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librettist, Baron Victor Hugo; the obliging &ounet, the Côtois of Paris, Rocher and the rest; the author of ‘Volupté,’ Sainte-Beuve, hairless, with a belly at thirty years, with the air of a sacristan, out of his element but crafty; Lamennais with his yellow face and the profile of a marten; journalists and chroniclers, a noisy crowd, colleagues of Berlioz on the Rénovateur, Europe littéraire, the Gazette Musicale, Figaro, Protée, or La Romance; Bohain; then the son of Fétis; Castil-Blaze, disarranger of masterpieces, followed by his son, a pal of his; the venerable chevalier Lesueur, preceded by his daughters, has his wife on his arm; the publishers Schlesinger and Renduel; Henri Heine with the face of a sick headache; Liszt the fascinator and the frail “Chopinetto’; ‘that big rascal of a Hiller”; perhaps the solitary Vigny, also Gerard de Nerval, the mysterious one; and also, thundering and punning under his negro's head of hair, Alexandre Dumas, always devoted to Berlioz. In the group of musicians does any one speak of recent deaths, of Boieldieu, Choron? After a few weeks they were no doubt forgotten. The talk was rather about the lion of romantic music. A reporter on the staff of Chérubin recites his review already written: ‘The composer adds a jewel to his crown. One cannot conceive why such a vigorous talent finds no place on one of our grand opera stages.' As for Cherubini, director of the Conservatory, he was evidently not there; he felt no need of hearing this music as it should not be written. ‘The illustrious old man,’ protested by his absence against the loan of the august hall to this young man, too disturbing, too much in a hurry. In “Harold,’ the part of solo viola was extremely well played by the mystical Urhan. He devoted himself to it nobly, and authoritatively ennobled this thankless part: Surely Paganini, the infernal virtuoso would have incarnated with more Byronic fancy the ‘personage' of

Ferdinand Hiller who was the rival of Berlioz in courting Marie Moke, afterwards Mme. Camille Pleyel. See Berlioz's romance, “Euphonia, ou la ville musicale” (“Les Soirées de l’Orchestre”).-P. H.

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the unfortunate Harold. The ‘March of Pilgrims' was redemanded. The second time Girard threw his orchestra into confusion, and cried: “Last chord!' But already with the fanaticized audience the success.

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Berlioz wrote to Liszt in July, 1852, apropos of the latter's transcription of “Harold in Italy” for the pianoforte: “You will have to make many changes in your manuscript on account of the changes which I made in the score after your work had been completed. The third movement especially contains a mass of modifications, which I fear cannot be translated into pianoforte language; it will be necessary to sacrifice much. I beg of you not to preserve the form of the tremolo apégé which you employ in the introduction, left hand; that produces. on the pianoforte an effect contrary to that of the orchestra, and prevents the heavy but calm figure of the basses from being distinctly heard. . . . Do you not think that the part you give to the viola, a more important part than that in the score, changes the physiognomy of the work? The viola ought not to appear in the pianoforte arrangement otherwise than it does in the score. The pianoforte here represents the orchestra; the viola should remain apart and be confined to its sentimental ravings; everything else is foreign to it; it is pres

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The symphony is dedicated to Humbert Ferrand, the faithful friend of Berlioz from the youth to the death of the latter. The autograph score with Berlioz's changes was given by Berlioz to Auguste Morel, director of the Marseilles Conservatory. Léon Morel, the nephew and universal legatee of Auguste, gave the score to Alexis Rostand, “in memory of the profound affection which united the master and the pupil,” for Rostand was the pupil of Auguste Morel. The symphony is scored for two flutes (the first interchangeable with piccolo), two oboes (the first interchangeable with English horn), two clarinets, four bassoons, four horns, two trumpets, two cornets-à-pistons, one ophicleide, cymbals, two tambourines, kettledrums, harp, solo viola, and strings.

The first movement is entitled “Harold in the Mountains: scenes of melancholy, of happiness and joy.” It begins with a long introduction, Adagio, in G minor and G major, 3-4, which opens with a ugato on a lamenting and chromatic subject in sixteenth notes, first given out pianissimo by the basses, then taken up in turn by first violins, violas, second violins, while a chromatic counter-subject is played against it by wood-wind instruments. There is development until the full orchestra strikes fortissimo the full chord of G minor. The harp plays arpeggios, and the modality is changed to G major. The solo viola, Harold, sings the song that typifies the melancholy hero. This melody is developed and afterwards repeated in canon. The Allegro, in G major, 6-8, begins with free preluding, after which the solo viola announces the first theme, a restless melody, which is developed by viola and by orchestra. An abrupt change leads to a hint at the second theme in violas, 'cellos, and bassoons, but this theme enters in D major, and is announced by the solo viola. It is developed for a short time, and the first part of the movement is repeated. The

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free fantasia merges into the coda, which is quickened in pace until the tempo becomes twice as fast as the beginning of the allegro. Second movement, “March of Pilgrims, singing their Evening Hymn": Allegretto, in E major, 2-4. The chief motive is a simple march theme played by strings. The melody is now in the violins, now in the violas, and now in the basses. The development is constantly interrupted by a passage in repeated notes for wood-wind and second violins,—“the pilgrims muttering their evening prayer.” The development is also represented by two bells, one in high B (flute, oboe, and harp), one in medium C (horns and harp). Some have found that the “prayer passage” is intended to represent the resonance of the C bell, but Berlioz was too shrewd an artist to give any panoramic explanation. This bell in C comes in on the last note of every phrase of the march melody, no matter what the final chord of the phrase may be; and, however a phrase may end, the next phrase almost always begins in E major. The Harold theme is introduced by the solo viola. There is a relieving episode in C major, the pilgrims' chant “Canto religioso,” a sort of a choral sung by wood-wind and muted strings against a contrapuntal march-bass, pizz. Harold's viola furnishes an arpeggio accompaniment. The march is resumed and dies away. Third movement, “Serenade of a Mountaineer in the Abruzzi to his Mistress”:* Allegro assai, C major, 6-8. This is a substitute for the traditional scherzo. It opens with a lively theme in dotted triplet rhythm for piccolo and oboe to an accompaniment in divided violas and long sustained notes in second oboe, clarinets, bassoons,—a reminder of the Italian Pifferari. The trio is based on a cantilena in C major for English horn and other wind instruments against an accompaniment of strings and harp. The solo viola (Harold) returns with the adagio theme, but the melody of the serenade is not interrupted. Harold's theme is re-enforced by violins and violas. There is a return of the short scherzo, which is followed by the reappearance of the serenade melody, now sung by solo viola, while the flute has

the original viola melody.

*See chapter xxxviii. of Berlioz's Memoirs for a description of Berlioz directing in the Abruzzi the seremade given by Crispino, who “pretended to be a brigand,” to his mistress,

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