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and of animals and plants mentioned in the Bible; he has also made alterations and improvement in a few other other articles, in his Lexicon A Charge delivered to the Clergy of York, June 16, 1784. By

William Cooper, DD. F.R.S. Archdeacon of York. 410. Is. 6d. L. Davis.

This very respectable writer directs the attention of his rev. brethren to some late alarming calamities, and remarkable phenomena, in various countries, which, he thinks, should be confidered as the admonitions of divine Providence. He then represents, in the ftrongest light, the general depravity of this nation ; takes a cursory view of the subversion of several ané cient states and kingdoms ; and concludes with some useful ad. monitions to the clergy, exhorting them to labour with unre. mitting asliduity in their profession, in order to check the vices of the age, and promote the practice of virtue.

The following exhortation displays the author's difinterested benevolence.- Do not over-value the world; use it as not abusing it; hoard not up the emoluments arising from preferment, for private purposes; expend them judiciously ; repair or re-build the parsonage houses, if necessary ; establish schools for t'e education of children ; aid your parishioners; remit their tithes, &c.'

It is to be lamented, that out of ten thousand benefices in this kingdom, there are at least nine thousand, which are scarcely fufficient to afford their respective incumbents, in these expensive times, the common conveniencies of life; and those who remit the pitiful gleanings, called tithes, will find them. felves but ill-qualified to build houses, or to promote any charitable establishment. Happy however is the rector or vicar, who can pursue this liberal advice. The Antiquity, Ufe, and Excellence of Church Music.' A Sermon

preached at the opening of a New Organ in the Cathedral Church of Christ, at Canterbury. By George Horne, D. D. Dcan of Canterbury. 410. Is. Rivington.

In treating of the antiquity of church music, the author ob. ferves, that inftrumental music could have no place during the times of persecution, when, for fear of their enemies, the Christians were obliged to hold their assemblies in secret chambers, in dens and caves of the earth. Organs, he adds, are said by fome to have been introduced into churches about the middle of the seventh; by others, not till the eleventh, or twelfth century; fince which time, this kind of music has made a part in the Christian service.

"To the honour of the place where this discourse was delivered, he remarks, that in England, choral service was first in. troduced in Canterbury cathedral, and the practice of it long confined to the churches of Kent, from whence it became gradually diffused over the whole kingdom.

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Speaking of the excellency of church music, he gives the late Commemoration of Handel this transcendent encomium,

“A performance has lately been exhibited, and to our hor nour has been exhibited in Britain (its sound still vibrates in the ears of many who hear me) which furnished the best idea we shall ever obrain on earth of what is pafting in heaven.' : Paffing in heaven! Atas, what do we know of heaven! If there be any expreffions in fcriptare which speak of heavenly harmony, they are highly figurative, and should not be underitood in the grofs, literal sense. For we are allured, 'that it hath not entered into the human inagination to conceive the joys of the blessed. The bufiness of music is, comparatively 1peaking, an idle trade. And it is more than probable, -that there is not the least analogy between the poor, empty sounds of our organs, and violins, and the sublime, intellectual pleafures of a future state.

CONTROVERSIAL, &c. An Appeal to ibe-Public; or, a Candid Narrative of the Rise and " Progress of the Differences now fubfifting in the R

Congregation of Liverpool." 12 mo.

This appeat makes a volume of four hundred and thirty pages, containing a minute account of some diffenfions in the Roman catholic congregation at Liverpool; relative to tem: poralities. The circumstances of the dispute are too numerous, and too intricate, "to be properly ftared in this article. Those who are interested in the contest, or wish for farther informa. tion,, must have recourse to this Narrative. A Letter to the Roman Catholics of Worcester, from the late Chap.

lain of that Society (Charles Henry # harton.] 800. Is. 'Rin vington. This appears to be a fair, dispassionate, and rational account of the motives, which induced the author to relinquith the Roman Catholic communion, and become a member of the Proteftant church. An Explanatory Appeal to the Society in General, and bis Friends in

Particular, with an Appendix. By William Maltbews. 12mo. 9d. Dilly.

The people called Quakers deem it necessary to fix judg. ment upon,' and disown as unfit for their communion, all such as contract marriages out of the pale of their fociety; and likewise censure and disown such as thall not refuse to pay tiches, and other demands, imposed by act of parliament, for the establishment of a pational church. The very sensible and liberale minded author of this Appeal conceived, that they had no war. tant from scripture example or precept to impuse such a prohi. bition or censure ; and on some occasions declared his sentiments to this purpose, presuming, that every thing which is effential to a Christian communion among them may be deemed to consl, I. In the belief of the doctrine of inward revelation ; II,

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The non-necessity, under the Christian dispensation, of human sites in divine worship; and III. The benefit of a filent wait. ing upon God in their religious meetings. These sentiments were highly displeasing to his brethren; and he was accordingJy disowned both as a minister and as a member of society,

As he had reason to think, that his opinions, situation, and views have been injurioully spoken of in different places, he has been induced, he says, to throw together a brief account of himself, and of the treatment he has met with,' which is written in such a manner, as cannot but do him honour, except among disciplinarians of his own party, whose principles and notions of Christianity are contracted and ungenerous. A Letter to the Rev. S. Badcock, the Monthly Revirsver, in which

bis Uncharitableness, Ignorance, and Abuse of Dr. Priestley, are exposed. By Edward Harwood, D.D. 8vo. 15. Bent. There is too much acrimony in this publication. The author, when he mentions his adversary, treats him witb contempt and indignation, and not, as he might have done to greater advantage, with genteel irony. But to this mode of retaliation he was, we must confefs, very naturally incited, by the illiberal sarcasms and personal reflections, which had been cruelly and wantonly thrown upon him in some periodical publications, Elements of Modern Gardening ;_or, ihe Art of laying out of

Pleasure Grounds, ornamenting Farms, and embellishing ibe Views round about our Houses. 8vo. 25. 6d. Baldwin.

These Elements are dictated by, good sense, and in general by a refined tafte: their object is, to inftru& gentlemen in lay

ing out small pieces of ground in a manner bech cheap and eally executed; but we object to the little tricks of art, where they must be easily detected. If the end be to form a prospect, they may be allowed; but the view which is ad. mired at a diftance will tempt the stranger to walk over it; and the rill which feems to wind at the bottom of a lawn, and to pass under a stately arch, will disgust instead of plealing, when it appears to be a ftagnant water, and that the arch is not pervious. lc hould be a rule with artikts to aim only at what chey can fully attain. The Angler's Museum. By Tho. Shirley. 12m0. 15. 6d. Fielding.

This pamphlet, which is ill compiled, was published foine years ago, but now makes a second appearance, ornamented with á head of Mr. Kirby, the keeper of Wood-Iseet Compter. Under his auspices, therefore, with this character we lhall leave it. The Fiberman; or the Art of Angling made eafy. By Guined

Charf), Efq. 8vo. 25. 6d. Dixwell. Another compilation of the same kind, but even less fatisfactory than the former,

THE

CRITICAL REVIEW.

For

M ARCH,

1785.

a silent wait e sentiments as accordinger of society, ituation, and nt places, he

brief account ath,' which is onour, except erinciples and dus. sver, in which - Prieftley, are 5. Bent. ion. The auwicb contempt one to greater e of retaliation

by tbe illibei been cruelly al publications, f laying out of Jhing the Views

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and in general entlemen in lay: boch cheap and e tricks of art, end be to form ew which is ad. co walk over it;

of a lawn, and ead of pleasog, at the arch is not im only at what

Philosophical Tranfaétions of the Royal Society of London. Vol.

LXXIV. For the Year 1784. Part I. 480. 75.6d. L. Davis.
IT
T is disagreeable to us to blame; therefore, as we are not

able to pay any great compliment to the importance of this part of the annual volume, we shall proceed, as usual, to particular articles.

Art. I. An Observation of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol. By Sir Henry C. Englefield, Bart, F.R. S. and S.A.- Art. II. Observations on the Obscuration of the Star Algol. By Palitch, a Farmer.- Art. III. Further Observations upon Algol. By the same. - In the 339th page of our laft Volume, we mentioned the observations of Mr. Goodriche, on the star Algol, in the head of Medusa, for which he has received fir Godfrey Copley's medal. We then attributed the changes in its appearance to a planet revolving round this diftant sun, and see no reason for altering our opinion. The period obferved by Mr. Goodriche was two days, twenty hours, and forty-eight minutes. The first and third observations differ from Mr. Goodriche's only four minutes, and the second five.

Art. IV. Descriptions of the King's Wells at Sheerness, Languard-fort, and Harwich. By Sir Thomas Hyde Page, Knt. F.R.S. --There is a great display of ingenuity in the contrivances to procure water in these places, where the fitu. ation is fo low, the ground swampy, and the sea-water conftantly overflowing. At Fort Townshend, Sheerness, the well was sünk 330 feet. The strata were a blue clay, sand, and gravel, which seem to have succeeded each other without any remarkable variety. At 330 feet, on boring through clay with a small mixture of sand, fresh water burit through with violence, and rose in fix hours 189 feet; and, in a few days, it came to within a few feet of the top: As the mixture of seawater is prevented, this spring is found pure, and of an unVOL. LIX. March, 1785.

M usual

15. 6d. Fielding

published foine ornamented with Compter. Under hall leave it. aly. By Grinied well. at even tefs fatis

usual warmth. We wish that the heat had been mentioned : 53° of Farenheit are at present supposed to mark the mean temperature of the earth ; and indeed water at that degree would feel unusually warm. At Landguard fort, good water appeared within eight feet of the surface, and continued in. vait quantity almost to the spring-tide low-water mark; but it then became falt. At Harwich they found pure water, by sinking the wells through a rock, from the high ground, to prevent the drains of bad water, common in that neighbourhood.

We have now stated the several facts, without any commentary ; but we think they will admit of important remarks: though these would be too extensive for our purpose. The me.. chanical contrivances are not intelligible without the plates.

Art. V. Extract of a Letter from Edward Pigott, Esq. containing the Discovery of a Comet.—The comet was discovered at York the 19th of November 1783 : on that day its right ascension was 41°, and its northern declination 3° 10'. It was increafing in declination, and looked like a nebula, with a diameter of about 2'.

Art. VI. Project for a new Division of the Quadrant. By Charles Hutton, LL. D. F. R. S.-Dr. Hutton proposes to divide the axis of a quadrant into equal parts of the radius, instead of the arbitrary division into 60 degrees, fince the cords, fines, and tangents, are divided in the former way. He explains the method of constructing a table of this kind ; which is incapable of abridgement. The task would be indeed laborious; but it would be very advantageous.

Art. VII. On the Means of discovering the Distance, Mag. nitude, &c. of the fixed Stars, in Consequence of the Diminution of the Velocity of their Light, in Cafe fuch a Diminution should be found to take place in any of them, and such other Data should be procured from Observations, as would be farther necessary for that Purpose. By the Rev. John Michell, B. D. F.R.S.--Since the invention of the telescope, feveral reasons have concurred to make the planets hitherto the principal objects of the astronomer's attention. By the

ate knowlege which we have obtained of their magnitudes, distances, velocity, &c. the subject seems to be nearly exhausted, unless Mr. Herschel, or some other lucky and accurate observer, should discover another new planet. Probably, for this reason, astronomers have for some iime turned their attention to the fixed itars, as opening a field for observation, what will not easily be gone over ; and the rather, as conjec. ture must, in a great measure, fupply the want of sufficient data for reason and experiment. It is therefore no disgrace

to

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