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her dominions, and may most reasonably expect that her own principal manufacture Tould, in return, have equal advantages in Ireland, which they have not. The linens Great Britain takes from Ireland are five times the value of the woollens taken from Britain. Ireland takes nothing from her that she can get cheaper or better elsewhere, except the commodities of the British West Indies; and, in return, she has an advantage in her share of the inonopoly of the West India markets, and she has no pretension to trade with the plantations on any other principle. Whatever else she takes of colonial or foreign articles, is for her own convenience; and before Ireland cuts off all commercial intercourse with Great Britain, it may be worth her while to consider the proportion of the exports of Ireland taken by Great Britain, as already mentioned : it will appear that her exports to all other parts did not, in the same year, much exceed, in value, the twentieth part of her exports to Britain, and in that part are included the exports to the British plantations, which would be found no small part, but which would be also lost, as such proceedings on the part of Ireland would naturally tend to interrupt all commercial intercourse with the Britih colonies and empire. Great Britain has found it possible to exist, and to maintain, her commercial affluence against the combinations and interruptions of many principal markets in both continents ; but Ireland has not yet made the experiment, how the could exill without the markets of the British dominions : and when Ireland fhall be so madly advised, neither feets nor armies, nor any extraordinary expence, will be necessary, on the part of Great Britain, to convince her she is wrong: hurtful it may be for a time; but in the end, and soon, Great Britain must prevail : Ireland cannot : for it does not appear where she will get what he wants, and that she has credit with other nations to the amount he would require ; or where she will dispose of what she has, if she should have no intercourse with Great Britain or the British colonies. It will be found, that it is the intercourse with the British dominions that enables Ireland to trade in any considerable degree.'

This hoftile mode of argument however, his lord hip very.. justly condemns; and observes, that under the preient enlarged and free system of commerce, there is demand and trade enough in the world to occupy the utmost industry both of Britain and Ireland.

Instead of protecting or prohibitory duties, lord Sheffield expresses an opinion that to lower the British inoperative duties to the Irish, would perhaps be the mot advisable expedient. It would leave the trade nearly on its present footing; and it is

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the interest of the British manufacturers that the duties should be equalised, rather by lowering them here, than by raising them in Ireland,

To this proposal the noble lord doubts not that many of the English woollen manufacturers would object; but, in his opinion, without reason. For he thinks, that if Great Britain fhould take off the heavy duties on the importation of Irish woollens into Britain, it would not be of the advantage to Ireland that she imagines, nor a material check to the British manufacturers of wool. On the part of England and Scotland, our author maintains, that lowering high duties to the scale of the Irish, while it will remove the arguments, and suppress the clamours of the discontented in Ireland, cannot hurt their own manufactures. He observes that the heavy duties on the importation of Irish manufactures into Great Britain are prohibitory; that they are in general unnecessary; and only serve to irritate and support false notions and prejudices. For white Great Britain can underfell Ireland, even

in the home markets of the latter, in almost every manufacŹ túre, charged with land-carriage in Britain, freight, duties

on landing, and commiffion; and notwithstanding the boun. ties. given by the Dublin Society, or parliament, Ireland could not sell any quantity of manufactures at British markets, or much more to foreign countries, than she does now. He ad mits indeed, that the may be able to export, in the course of trade, and to assort in cargoes, to a certain extent, some articles which she cannot make cheaper than England, but not in such a quantity as to prejudice the latter.

So far as lord Sheffield has proceeded in this important dis; quifition, we repeat ic as our opinion, that he treats the suba, ject with impartiality. A beneficent reciprocation of commercial privileges between Great Britain and Ireland, is the System of policy which he recommends to both legislatures. But at the same time that he urges the propriety of mutual indulgence in general, he explodes the idea that Ireland has any claim to share with Great Britain either in the benefits of the navigation-act, or the trade of the Eaft-India company; and whatever opinion the intemperate friends of Ireland may entertain on this subject, lord Sheffield's arguments are too ftrong to admit of being called in question by candid and impartial reasoners.--As we find that a Second Part of these Ob. servations will soon be published, we wish it may appear in time to prove of any effect in the settlement of the commercial regulations between Great Britain and Ireland. For lord Sheffield's difquisitions being conducted with judgment, and VOL. LIX. Feb. 1784.



supported by information of good authority, his sentiments have a title to confideration, on a subject which so much con+ cerns the most effential interests of both countries.


An Account of the Musical Performances in Wifi mirifier Albey,

and ihe Pantheon, May 16th, 271), 291h; and June the 3d and 5th, 1784. In Commemoration of Handel. By Charles Burney, Mul. D. F. R. S. 410. 11. 1s, in Boards.. Payne, and Robinson. HAT an event fo fingular and unparalleled in the annals

of music, as that which is the subject of this publication, Mould not be left to the casual and imperfect records of general fame, but should find its appropriated and adequate bis-torian, must surely have been the wish, not only of all those who beard, but, fill more, perhaps, of those who did not hear, the performances here celebrated. Concurring heartily in this with ourselves, we confess that we were not a little gratified, when we were informed that the execution of this taik had fallen into the hands of a person so well qualified to do ic justice, by such a union of requisites as is not, we think, very commonly to be found-by his unquestionable skill and taste in the art itself,-his liberal and un prejudiced judgment, and his well-known abilities as a writer, which are such as have enabled him not barely to record fačts, or deliver opipions, but, also, to convey the impressions of his own musical sensibility to his readers—' FARI quæ SENTIAT.' Among these different qualifications, we doubt whether any be a greater rarity in the mufical world than the absence of prejudice. Of all the subjects of dispute on which men have chosen to exercise their ingenuity, and heat their zeal, none appears more evidently unreasonable and useless, than that question which, from time immemorial, has been fo

great a favourite with thein-Whether that which is old, or that which is neru, deferves the preference --Hence, in literature, that, well-known and endless controversy concerning the ancients, and the moderns : and hence, the two great fetts into which the musical world is at prefent generally divided, of the worihippers of the old, and the worfhippers of the new; mufic. And, indeed, it must be confeiled that, as the love of controversy, appears, by long experience, to be inherent in mankind, and the source of one of their most natural and neceffary pleasures, they have certainly done wisely to chule fach subjects of controverly as expose them to no risque of losing their amusement by decision.--We admire the logic of exclu. five talte. The compositions of Corelli, Geminiani; and

Handel,' Handel,” say the partisans of what is called the old Muficare admirable : therefore, those of Abel, Boccherini, and Haydn, being different from them, must be good for nothing.'- It is just the reverse, say the modernists--the quartetts of Haydn are delicious: a concerto of Corelli is a very different thing; and therefore intolerable.' For our own parts, we confess our. - selves fo simple as 'not to be able to see, why a man who relishes two good things, may not be said to have at least as much taste as he who relishes but one. We respect the Concert of Ancient Mufic; and heartily approve one half of its pur. pose. To rescue from disuse and oblivion many admirable composers whose works are-there---and perhaps there only--to be heard in such perfection, was undoubtedly a rational and laudable object. We venture, however, to submit it to the unprejudiced part of our musical readers, whether the title by which concerts of this kind are commonly distinguished, be not somewhat elliptical; whether, to the words in which their purpose is generally expressed, i. e. for the preservation of ancient music,' the spirit and tendency of the inftitution will no: justify our adding, to complete the sense, -' and for the exclusion and discouragement of the modern.'

Indignor, quidquam reprehendi, non quia crasse Compofitum, illepideve putetur, fed QUIA NUPER.' Hor.

With respect to Dr. Burney, we think it much to the credit, both of his taste and his understanding, that his musical index expurgatorius is not of that bigotted and intolerant kind which would expunge all authors, or all styles, but one. It is with pleasure that we have observed him, both as musical jour, malift, and musical historian, always ready to asign to every composer, who attained to excellence, in any age, or style, from Josquin † to HAYDN, his just portion of proper and discriminative praise : Nullius addictus jurare in verba magiftri.'-And thus, in the agreeable and interesting work before us, he appears 10 us to have done ample justice to the sublime and comprehensive genius of HANDIL; as well as to the performance itself, and to the kill, judgment, and zeal

It seems decided, that to be denominated ancient, or good, (for the words are synonymous,) a composition must be at least twenty years old. A very, young kind of antiquity. But

qui deperiit minor uno mense, vel apno Inter qaos referendus erit ?-vetcresne poëtas,

An quos et præsens et poftera refpuat ætas?' Hor." The writer of this article remembere a time, not very diftant, when Per. golofi, who is now adopted as an Ancient, and whose works are become of age to merit preservation, was regarded with a jealous eye by the liendelva maniacs, as one of the chief fountaios of rzedern degeneracy and corruption.

+ See Hiß. of Music, vol. ii. p. 485, &c.—Particularly, P. 507-509.


of those who selected the Music, arranged the band, and re-
gulated so successfully the complicated movements of this
wonderful and gigantic orchefra. We perfectly agree with
Dr. Burney, that · however his mind may be impressed with
a reverence for Handel, by an early and long acquaintance
with his person and works, yet, as it amounts not to bigotry,
or the preclusion of all respect or admiration of excellence in
others, wherever he can find it, his narrative will be less likely
to excite suspicions of improbability, or hyberbole, in such
readers as were not so fortunate as to participate of the fur-
prize and rapture of all that were present at these magnificent
performances, and are able to judge of the reality of the sen,
sations described.' (Preface, p. xv.]
· In this sensible and well-written Preface, the author has
given ' a Chronological List of the most remarkable Musical
Musters upon record,' in order to thew, that • from the time
that the present fystem of harmony was invented, to this
period, no well-authenticated instance could, he believes, be.
produced, of five bundred performers, vocal and instrumental,
being consolidated into one body, and giving such indisputable
proofs of talents and discipline, as on the late occasion. We
cannot help pointing out in this part of the Preface, (p. viii.)
a mistake which, we think, inverts the author's meaning. In
the conclusion of the first paragraph,-( Without leaving the
least doubt of its fuperiority.'-) the word fuperiority' should
furely have been inferiority; -or, for doubt,' we fhould
read 'Jufpicion.'-

The Preface is followed by a Sketch of the Life of HANDEL, which, we doubt oot, will furnith a very acceptable entertainment to every reader who is, in any degree, interefted in the subject. It contains several particulars of his life not hitherto known ; redifies fome errors of his former biographier *, and is enlivened with many little anecdotes, and ftrokes of character, fuch as, we think, cannot fail to divert évery reader who is not of that folemn class, some of which it is the misfortune of every writer to have,-' whose visages

• Do cream and mantle like a standing pool.' The limits to which we are confined make us fearful of indulging ourselves in quotation : but we cannot help selecting, 25 a specimen, the following little story. • Handel was very

fond of Mrs. Cibber, whose voice and manners had softened his severity for her wa't of musical knowlege. At her house, of a Sunday evening, he used to meet Quin, who

• The sensible and sandid author of the Momoari, &c. published in 1760.



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