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same year. The first performance in Paris was at the Opéra-Comique, December 23, 1895, with Miss Delna, Miss Kerlord, Jérôme, Bouvet, Hermann-Devries, Dufour, and Belhomme as the chief singers. At Monte Carlo the chief singers were Mme. Deschamps-Jehin, Miss Loventz, Jérôme, Bouvet, Ughetto, Declauzens, and Lafon. The music of Lalo made little effect.
Disappointment followed Lalo to the end. He was not chosen a member of the Institute, for he would not pull wires for an election. He did not finish his last opera. His death during the commotion excited by dynamiters at Paris awakened little attention, and there were no funeral eulogies in the journals; but nearly all the French musicians of renown were present at his burial, and thus paid tribute to a composer of the highest character and talent. (See the biographical sketch of Lalo by Georges Servières in "La Musique Française Moderne,” Paris, 1897, and that by Hugues Imbert in “Nouveaux Profils de Musiciens,” Paris, 1892.)
The following compositions by Lalo have been performed in Boston at concerts of the Boston Symphony Orchestra :
Concerto for Violin, Op. 20, December 24, 1910 (Sylvain Noack, violinist).
Symphonie Espagnole, Op. 21: November 12, 1887 (Charles M. Loeffler); February 8, 1890 (Mr. Loeffier); March 13, 1897 (Timothée Adamowski); March 10, 1900 (Mr. Adamowski); March 12, 1904 (Mr. Adamowski); November 30, 1907 (Fritz Kreisler); January 7, 1911 (Mischa Elman-first, fourth, and fifth movements).
Fantaisie Norvégienne for violin and orchestra, December 20, 1884 (Charles M. Loeffler, violinist).
Concerto in D minor for violoncello and orchestra: October 21, 1899 (Elsa Ruegger); October 19, 1901 (Jean Gerardy); November 4, 1911 (Heinrich Warnke).
Rhapsody in A for orchestra: December 22, 1888; April 4, 1891. Suite, "Namouna," January 4, 1896.
Overture to “Le Roi d'Ys”: November 21, 1891; December 24, 1892; November 23, 1907; November 29, 1913.
Aubade from “Le Roi d'Ys,” December 22, 1904 (Charles Gilibert, baritone).
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The Symphonie Espagnole, Fantaisie Norvégienne, violoncello concerto, Rhapsody, suite from the music to “Namouna," and overture to “Le Roi d'Ys” were played at these concerts for the first time in Boston. It is my impression that the Concerto, Op. 20, was also played here at these concerts for the first time in Boston as a whole and with orchestral accompaniment. On October 21, 1899, Miss Ruegger played for the first time in the United States.
Lalo's chief compositions for violin and orchestra are as follows: Concerto for violin, Op. 20 (1874).
Symphonie Espagnole, Op. 21. First performed February 7, 1875. Sarasate, violinist.
Romance-Sérénade for violin and orchestra. First performed at a concert of the Société Nationale, May 7, 1878. Paul Viardot, violinist.
Fantaisie Norvégienne. First performed at Berlin, November 29, 1878. Sarasate, violinist. (Part of this fantasia was used in Lalo's Rapsodie Norvégienne for orchestra, first performed at a concert of the Société Nationale, Paris, April 20, 1879.)
Concerto Russe for violin and orchestra. First performed at a Pasdeloup Concert, Paris, January 30, 1881. M. Marsick, violinist.
Fantasie-Ballet (posthumous). Performed early in 1900 in Paris by Joseph Debroux, violinist, at his fifth concert with orchestra in the Salle Pleyel. This piece with pianoforte accompaniment was played for the first time in Boston by Miss Marie Nichols at her concert in Chickering Hall, March 15, 1904. She also then played Lalo's “Guitare,” Op. 28.
SYMPHONY IN G MINOR (K. 550).
WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART
(Born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.)
Mozart wrote his three greatest symphonies in 1788. The one in E-flat is dated June 26, the one in G minor July 25, the one in C major with the fugue-finale August 10.
His other works of that year are of little importance with the exception of a piano concerto in D major which he played at the coronation
festivities of Leopold II. at Frankfort in 1790. There are canons and piano pieces, there is the orchestration of Handel's “Acis and Galatea,” and there are six German dances and twelve minuets for orchestra. Nor are the works composed in 1789 of interest, with the exception of the clarinet quintet and a string quartet dedicated to the King of Prussia. Again we find dances for orchestra,—twelve minuets and twelve German dances.
Mozart in 1788 was unappreciated save by a few, among whom was Frederick William II., King of Prussia; he was wretchedly poor; he was snubbed by his own Emperor, whom he would not leave to go into foreign, honorable, lucrative service. This was the Mozart of 1788 and 1789.
We know little or nothing concerning the first years of the three symphonies. Gerber's "Lexicon der Tonkünstler" (1790) speaks appreciatively of him: the erroneous statement is made that the Emperor fixed his salary in 1788 at six thousand florins; the varied ariettas for piano are praised especially; but there is no mention whatever of any symphony.
The enlarged edition of Gerber's work (1813) contains an extended notice of Mozart's last years, and we find in the summing up of his career: “If one knew only one of his noble symphonies, as the overpoweringly great, fiery, perfect, pathetic, sublime symphony in C.” And this reference is undoubtedly to the "Jupiter."
Mozart gave a concert at Leipsic in May, 1789. The programme was made up wholly of pieces by him, and among them were two symphonies in manuscript. A story that has come down might easily lead us to believe that one of them was the one in G minor. At a rehearsal for this concert Mozart took the first allegro of a symphony at a very fast pace, so that the orchestra soon was unable to keep up with him. He stopped the players and began again at the same speed, and he stamped the time so furiously that his steel shoe buckle flew
into pieces. He laughed, and, as the players still dragged, he began the allegro a third time. The musicians, by this time exasperated, played to suit him. Mozart afterwards said to some who wondered at his conduct, because he had on other occasions protested against undue speed: “It was not caprice on my part. I saw that the majority of the players were well along in years. They would have dragged everything beyond endurance if I had not set fire to them and made them angry, so that out of sheer spite they did their best.” Later in the rehearsal he praised the orchestra, and said that it was unnecessary for it to rehearse the accompaniment to the pianoforte concerto: “The parts are correct, you play well, and so do I." This concert, by the way, was poorly attended, and half of those who were present had received free tickets from Mozart, who was generous in such matters.
He also gave a concert of his own works at Frankfort, October 14, 1790. Symphonies were played in Vienna in 1788, but they were by Haydn; and one by Mozart was played in 1791. In 1792 a symphony by Mozart was played at Hamburg.
The early programmes, even when they have been preserved, seldom determine the date of a first performance. It was the custom to print “Symphonie von Wranitzky," "Sinfonie von Mozart," "Sinfonia di Haydn.” Furthermore, it should be remembered that "Sinfonie" was then a term often applied to any work in three or more movements written for strings, or strings and wind instruments.
The two symphonies played at Leipsic were "unpublished.” The two symphonies that preceded the great three were composed in 1783 and 1786. The latter one, in D, was performed in Prague with extraordinary success. The publishers were not slow in publishing Mozart's compositions, if they were as niggardly as Joseph II. himself.
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The two symphonies played were probably of the three composed in 1788. Even this conclusion is a guess.
The Symphony in G minor was played in Boston on December 21, 1850, from a score presented by Mr. C. C. Perkins at a concert in Tremont Temple of the Boston Musical Fund Society, the "second Grand Concert for the Establishment of a Charitable Fund.” Mr. G. J. Webb conducted. The other pieces were "Grand Overture, Leonora,” by Beethoven; the overture to "Stradella," by Flotow; excerpts from Hummel's Septet, played by Messrs. H. Perabeau, C. Guenther, T. Ryan, H. Fries, E. Lehmann, W. Fries, and A. Stein. Mme. Minna Müller sang for the first time in Boston,-an aria from "Lucia," Schubert's “Wanderer," and a “German National Song.” Mr. J. E. Goodson,* "from London,” made his "fist [sic] appearance in America,” and played two organ fugues by J. S. Bache (sic), one in “F sharp mi” and one in E major ("Mozart's favorite").
The latest performance here at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra was on October 12, 1907.
The symphony was scored originally for one flute, two oboes, two bassoons, two horns, and strings. Mozart added later two clarinet parts. Köchel says that Mozart wrote a score for the oboes and clarinets on special pages, as the original parts for the oboes were necessarily changed by the addition of the clarinets. In connection with this a note by William F. Apthorp is of interest: "The first score has generally been used for performances of the symphony all over the world. The second, or Nachschrift, was for years in the posses
* Mr. Goodson was appointed conductor of the Handel and Haydn Society on August 15, 1851. Mr. John S. Dwight described him in his History of the Handel and Haydn Society as an accomplished musician and organist, "a thinking man, too, with mind much occupied in philosohical and social questions. We have the impression that he stayed not longer than a year or two in Boston, and then sought his fortune in the West.'
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