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· When the Suowdrop goes to Town

In her little grandmotherly bonnet, Over the downs in sunlight clear

How many delight in the grace Forth we went in the spring of the

Of the exquisite trimming upon it! year:

They look her deep in the eyes, Plunder of April's gold we sought,

And the bird of their memory, trilLittle of April's anger thought.

ling Caught in a copse without defence Simplicity's far-away skies, Low we crouched to the rain-squall Takes the heart with unbearable dense:

thrilling. Sure, if misery man can vex, There it beat on our bended necks.

When the Snowdrop goes to Town

In her little grandmotherly bonnet, Yet when again we wander on

With only a glamor of earth Suddenly all that gloom is gone:

And a magic of heaven upon it, Under and over, through the wood, Look at the rainbow of Spring Life is astir, and life is good.

In the eyes of the happy beholders!

Cares in a covey take wing, Violets purple, violets white,

And weariness falls from the shoulDelicate windflowers dancing light,

ders. Primrose, mercury, muscatel,

Norman Gale. Shimmer in diamonds round the dell.

The Pall Mall Magazine.

Squirrel is climbing swift and lithe,
Chiff-chatr whetting his airy scythe,
Woodpecker whirrs his rattling rap,

Ringdove flies with a sudden clap.

"We children every morn would wait Rook is summoning rook to build, For Catharine, at the garden gate; Dunnock his beak with moss has Behind school-time, her sunny hair filled,

Melted the master's frown of care, Robin is bowing in coat-tails brown, What time his hand but threatened Tomtit chattering upside down.


Shaking aloft his awful cane. Well it is seen that every one

So here one morn we two did wait Laughs at the rain and loves the sun; For Catharine at the garden gate. We too laughed with the wildwood

To Dave I say, "There's sure to be crew,

Some coral isle unknown at sea, Laughed till the sky once more was And-if I see it first-'tis mine! blue.

But I'll give it to Catharine.'

'When she grows up,' says Dave to me, Homeward over the downs we went "Some ruler in a far countree, Soaked to the heart with sweet con- Where every voice but his is dumb, tent;

Owner of pearls and gold and gum, April's anger is swift to fall,

Will build for her a shining throne, April's wonder is worth it all.

Higher than his, beside his own; Henry Newbolt. And he who would not list before, The Spectator.

Will listen to Catharine, adore
Her face and form; and,' Dave went


When came a man there pale and wan, When the Snowdrop goes to Town Whose face was dark and wet, though

In her little grandmotherly bonnet, kind; With only a ribbon of light

He, coming there, seemed like a wind By a miracle fastened upon it,

Whose breath is rain, yet will not stop She takes for the world to wear To give the parched flowers a drop: Such a charm in the lappel of duty

'Go, children, to your school,' he said; As gives of the earth and the air,

'Alone, for Catharine is dead.'” And consoles by its Puritan beauty.

William H. Davies.


In a few days the second Hague Con- is known to have ratified in extremis, ference will open its proceedings. but whether she has done so for all the Eight years will then have elapsed Conventions and Declarations has not from the date of the signature of the yet been made public; otherwise, she Plenipotentiaries of the Convention and would not, it has been stated in the Declarations which resulted from the newspapers, have been qualified to reproceedings of the first Hague Confer- ceive an invitation to the second Conence, viz.;-.

ference. Why is not apparent.

Besides these Conventions and Decla. I. A Convention for the pacific settle. ment of international disputes.

rations the first Conference left the folII. A Convention relating to the laws lowing legacies to a second Conference, and customs of war by land.

in the form of Resolutions and Væus. III. A Convention for the adaptation on the subject of military burdens to maritime warfare of the principles of and limitation of armaments both a the Geneva Convention of the 22nd Au

resolution and a ræu were adopted. gust, 1864.

The resolution, which was carried IV. And three declarations on the following matters:

unanimously, was as follows: (a) Prohibition of the launching of

The Conference is of opinion that the projectiles and explosives from

restriction of military budgets, which balloons or by other similar new

are at present a heavy burden on the methods.

world, is extremely desirable for the in(6) Prohibition of the use of pro

crease of the material and moral wel. jectiles the only object of which is

fare of mankind.
the diffusion of asphyxiating or
deleterious gases.

The vou does not seem to have been (c) Prohibition of the use of bul

adopted unanimously, but whether it lets which expand or flatten easily in the human body, such as bullets

was or not is immaterial, as the princiwith a hard envelope, of which ple of it is covered by the resolution. the envelope does not entirely It reads: cover the core, or is pierced with

The Conference expresses the wish incisions.

that the Governments, taking into conThese Conventions and Declarations sideration the proposals made at the formed separate documents, which the

Conference, may examine the possibil

ity of an agreement as to the limitation States represented agreed to sign sep

of armed forces by land and sea, and arately. Great Britain became a party

of war budgets. to the three Conventions but not to the Declarations. Of other Powers, the Another rou related to the immunity United States Government, besides ac- of private property at sea in war, a ceeding to the Conventions, has adopted subject which the United States Gor. the first of the Declarations, but not ernment had brought up outside the the second and third. All the other programme of deliberations. The ConPowers have adhered to both the Con- ference taking a respectful interest in ventions and the Declarations, except the question, but considering it beyond Portugal, who has abstained from the the scope of its pending work, "exthird Declaration, and Sweden and Nor- pressed the wish that the proposals way and Switzerland, who have not yet which contemplate the declaration of ratified the second Convention. Turkey the inviolability of private property in

naval warfare may be referred to al two wars—in our own in South Africa, subsequent Conference for considera and in that in the Far East. In the tion."

latter the provisions of the three DeclaOn the much larger question of neu rations also were observed, both Russia tral rights and duties which are so all- and Japan having ratified them long encompassing that they might form a before the outbreak of the war. programme for a Conference to the ex- All the three Conventions, it is underclusion of all other matter, the Confer- stood, have given occasion to suggesence also adopted a cau, viz.:

tions of improvement, and the Confer

ence will probably consider as its first That the question of the rights and

duty the discussion of any proposals duties of neutrals be inserted in the

for their amendment. In particular programme of a conference in the near

the procedure of The Hague Court will future.

have to be carefully considered in conThe Conference also adopted caur nection with a number of modifications that:

proposed by the judges who have sat

in the different trials which have taken the proposal to settle the question of

place before it. A point which may the bombardment of ports, towns, and villages by naval forces be referred to a

possibly also be brought forward is the subsequent Conference for considera- cheapening of the procedure in cases tion.

of minor importance. In the Pious

Fund case the five judges received each That:

£1,000, to which must be added the fees the questions with regard to rities and expenses of counsel, of staff, printand naval guns, as considered by it, be ing, &c. Compared with the small studied by the Governments with the sums which were paid to Baron Lamobject of coming to an agreement re- bermont as arbitrator in many cases of specting the employment of new types

the same order, such costly procedure and calibres.

seems somewhat luxurious, And, lastly, that:

There is also the language question.

Article 38 of the Arbitration Conventaking into consideration the prelimi

tion provides thatnary steps taqen by the Swiss Federal Government for the revision of the Ge the Tribunal decides on the choice of neva Convention, steps be shortly taken languages to be used by itself, and to for the assembling of a special Confer- be authorized for use before it. ence having for its object the revision of that Convention.

The Arbitrators in the Pious Fund

case, while acknowledging the wisdom The last of these vaur has been acted

of this Article, called attention to the upon, a Conference having been held at necessity of arriving at an agreement Geneva in June-July, 1906, and a re

beforehand with regard to the language vised Convention, composed of thirty

to be used before the tribunal. It was three articles, adopted on July 6th, 1906.

absolutely necessary that the point be Since 1899 practical effect has been

determined prior to the commencement given to all the three Conventions.

of the labors of the tribunal, in order

that the selection of the agent and Four cases have been heard before the

counsel might be made with a view to Permanent Court of Arbitration, pro

their knowledge of the language in vided for in the first of the three. The which the arguments before the Arbiother two have received application in trators were to be carried on. The ne

cessity of translating for the use of counsel the speeches made before the tribunal inevitably caused great loss of time.

They therefore suggested that future protocols of submission should state the decision of the contracting parties on this subject.

In the Venezuela Indemnities case the language question gave rise to considerable trouble and even some wrangling. the original protocol of submission having provided that the proceedings should be carried on in the English language, while in its protocol of adhesion the French Government stipulated that this should not abridge the powers given to the court by the above Art. 38.

The North Sea Incident Commission of Inquiry also raised a good many points of procedure, and the regulations drawn up by the Commissioners may possibly be made the basis of a general code of procedure for use in the future in such Commissions.

Apart from these matters arising out of the first Conference and out of the experience and application of its work, several questions have become important which were not touched upon in 1899.

The Russian invitation to the Powers to reassemble summed all the question up as follows:

2. Additions to be made in the regulations of the Convention of 1899 touching the Laws and Practices of Land Warfare, among others the opening of hostilities, the rights of neutrals on land, &c. Declarations of 1899, one among them being renewable—the question of its renewal.

3. Elaboration of a Convention touching the Laws and Practices of Naval Warfare concerning

The special operations of naval warfare, such as the bombardment of ports, touens, and villages by a naval force, the laying of mines, &c.

The transformation of commercial vessels into warships.

The private property of belligerents at sea.

The delay to be accorded to commercial vessels in leaving neutral ports or those of the enemy after the outbreak of hostilities.

The rights and duties of neutrals at sea, among other questions that of contraband, the treatment to which the ships of belligerents should be subjected in neutral ports, destruction owing to vis major of neutral ships of commerce as prizes.

In the said Convention should be introduced arrangements relative to land warfare, which should be equally applicable to naval warfare.

Additions to be made in the Convention of 1899 for the adaptation to naval warfare of the principles of the Geneva Convention.

It is seen that the limitation of armaments, which was the chief point in the Russian programme for the Conference of 1899, is not included though mentioned. Nor does the new programme suggest that any questions may be added to the above. All it states as regards freedom of action is that the Imperial Government desires "to emphasize that the issue of this programme, and its eventual acceptance by the various States, must not be held to prejudice any opinion which may be formulated at the Conference regarding the solutions to be given to the questions submitted for discussion."

The Imperial Government, believing that it is necessary only to examine questions which press with particular urgency inasmuch as they arise from the experience of recent years, and without touching on those which belong to the limitation of Military and Naval Forces, proposes therefore as programme for the Conference the following principal points:

1. Improvements to be made in the regulations of the Convention touching the pacific settlement of international disputes regarding both the Court of Arbitration and International Commissions of Inquiry.

Since the programme was submitted bear from committing any act which different ministerial statements in may be of assistance to either bellige this country and in Italy have reserved rent, this duty cannot in reason be abthe right to introduce matter not in solute as regards private persons cluded in the Russian programme, and merely within its territorial jurisdica statement attributed by Reuter's tion. In recent times, with the developAgency to Prof. F. de Martens, when ment of means of communication, it he visited London and other capitals has, however, become possible for to fortify his Sovereign with the views States to exercise a more effective conof different Governments, assured the trol over the acts of their subjects and public that the limitation of armaments citizens than in the past, and the, so would be “the pièce de résistance of the to speak, moral responsibility of neuprogramme,” if either the British or the tral States has correspondingly inUnited States Government decided to creased. Down to the present day, place this question on the agenda. though the practice is not uniform, no Personally he did not think the subject change of principle has resulted from ripe for discussion, and he was con- the altered circumstances, and a much vinced it would be "quite impossible to greater latitude is left to neutral subattain any practical result from the jects and citizens than is consistent discussion." This, he stated, had been with the idea of strict neutrality. A the result of his visits to Berlin and great exception was consented to, as Paris, and was the opinion of his own between Great Britain and the United Government. M. de Martens did not ex. States, in 1871, in the treaty of subplain how he thought the subject might mission of the Alabama case to arbibe made to ripen. Whether an open tration. Great Britain did not, it is and vague discussion is the best way true, assent to the rules laid down in to ripen it may indeed be doubted. the treaty as a statement of InternaSuch vague discussions are liable to tional Law; and though both she and result in an adverse decision as the the United States have Foreign Enlistsafest way of escaping from immature ment Acts, they are merely municipal proposals. To ensure the thorough sift laws, and lie quite outside the scope of ing of a subject, which many, in every International Law as it stands at prescountry of Europe, think might be sat- ent. Even direct sales to belligerents isfactorily handled, the appointment of of arms and munitions of war are still an International Commission com- purely mercantile acts, and no purely mends itself—a Commission which, if I mercantile acts have down to the presmay venture on a suggestion, should ent been regarded as a violation of not be obliged to report its proceedings neutrality. Yet it is quite conceivable and not be exposed to the attacks of that the sales might take such propordissentient patriots or disappointed vis- tions as to involve national responsi. ionaries.

bility. Of other questions submitted in the The same remarks apply to loans of Russian programme a few points in the money raised within the jurisdiction of practice of neutrality may be dealt a neutral State. It is certain that the with. At present States enforce greater credit of one of the belligerent against their subjects and citizens States gives it an advantage over the some neutral duties, but they leave the other in procuring money for the purbulk of them to be enforced by the bel- poses of war. The general practice of ligerents. And, in fact, though it is States, however, has as yet shown itself clearly the duty of a State itself to for- unfavorable to imposing restrictions.

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