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A Chemical Analysis of Wolfram; and Examination of a new
Metal, which enters into its Composition. By Don John Joseph and Don Faufto De Luyart.' Translated from the Spanish by
Charles Cullen, Eją. 8vo. Is. 6d. G. Nicol. WE
E are much pleased to see this ray of true science dawn
in Spain : the analysis is executed with great accuracy and address; and these pupils of Bergman feem not to have been corrupted by the indolence, usually inspired with the Spanish air; or the example of their countrymen. In our Jalt volume, page 274, we extracted from Mr. Kirwan's work, the properties of the tungstein acid, as they appeared both to Bergman and Schole ; fo that we need not make any particular observations on the introductory analyfis of these chemnifts, which are properly prefixed to the present translation. We fall only premise, that the tungstein itself is easily diftin. guished from all stones; for, when the marine acid is poured on it in powder, and the mixture is set in a digesting heat, the powdered stone acquires a fine light yellow colour.
In the moist way, 100 grains of wolfram are found to consist of 22 of a black calx of manganese ; 13Ž of a calx of iron; 65 of a yellow matter ; and 2 grains of a refiduum, confifting of a mixture of quartz and tin. The flight increase of weight may proceed from the calcination of the iron and manganele; fince the sum of all these quantities amount to 102grains.
The nature of the yellow matter was next to be examined; and it appeared, in particular circumstances, to form the acid of tungitein of Mr. Schele ; buç not to be a pure uncompounded substance, as he supposed, the finall quantity of his materials having prevented him from pursuing the analysis with his usual accuracy. The messieurs Luyarts dissolved this yellow matter in the caufic alkali, and precipitating it again by; an acid, procured a salt, sharp and bitter to the taite, which continued to be soluble on the flightest agitation; while any of the alkali was superabundant. This salt, composed of fome alkali, the precipitating acid, and the yellow matter, was that to which the Swedish chemists had given the title of acid of tungstein: These details, explain the cause of the appear. ances of acidity in the radical basis of the tungstein, and of its distinguishing quality with the marine acid. It is actually found to be a metallic calx, as Bergman suspected, and has been reduced by these authors, by means of charcoal alone: we hall extract their very short account of the appearances of the metal, .which at present seems very refractory.
• Having Having put another hundred grains of this powder into a Zamora crucible, provided with charcoal, and well covered, and placed it in a strong fire, where it remained an hour and a half, we found, on breaking the crucible after it was cool, à button, which fell to powder between the fingers. Its colour was dark brown; and on examining it with a glass, there was seen a congeries of metallic globules, among which some were the bigness of a pin's head, and when broke, had a metallic appearance at the fracture in colour like fteel. It weighed fixty grains, of course there was a diminution of forty. Its specific gravity was 17,6. Having calcined part of it, it became yellow, with increase of weight. Having put one portion of this substance powdered, in digestion with the vitriolic acid, and another with the marine acid, neither of them suffered more diminution than råt of their weight; then decanting the liquor, and examining the powder with a glass, the grains were still perceived of a metallic aspect. Both the acid liquors gave a blue precipitate with the Prusian alkali, which let us know that the small diminution proceeded from a portion of iron which the button had undoubtedly got from the powder of the charcoal in which it had been fet. The nitrous acid, and aqua regia, extracted likewise from two other portions of the ferruginous part; but besides they converted them into yellow powder, perfectly similar to that which we psed in this operation.'
The acid nature of the calx now appears equivocal ; but the authors are seemingly anxious for the reputation of Bergman, and eager to establish the general acid nature of metallic calces. But, though they own that they have not been able 10 obtain it pure, with properties decidedly acid, yet the-union of the calx with alkalis, and particularly with the volatile alkali, as well as the properties of the compounds, thow, in their opinion, that it is of an acid nature. These appearances feem however to us, very equivocal; but experience, rather than reasoning, muft ultimately decide. It is more clear, that this metallic substance should be arranged with the other metals ; and that it poflefies distinct and permanent properties. Mr. Kirwan has added the wolfram to the species of iron ore, but has classed it with those of an uncertain nature. The analysis which he extracts from Lehman, fupposes it to confitt of quartz, calx of iron, and a small proportion of tin. Mr. Kirwan adds, that from the experiments, he suspects it to contain manganese also. We do not mention this to detract from that excellent work, for it can never be perfect while any thing remains undiscovered; but merely to show what had been already done, and how much our authors had
The memoir is written with accuracy, and feems to be translated with fidelity.
Rhetorical Grammar, or Course of Lelons in Elocution. By
of the principles of speaking and reading with propriety: If these principles feem to be a little abftrufe, it mult be considered, that it is an arduous talk to investigate the various powers and properties of the human voice, and to discriminate the precise tone, air, and energy, with which a sentence ought to be delivered. We daily feel in ourselves, and observe in others, the difficulty of pronouncing a page, either in verse or prose, with a juft and gračeful elocution. That there is a real difficulty in the acquisition of this art, must be acknowleged by every one who considers what a small number of good speakers we have, either on the stage, at the bar, in the fenate, or in the church. ” Yęc surely there is no part of education which deserves to be more attentively studied than the art of speaking. It will amply sepay our utmost exertions. An barmonious voice, which may be improved, if not acquired, by exercise and habit, is extremely pleasing, both in Speaking and reading. It gives weight and energy to every word; it captivates the car, penetrates the foul, and even adds an irresistible charm to beauty.
The ingenious author of this Rhetorical Grammar has taken uncommon pains, not only by his publications, but by his personal inftructions, to improve the fate of our public elocution. In the present course of lessons, he seems to have reduced his whole theory into one complete and practical fyftem. And he very reasonably hopes,that the sentences adduced for the illustration of the rules, the direction for the pronunciation of the figures of rhetoric, and above all, the praxis at the end, will be found the moft certain, and at the same time the most easy, method of acquiring the art of read, ing, that has hitherto been offered to the public."
The first part of this Grammar consists of instructions, ad. drefled to parents and teachers of elocution. Here the author very properly observes, that it is a gross, as well as a common miltake of parents to fuppole, that it is of little consequence who is employed in teaching a child' the first rudiments of reading. This naturally leads him to point out some of the principal faults in the pronunciation of the younger class of Vol. LIX. Feb. 1785.
pupils ; in founding the vowels too slightly, in pronouncing s indiftin&tly after f, in pronouncing w for y, and inversely, &c. in pronouncing too rapidly; and in reading with a monotony.
In some of his introductory lessons, he endeavours-to ascertain the true found of the auxiliary verbs, and other words of common occurrence ; and then gives his young pupils a genesal idea of the common doctrine of punctuationand more especially of what he calls rhetorical punctuation, namely, the nature and use of pauses.
A very effential part of the theory laid down in his Elements of Elocutions, confifted in the discovery and illustration of two principal inflections in the human voice, which he calls the rising and the falling fide. In this treatife he explains and exemplifies these in Hexions. And in anfwer to any objection which may be alleged against this part of his Grammar he says :
So little has the speaking voice been studied, and so little are children practised to distinguish between fpeaking sounds, that the author will not be surprised, if neither the teacher nor pupil can at first perfectly comprehend the nature of the two Hides, on which so much of his fyftem depends; but, as this system obliged him to bring together every kind of sentence, and to class them according to their several distinguishing properties, he flatters himself that by reading sentences thus clafied and arranged, the pupil will find more benefit, than by any other method yet discovered, even if he does not understand the different slides of voice, which are here annexed to them.".
In the following section he thus explains the nature of these infections:
• The human voice, like all other sounds, may be considered as divisible into high and low, loud and soft: we may dwell a longer, or a shorter time, upon each of these varieties, and they may fucceed one another, either more rapidly, or more flowly. These feem to be all the radical distinctions of sounds in general, but these may all be applied to mufical founds. Speaking founds, to all these diversities, add another; which is, that of Riding up and down the scale of sounds by infenlible degrees, exactly like the found produced by a violin, when the finger slides and down the string, while the bow vibrates it; so that speaking sounds may not be improperly called a Species of chromatic music. These sounds, however, are in general so rapid and initantaneous, the fides fo tort, and the difference between them so small, as scarcely to be perceptible. We hear a variety upon the whole, but we cannot arrest it for examination. But when we read or speak deliberately, we perceive the slides more distinctly; and if we drawl out our words, they become very apparent : if a word requires a strong
emphasis, and we dwell some time upon it, especially if the word ends with an open vowel, we find the voice flide either upward or downward very perceptibly. Now, what the voice is heard to do when pronouncing flowly or forcibly, it certainly does when pronouncing rapidly and feebly, though the slides are not quite so perceptible: for if this were not the case, we must necessarily hear either a monotone or a fong; as it is in flides only that these differ from speaking sounds:
*If then speaking sounds are Nides, and these fides are necessarily either upward or downward, surely it is of some im. portance to the art of speaking to be acquainted with them. By understanding these fides, we can tell a pupil, not only that he is too high or too low, too loud or too soft, too quick or too flow, but that he makes use of an improper fide, a fpecies of instruction as necessary as any other ; but for want of ftudying the human voice, is totally unintelligible to him. Let us suppose, for example, a youth' but little instructed in the art of reading were to pronounce the following fentence :
" Though we have no regard to our own character, we ought to have some regard for the character of others.”
• There is the greatest probability I say, such a reader would pronounce the first emphatic word own with che rising, and the Ialt emphatic word others with the falling inflexion, though this pronounciation certainly does not bring out the strongert fense of which the sentence is susceptible. To tell him he mut lay more stress upon the word own will by no means set him right, unless he understands the peculiar kind of stress to be given ; for he may increase the stress upon both the emphatic words without in the least removing the impropriety. But if his ear were fufficiently acquainted with this distinction to lay the emphafis with the falling lide on own, and that with the rising Nide on others, a new and forcible meaning would be struck out, and the importance of these slides fully exemplified.'
The author proceeds to thew the method of acquiring a knowlege of these flides, and to exemplify their ule and application in sentences of every fort.
The subsequent part of this Grammar contains an explana. tion of the figures of rhetoric, with directions for the proper manner of pronouncing them. . We shall give our readers, as a specimen, our author's observations on irony, which pera haps of all the figures in rhetoric requires the greatest art and attention in the modulation of the voice. 1 3 Irony is a figure, in which one.extreme is fignified by its opposite extreme; or where we speak of one thing and deign another, in order to give the greater force and poignancy 10 our meaning. . Thus Cicero fometimes applies it in the way of jest and banter, where he says,
“We have much realon to believe the modet man would notak him for his debt, where he pursues his life.” Pro Quint, t. II.