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Fourth movement, “Orgy of Brigands, recollections of the preceding scenes.”* It begins with an Allegro frenetico in G minor, 2-2, which is soon interrupted by excerpts from the preceding movements played by the solo viola. There are reminiscences of the introduction, of the pilgrims' march, of the serenade, of the theme of the first movement, and then again of the introduction., Harold is at last silent, and the brigands have their boisterous say. The brilliant first theme is followed by a theme of lamentation in the violins. It is probable that{when Berlioz referred to “brazen throats belching forth blasphemies,” in his account of a performance led by him at Brunswick,f he referred to the thunderous conclusion theme. In the coda two solo violins and a solo 'cello “behind the stage” remind one for a moment of the pilgrims' march. Harold groans and sobs, and the

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From the description given by Berlioz of the performance at Brunswick, which has just been quoted in a foot-note, it will be seen that the commentators who find Harold in this finale “proceeding to his ruin,” “a lost soul, as is shown by the distortion of his theme, and the punctuation of the frenzied scene by passages suggesting remorse and doom,” are more imaginative than Berlioz, who dismisses his dreamy hero in terror from the orgy.

“Childe Harold” was begun by Byron in 1809. Cantos I. and II. were published in 1812. He wrote the third canto in 1816 and the fourth in 1817, and the publication was in 1818. There were translations of Byron's poems into French from 1819 to 1830, and the remarkable preface by Charles Nodier was written for an edition of 1822–25.

* Berlioz composed in 1830 a “Chanson de Brigands” to the text of Ferrand. This found its place in ‘Lélio,” a lyric monodrama §: orchestra, chorus, and unseen soloists, composed 1831–32, united with the “Symphonie Fantastique” to form “L’Épisode de la Vie d'un Artiste,” and performed at Paris, December 9, 1832. This “Chanson de Brigands” was published, about 1835, under the title Scène de Brigands,” arranged for the pianoforte by Ferdinand Hiller and dedicated to Mlle. Henriette Smithson.

t In the letter addressed to Heine which forms a chapter of Berlioz's Memoirs... This was in 1843. The

statement published lately that Joachim in 1853 was the first in Germany to play the solo viola in the symphony is incorrect. The viola player at Brunswick in 1843 (March 9) was Karl Friedrich Müller (1797-1873) one of the four sons of Ægidius Čhristoph Müller and the first violin of the elder Müller Quartet. Berlioz thus described the performance: “In the finale of ‘Harold,” in this furious orgy in which the drunkenness, of wine, blood, joy and rage all shout together, where the rhythm now seems to stumble, and now to run madly, where the mouths of brass seem to yomit forth curses of reply with blasphemies to entreating voices, where they laugh, drink, strike, bruise, kill, and ravish, where in a word they amuse themselves; in this scene of brigands the orchestra became a veritable pandemonium; there was something supernatural and frightful in the frenzy of its dash; everything sang, leaped, roared with diabolical order and unanimity, violins, basses, trombones, drums, and cymbals; while the solo alto, Harold, the dreamer, fleeing in fright, still sounded from afar some trembling notes of his evening hymn. , Ah! what a feeling at the heart! What savage tremors in conducting this astonishing orchestra, where I thought I found my young lions of Paris more ardent than eyer, l l You know nothing like it, the rest of you, poets; you have never been swept away by such hurricanes of life: I could have embraced the whole orchestra, but I could only cry out, in French it is true, but my accents surely made me understood; “Sublime! I thank you, gentlemen, and I wonder at you: you are perfect brigands!”. The “March of Pilgrims” had been played earlier in the trip, at Stuttgart and Hechingen; and the symphony without the finale was played at Mannheim, with the violin solo by one of the violas of the orchestra. The symphony was also played previously at Dresden with Karl Joseph Lipinsky (1790-1861) as solo viola. Joachim did play at Brunswick in a concert given by Berlioz, October 25, 1853; but he played solos. See Berlioz's letter to Liszt, of October 26, 1853: “The excellent Joachim came to play two pieces at the concert yesterday, and was most successful... I applaud, myself for having furnished, the music lovers of Brunswick this good fortune, for they did not know him.” . Adolphe Jullien says Joachim was the solo viola in “Harold” at a performance led by Berlioz at Bremen, but he gives no authority for the statement: For an account of the concert in Brunswick in 1843 see W. R. Griepenkerl’s “Ritter Berlioz in Braunschweig" (Brunswick, 1843).

When did Berlioz first read Byron's poems? His overture to “Le Corsaire” was composed in Italy in 1831, but his allusions to Byron in his memoirs and letters are few. The two authors over whose works he pored were Virgil and Shakespeare.* We know that he was fond of Thomas Moore, and set music to some of his poems: his “Neuf Mélodies irlandaises” (composed in 1829 and published in 1830) were dedicated to Moore. The text of his “La dernière nuit de Sardanapale,” with which he took the prix de Rome (1830), was by Gail. It described the last night of the voluptuous monarch, and closed at the moment when he called his most beautiful slaves and mounted with them the pyre. Was this poem based on Byron's tragedy?f Apparently not. When Berlioz wandered in the Abruzzi, his thoughts were of Virgil's men and women or he murmured lines of Shakespeare and Dante. In a letter to Mme. Horace Vernet (1832) Berlioz speaks of his dreary life at Côte-Saint-André, and he contrasts the men and women he knew at Rome with those of his birthplace: “In spite of all my attempts to turn the conversation, they persist in talking to me about art, music, imaginative poetry, and God knows how they talk about them in the country! ideas so strange, judgments made to disconcert an artist and to freeze the blood in his veins, and worst of all with the most horrible coolness. You would say to hear them talk of Byron, Goethe, and Beethoven, that it was all about some tailor or cordwainer, whose talent rose a little above the ordinary level.” And in a letter to Schumann (1837) Berlioz writes: “Dramatic poets are exposed in publishing their pieces to see them, in spite of themselves, performed more or less badly, before a public more or less incapable of understanding

*For an interesting study of Berlioz's literary tastes see “Berlioz Écrivain,” by Professor Paul Morillot (Grenoble, 1903).

f Byron's “Sardanapalus” was published in 1821." For a full description of Berlioz's remarkable cantata see Mr. Tiersot's articles, “Berlioziana,” in Le Ménestrel of September 16, 23, 30, 1906

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them, cut, clipped, and hissed. Byron thus had a sad experience with his ‘Marino Faliero.’”* But allusions to Byron are rare in the writings of Berlioz, while allusions to Virgil and Shakespeare are frequent and enthusiastic. ***

Berlioz wrote Ferrand (May 15 or 16, 1834): “I have finished the first three movements of my new symphony with solo viola; I am about to finish the finale. I think it will be a good work, and above all it will be curiously picturesque. I intend to dedicate it to one of my friends, you know him, M. Humbert Ferrand, if he will permit it. There is a ‘March of Pilgrims chanting the evening prayer,' which I hope will be famous in December. I do not know when this enormous work will be engraved; in any case, see to it that you obtain the permission of M. Ferrand. When my first opera will be performed, all this will engrave itself.” He wrote to Ferrand, August 31, 1834: “My symphony is completed. I think Paganini will find that the viola is not treated enough after the manner of a concerto; the work is a symphony on a new plan, not a piece written with the purpose of displaying brilliantly an individual talent, such as he has. I owe to him my undertaking the work.” Again, November 30 of the same year: “My second concert has taken place, and your ‘Harold’ has been received as I hoped, in spite of a shaky performance. The ‘March’ was encored; and to-day it pretends to be the counterpart (religious and mild) of the ‘March to the Scaffold.' Next Sunday at my third concert “Harold’ will reappear in all its force, I hope, and with the adornment of

* “Marino Faliero” was published by Murray on April 21, 1821. R. W. Elliston, manager of Drury Lane, had procured surreptitiously the sheets, and he produced the play on April 25, 1821. It was received coldly, othere were seven performances, in all. For an account of the injunction brought by Murray, see George Raymond’s “Memoirs of Elliston.” “The Doge of Venice,” founded by William Bayle Bernard on Byron's *. was produced at Drury Lane on October 22 or November 2,-the reference books differ,

1867, with Samuel Phelps as the Doge. The production was a failure, and the loss was five thousand pounds or more.

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a perfect performance. The orgy of brigands which ends the symphony is something rather violent; what would I not give if you could hear it! There is much of your poetry in this thing; I am sure I owe you more than one idea.” He wrote January 10, 1835: “This symphony had a fresh growth of success at the third performance; I feel sure you would be mad over it. I shall retouch some slight details, and next year it will make, I hope, still more of a sensation.” The story of the first performance is told by Berlioz in his Memoirs: “The first movement was the only one that was little applauded, and this was the fault of Girard, the conductor, who could never put enough dash into the coda, where the pace ought gradually to quicken to double the speed. I suffered martyrdom in hearing it drag. The ‘March of Pilgrims' was encored. At the repetition and toward the middle of the second part of the piece, when after a short interruption the chiming of convent bells is again heard, represented by two notes of the harp, doubled by flutes, oboes, and horns, the harpist made a mistake in count and was lost. Girard then, instead of setting him straight, as it has happened to me a dozen times in like instance (threefourths of the players make the same mistake at this place), shouted to the orchestra, ‘The last chord!’ and they all took it, leaping over the preceding fifty-odd measures. There was wholesale butchery. Fortunately the March had been well played the first time, and the audience was not mistaken concerning the cause of the disaster in the second. Nevertheless, since my defeat at the Théâtre Italien + I mistrusted my skill as a conductor to such an extent that for a long time I let Girard conduct my concerts. But at the fourth performance of ‘Harold,' having seen him seriously deceived at the end of the

M *This was a concert given for the benefit of Miss Smithson, November 24, 1833. See chapter xlv. of the emoirs.




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