Page images

despotism is necessarily the subject of ing motions which in the last Governthe lowest official who happens to be ment became a scandal, and which we nearest to the scene of disturbance. A had hoped had now been allowed to bureaucracy must support its own ser- fall into desuetude. We trust that Mr. vants, for it has no one to rely upon out. Morley, whose statements have lacked side them. Still less can a Secretary of nothing in point of candor, will, with State responsible to this country for his characteristic courage and frankthe maintenance of order in a distant ness open his mind to his friends in the dependency, ignore the warnings of the House, and throw himself frankly upon men who are actually administering their support. We could also wish that dependency. When the responsi- that if the deportation of Mr. Laj ble official warns his superior that Patrai is irrevocable for the present, grave disorders will follow if strong the other cases of detention or restraint action is not taken, when he represents to which Mr. Morley referred might that unless one man is deported to-day, be more carefully looked into. It is the soldiers will perhaps be shooting with something of a shock that one upon thirty or forty men next week, learns that there are people who have he virtually leaves his superior no been in such detention since 1897, and choice. There are no tested channels even since 1891. There is surely some of information by which his advice can distinction between an arbitrary act be checked. There is no external au- of administrative authority, applied to thority to whom to appeal. The act- meet a sudden emergency, and a proing adminstrator, nominally servant, is longed exile, always without trial, in reality the master of the situation which does not cease when the danger Let those blame Mr. Morley who feel is past. Mr. Morley will do a service certain that in his position they would to the progress of liberal ideas in Inhave taken upon themselves the respon- dian administration if he should find sibility of resisting the advice of the himself able to restrict the power of Administrator of the Punjab, backed administrative exile to the period of by the authority of the Governor-Gen-actual imminent danger. eral, while they looked forward to the It is not, however, by the sanction possibility of serious riots which would which he may give to such administrahave been attributed to their refusal to tive measures as these in moments of take the directions which their advisers emergency, that Mr. Morley's Indian had shown to be necessary.

administration will in the end be One thing, however, the Liberal judged. As an Indian administrator, Party can fairly ask of Mr. Morley in he will stand or fall by his success in this emergency. It is that he should dealing with the permanent grievances take the House of Commons wholly of the Indian people, and the standing into his confidence. If he is responsi- causes of their estrangement. These ble to India for its tranquility, he is are not to be removed by the deportaalso responsible to British Liberalism, tion of an agitator or the silencing of to give a full account of the reasons press and platform. The most presswhich have induced a grave infringe ing grievances of the people are, no ment of those elementary personal doubt, financial; and on this head it is rights which Liberals are peculiarly satisfactory to note that a further rebound to maintain. It is to be regretted duction of taxation is recorded in the that the thorough ventilation of the last Indian Budget, and this notwithsubject in the House of Commons has standing the loss of opium revenue been obstructed by one of those blockwhich has been already experienced, and which must be increased by the tives. To the shock of this reaction, just and courageous policy adopted by Sir Henry Cotton traces the present Mr. Morley in relation to the opium unrest. The course of Indian progress traffic. In his offer to the Chinese was rudely threatened under the old Government, Mr. Morley took a great administration, and here as elsewliere step towards removing a blot upon our a Liberal ruler has to deal with the Indian Empire; and it must not be for- situation created for him by his predegotten by his critics that that step, ab- cessors. solutely dictated as it was by require- But he can deal with it only on Lib. ments of international justice, only in- eral lines. Men who are, after all, vencreases his difficulties in dealing with tilating the grievances and the fears of Indian finance.

unrepresented millions cannot permaBut there is a deeper and more diffi- nently be met with police notices supcult question than that of taxation, pressing their meetings or closing their which Mr. Morley has to tackle. We newspaper offices. They can be inet are beyond doubt forcing an open door only, in the end, by imposing upon when we urge upon him the desirabil- them a share in the responsibility. By ity of devising means of modifying our what gradual steps to initiate them present autocratic rule, and making a into the work is one of the most diffibeginning in the work of associating cult problems ever set to a statesman; the Indian people themselves in the and we fully understand Mr. Morley task of government. The conception when he says that the present disturbof the Oriental as a passive being, who ances can only complicate the solution, has nothing to do with the laws except and postpone the day of reform. Yet, to obey them, or with the taxes ex. if Liberalism is not to admit its bankcept to pay them, that conception which ruptcy, reform must go forward; reunderlies the idealist's picture of pression may have its way for a week our Indian Government, is rapidly or a month, it may serve to allay a riot ceasing to be true. We ourselves have and avoid the effusion of blood; but educated the native of India in Euro- repression, as none know better than pean ideas. By our own doing, he Mr. Morley, is no cure for a social disknows that we are meting out to him ease. We would say rather that it is the justice which, for two centuries, the method by which political disorder we have repudiated on our own ac- propagates itself from one country to count. There is a ferment in Asia, the another, for every time that we deny European leaven has begun to work. justice to an Indian subject we weaken In India, men begin to ask about the the authority of justice among ourcost of this Government which we ex selves. We lower our authority as adtol; about the value to them of the vocates of freedom in the councils of army which we maintain and for which Europe, and as Liberals we impair the they have to pay. Just as the effects force of our pleas for freedom in our of education were beginning to be felt, own country. We wish liberty for Inand the new ideas were spreading, dia, not merely for the sake of India, there came the reactionary administra- but for the sake of England. For, say tion of Lord ('urzon, the lectures of the what we may of the innate difference Viceroy on the mendacity of his sub- between European and Oriental, no jects, and the partition of Bengal, man can deny a right in one continent. which was aimed directly at the grow without marring the eloquence whereing power of the more educated na with he pleads for it in another.

The Nation.


An amusing discussion has been go- and in that moderate degree of poverty ing on in the Westminster Gazette about which imposes simplicity and pre"Life on £85 per Annum." Can a sin- cludes anxiety they are always most gle woman, brought up in the culti- at their ease. Those, however, whom vated class, live a civilized and happy nature designed to be rich, whom fate life on less than two pounds a week? placed among the well-to-do, and sheer The actual question affects a small necessity alone forces to study how number of persons, but it suggests some best to be poor are not as these. They larger issues. It is wretched to be do not follow an inclination; they acreally poor, if by poverty we mean complish a task. Some power of selfwant. But quite apart from all ques- suppression is necessary to them, and tions of hardship, of hunger, or cold, some power to suppress others is at or constant fear of destitution, it is not least convenient. pleasant to be much poorer than our As we look around us among our acneighbors. Yet there are those who quaintance we shall all admit that we support this comparative evil with posi- know a good many people who have tive grace, even though they have a been very much embittered by comparfamily dependent upon them. Theyative poverty, while many others on the have acquired the art of being poor, same income are very happy. It is imand it is an acquirement which pre possible not sometimes to feel that the supposes many qualities and much troubles of the first are, at least, in a study.

measure of their own making. It is Of course there are a few people be- not true that they made at the very longing to the cultivated classes who outset an initial mistake. They delike being poor. Art has nothing to cided to look upon themselves as poor do with the matter. They are, so to rich-people instead of taking an enspeak, poor by nature. They would tirely opposite point of view and connot stretch out their hands to get a for- sidering themselves rich poor-people. tune. They do not care for the good They drew a false line between luxury things which money brings. They feel and necessity, and consequently they more free without them. They are have no luxuries at all. They forget bothered by possessions, fettered by that the only really rich man is the luxury. Conventional well-to-do ex- man who has something to spare, and istence seems to them as a sort of cage the only really poor man is the one out of which one can only get through who has nothing over. It is almost the mediation of dependents. They impossible but that a poor man who give orders with a secret effort, and re- regulates his standard of life by that ceive deference with a secret shame of his richer neighbors should feel some The network of laws which support a envy. It is very hard to see some one graded society, and the outlines of else doing so easily and so well that which, blurred by English common which we with so much struggle are sense, seldom obtrude themselves upon doing so badly. Consequently one the notice of the ordinary Englishman, great source of pleasure is shut to disfigure for them the landscape of life. these poor rich-people-i.e., pleasure in They long to get out of sight of them, other people's pleasure. The light, delicious atmosphere of success which seek diligently for the kernel of happithey might breathe among their friends ness within the husk of pleasure, and, is tainted for them by jealousy, and as a rule, they find the kernel is the the perpetual sense of an unfair handi- cheaper part. After all, how many of cap. The man, on the other hand, the delights which money alone used whom we may call the rich poor-man to buy can now be had for next to can stay with his most opulent friend nothing. Books are within the reach of and be perfectly happy. He lives at all. Such libraries as millionaires home as he lives abroad-after different could not buy offer the treasures of fashions-at his ease. No doubt it their knowledge for nothing. Of course takes some courage to disregard the one does not need to be learned in conventional ways of life and deter- order to make the best of being poor, mine to be unlike one's neighbors. It but hardly any one is happy nowadays means the greatest of all the evidences without books. Those who regard of self-control, the power to break with reading merely as a pastime need never habit. It means the rarest of all social be in want of the newest novel. The qualities, social independence. It finest treasures of art are open to the means, to be quite candid, the power sight of all. Any one who desires can to exact, on other scores than money, hear music; any one can see plays. As that regard and politeness which, cloak to the pleasures of social intercourse, the fact as we will, money brings me they reduce themselves, when our earli. chanically under our present social sys- est youth is over, to the pleasures of tem. Certain advantages of birth and conversation, and to get all the pleasupbringing are no doubt in these par- ure out of talk tha 'n be got is certiculars substitutes for money, and tainly a great part of the art of being those who have them smile at the hesi. poor, and it is the easiest part to cultation of less fortunate people who fear tivate. The soul of all outdoor sports to give up these intangible concomitants is to be found in the love of Nature and of a particular way of living. We are the love of exercise, and both these deall apt to smile at discomforts which lights are within the grasp of comparacan by no possibility be ours, and to tively poor people. It is one of the see them, especially when they are con- strangest things in life how few peonected with grade or cast, through a ple have settled in their own minds "satiric medium,” whereby sympathy what it is they really want, or who is effectually sterilized.

will take the trouble to be happy. "I But though men and women who find have often thought how much I should themselves suddenly poor, or who like to do so-and-so," we hear people awake in middle life to the fact that an say, and nine times out of ten it is income which used to increase year by something they could very easily bave year has reached its highest point and done, only they always put it off. is beginning to go down, have many Where the cultivated poor feel the hard lessons to learn, they try, if they pinch of poverty, and where no art are destined to become proficient, not avails them anything, is in the matter to take the situation too seriously. It of health. The really poor man can is not by determined renunciation, but have the most complicated, dangerous, by determined enjoyment, that the art and longest of operations performed at of being poor is brought to perfection. a hospital as well as it could be perThey consider how best to dispose their formed upon Royalty in a palace. The energy for enjoyment so as to bring an poor gentleman is in a very different outlet for it within their means. They position. "But doctors are so kind," we hear some one say. So doubt that is hardest of all, he must be content to true; but to accept kindness is not al- let his children have only the essenways easy, and to ask it is seldom pos- tials of a good education, without the sible. Paying wards and systems of conventional stamp. Nothing is so insurance will mitigate the evil in the dear as conventionalism. Learning is end, but at present it is a crying one. cheap and play is not expensive, but

Given health, almost all the sources public schools are prohibitive for a poor of happiness enjoyed by the wealthy man with several sons. All departures man are now within the grasp of his from the usual are attended with incousin on a small professional income, creased consciousness of risk; but only the poor man must make rather luckily these departures, when prompted more effort to lay hold on them. If by necessity, appear to be more often he wants to be socially popular, he attended by good results than those must allow himself fewer lapses into undertaken for the sake of experiment. grumpiness, and must make a greater The comparatively poor man will never effort not to be bored or opinionated. be able to forget that nothing is to be He must expect to be judged on his bad for nothing; but as we watch the merits alone, and sought for nothing careers of those who have succeeded in but his company. He must brace him- the art we have been considering, we self to go in search of those opportuni- shall perforce admit that out of their ties of enjoyment which the rich man extra trouble springs an extra vitalizafinds at his hand. What is perhaps tion, an extra capacity for happiness. The Spectator.


Some years ago when the bracken As spring advances into early sumferns were, just as they are now, un- mer there is enacted every year folding their crozier-like stems towards throughout the land the drama of the summer maturity, the writer was pass- cuckoo. There is not one of the habits ing late in the evening along the more of this strange bird which has not been secluded parts of a Surrey common. so much a matter of doubt as to beAdvancing suddenly through some come the subject of the warmest conthick cover on to a narrow island of troversy. But its life history has now short turf, he disturbed two brown been well worked out, and many obbirds, just smaller than pigeons, which servers have, like the writer, followed were instantly recognized. They flew the creature through all the stages or uneasily away. On the turf where one its habits from the egg onwards. The of the birds had been seated lay an egg cry of the cuckoo as it is heard in the rather under the size of a blackbird's land at this season is undoubtedly a and mottled somewhat after the saine mating call. Each of the instincts of fashion. It was quite warm and had the cuckoo forms but part of a single certainly just been laid. It was a study, and the first noteworthy pecuckoo's egg, and the mother had evi- culiarity of the bird when it visits us dently intended to dispose of it in in the mating season is that the males the remarkable fashion which is now greatly outnumber the females. While known to be the habit of the bird. it has been known from time imme

« PreviousContinue »