" had done it. A terference of the Crown. When matclass of the population which remains ters became worse and worse, men re. subject to such religious teaching will membered that the National Parliaalways be difficult to wean froin re- ment of 1848-49--but for the previous ligious and political superstition. That existence of which the present Reichis the whole secret of the continued stag would never have come into life-strength of the "Centre" in the Reich- had claimed and actually exercised sustag. It has come back with an in- preme power. It did so literally in the crease of two or three seats gained, name of the "Sovereignty of the Peowhereas those of its late Social Demo- ple” until it was destroyed by force of cratic ally were so vastly diminished. arms. There are still not a few men

It is truly a pity that, in some alive who were active in those days cases, the Socialist party in vari- of a great upheaval. ous constituencies, for the second It is a noteworthy fact that during ballots, advised its own adherents the last session of the Reichstag even to vote, by preference, for a partisan of a foremost leader of the National Libthe Ultramontane Centre, rather than erals denounced "personal government" for a Liberal! On the contrary, in in remarkably strong terms. He did some other constituencies, the Radical, not shrink from hints at the Emperor's Progressist, or Democratic parties ad- person. This unexpected spectacle vised their friends to vote even rather showed which way the wind blew. for a Socialist than for a follower of Prince Bülow and William the Second the Vaticanist gang. To see Socialists himself, no doubt, understood it as a as "Mitläufer" of that band of monkish sign of the times. obscurantists who yearn for the recall It was observed, during the electionof the Jesuits is, indeed, a sorry spec- eering campaign, that the bearing of tacle.

the Kaiser towards the municipality of

Berlin had latterly changed in a reIV.

markable degree. Formerly, it was As a means of avoiding true par- stated in the Progressist press, he often liamentary government, the same pol- showed the City Fathers a frowning, ungracious face. All at once there was Ultramontane "Tower” thought they a pleasant show of politeness and con- had secured their permanent influence. descending good humor. In years gone The sneering manner in which they by, when an inscription was to be laughed to scorn every effort at displaced over the portal of the grave- lodging them from their Fort could, yard where the victims of the street however, not be brooked much longer. battle of the 18th of March, 1848, who Hence the new Colonial Secretary, converted a despotic monarchy into a Herr Dernburg, a man not trained in constitutional one, sleep their eternal the dark and surreptitious ways of sleep, William the Second forbade such dishonorable policy as the discithe inscription. Again, when burgo. ples of Loyola are accustomed to, came master Kirschner was elected the out in Parliament with strong lanKaiser, for a long time, refused giving guage against that false party of partihis sanction. When the Town Council sans of a foreign High Priest. No of the capital wished to dedicate to sooner was this done than the Centre him a beautifully sculptured public made common cause with the out-andfountain, made by one of the most dis- out antagonists 07 the whole political tinguished artists, he once more gave and social State organization as it exthe municipality an ungracious snub. ists at present. It did not matter then Their representative, coming to the pal- to these Popelings that they had to join ace with a loyal address, was not re- hands with men whose undoubtedly ceived, but had to lay that document Republican and freethinking aspiraon a chair!

tions are otherwise looked upon with Then came the change, and it was horror at the Vatican. All through the much appreciated. How easy it is to centuries the Papacy has never scrusatisfy a people! And yet monarchs pled to make use of the most variewill often drive matters to the break- gated means for sustaining its own ing point. But the fault, after all, is hateful theocratic power. Any nation with the people themselves. They are that respects itself is bound to cast it too easily satisfied, and then monarchs out. That is why all friends of inboldly presume upon that trait; great tellectual freedom and of national digpersonal power spoiling the character nity look with sympathetic approval even of the best.

at what is being done now in France. When the dictatorial attitude of the leaders of the Centre had become intolerable for the secular Power, the It must have cost an effort to the Emperor, through his Chancellor, came Kaiser to appoint as Colonial Director to a sudden resolution. In course of a man of Jewish origin, for cleaning time that Clericalist party had consti- the Augean stable of colonial maladtuted itself as what was called a regu- ministration in South Africa. Too lar secondary, or collateral, government long, in Prussia at least, Jews have (Neben-Regierung). One of theirs, the been kept out of superior positions very man who is now expected to be both in the Army and in the Adminisits leader in the new Reichstag, bad for tration. In other German States there some time dallied with the Social Dem is far less of that antiquated, mediæ. ocratic movement attending, it is valist policy which is a perfect disstated, one of its Congresses at Zürich. grace of our age. When I look back It was done in the true Jesuitical style upon the days of the German Revoluof gaining a footing in opposite quar- tion, during which a citizen of Jewish ters. In this way the occupants of the descent acted as Speaker of the Na

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