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attachment occasions to the operator and the patient. Our author proposes immediate delivery, while Mr. Rigby, whom - we have more than once mentioned, in our Journal, with respect, advises us to wait till the os uteri is so far relaxed, in consequence of the evacuation, as to admit of dilatation with little force. Dr. Douglas supports his opinion, by insisting on the danger which will be the consequence of a considerable hæmorrhage, and the ease with which even. lacerations of the cervix uteri commonly heal. After matarely ballancing the inconveniencies of each fide;" we own that we still think Mr. Rigby's method preferable : though, from the delay neceffary, it will never be a favourite practice with either the patient or the practitioner. The debility, from hæmorrhage, is soon restored : the confequences of irritation, even if no laceration should happen, and it will probably seldom occur, are sometimes disagreeable. We believe Dr. Douglas's mode is the most common at present; and we have not found it free quently dangerous.

VII. An Account of an Aneurism of the Aorta. By Samuel Foart Simmons, M. D. F. R. S.--The symptoms, in this hiftory, are very clearly related; and they will be of great service in diftinguishing between an aneurism of the aorta, and an hydrothorax; for these two diseafes, though effentially different, yet frequently produce symptoms very

fimilar. The aneurism was at the anterior part of the curya3 ture of the great artery.

TO VIII. An Account of a fatal Vomiting, apparently brought on by'a Disease of the Kidneys. - By the late William Keir, ----M.D.--This was an enlargement, rather than a disease, of

the kidney, yet it contained some irregular calculi,' which

have, in other instances, frequently occasioned vomiting. The ... distinction was, in this patient, more difficult, as the swelling

occafioned a tumour externally, which, from its situation, ?? seemed to be an accumulation of fæces in the colon. . Our ei author's reflections are judicious, and worth preferving. ',

• The facts which I have stated admit of useful application. ift. They afford a proof of a closer and more extensive sympathy between the kidneys and the stomach than has generally been thought to subfift. It has long been known that the ftomach may be much disordered by diseases of the kidneys, attended with inflammation or with violent pain; but that a state of those organs, accompanied with neither, should produce a fimilar effect, has not, I think, been commonly imagined.

2dly. They may help us to distinguish between diseases of the intestinal canal, and those of the kidneys. If sickness and violent vomiting Thould occur without pain or any sign of inflammation, the cause of the diseafe, even if cofipation should

attend,

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attend, might with more reason be fought før in the kidneyg
chan in the intestines ; because the nature and the structure of
the intestines hardly admit of the supposition, that a caufe con-
fined to them should occafion violent vomiting, without affect-
ing the part where it is seated in a violent manner; which it
can hardly do without producing a painful contraction, or an
inflammatory fate; and I know no inítance of an obstinate vo-
*miting, produced by a disorder of the intestines, without pain;
whereas we are now poffeffed of two cases, where vomiting
appears to have been supported with uncommon obftinacy, by
a disease in the kidneys, without any mark in them either of
pain or inflammation.

IX. On the Efficacy of the Spiritus Vitrioli duicis, in the Cure of Fevers. By James Carmichael Smyth, M. D. F.R.S. -Dr. Smyth confines the use of this remedy chiefly to jail or hospital fever, and thinks that it acts as a cordial and diaphoretic. He allows it to be one of those remedies, whose apeTation is not fo decided as to establish its use without controversy ; but thinks that he has found it, advantageous. We shall hint to Dr. Smyth, that the cases, particularly described, are of one epidemic ; and the remedy was used nearly at a time when the crisis might have been reasonably expected. The days, in his table also, are not those of the fever, but of the employment of his medicine, which occafions an ambigüity, and gives a more favourable appearance of success. But fince the publication of this volume, the few trials we have been enabled to make with it, confirm our author's opinion.

X. A Case of Ptyalism, apparently occafioned by a di. minished Secretion of Urine. By Samuel Daniel, .M.D. This is another instance of the facility with which nature fupplies the want of an accustomed evacuation, and it is no very uncommon one, in consequence of the use of mercury, thougle in the present case it had not been previoully employed.

We shall finish this volume in another article. Many of the essays have entertained and instructed us : if the authors proceed with the same spirit, they will deserve encouragement; but they should be cautious in the choice of their materials. A volume may be easily filled ; but they should aim also at sendering it valuable, nor suffer the fancied luftre which priyate friendship may diffuse to claim a preference due only to accurate observations and judicious reasoning.

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Expe

Experiments and Observations on a neru Species of Bark; pewing

its great Efficacy in very small Doses : also a comparative View of the Powers of the Red and Quilled Bark. By Richard

Kentish, M. D. 8vo. 25. 6d. Johnson. IF

f we consider this work as designed to introduce a new

species of bark, it is highly commendable; in other refpects, it is liable to exception. To the attention and industry of Mr. Wilson, an able apothecary in Henrietta-street, the world is much indebted for ascertaining the properties of this particular fpecies, which, for various reasons, deserves our attention. The Caribbæan bark, of which a description is given in the Sixty-seventh Volume of the Philosophical Transactions, p. 504, is found both in the Leeward and Windward Inands: in some of them the tree which produces it is common. Its qualities are bitterness and aftringency in an extraordinary degree; but it is not in the fame degree antiseptic. In the usual doses of · bark, it proves emetic and laxative: in smaller ones, the effects of the common officinal are observed, without any very inconvenient addition of the other qualities. If future experience should support the observations of our author, it will prove a valuable addition to the Materia Medica, and will hold a middle place between the Peruvian and Calcarilla bark, - We know not whether we have already mentioned the fact, but it is not new, though it occurs in this work, viz. that the cincona officinalis is found north of the Equator, in'a very convenient situation for exportation ; therefore our supply of the usual remedy will neither be fo feanty or fo precarious as it has hitherto been.

A great part of this pamphlet confifts of experiments to ar. certain the difference between the quilled and the red bark. Dr. Kentish prefers the former, because it contains a greater quantity of the aftringent principle, which is extracted by water, while the latter abounds chiefly in a bitter one, contained in a resinous fubfance. We could fill pages with difcuffions on this subject; but, after all our labour, they would be of little value : our author is yet young from the schools, and argues plaufibly, but inconclufively. The bark is compounded by nature, and its several ingredients, combined, produce a given effect. They may be bitters, astringents, or any others; but we are at least certain that we are unable to produce similar effects from any combination of these qualities : consequently there is little foundation for any reasoning on the nature of the separate principles. Again, if his arguments were juft, the cold infusion should be the most active preparation of the bark; which is not true. We allow that it is frequently the most convenient, though it is the weakest. The substance holds the highest rank; next to it come the watery and spiTituous extracts combined, as in the last edition of the Edinburgh Dispensatory; for in this form we approach nearest to the fubitance: of the other preparations, the decoction is Itronger than the infusion. The tincture is a partial preparation, as the spirit extracts only one portion of the bark, and is seldom useful, but as an addition to the infusion. These are the dictates of experience rather than reasoning ; to come nearer to the point, we can adduce the most respectable teftimonies of the superior utility of the red bark, without adding our own. We probably, at first, attributed too much to it, for the reasons mentioned in the introduction to our review of the Medical Communications; but, after every allowance, it will still remain the more powerful medicine.

The language of this little work is not incorrect ; but it is elevated beyond the calm perspicuity which mould distinguish science and philosophy. Our author tells us, that Linnæus has inserted only one species of cincona ; but he ihould have looked into the last editions, before he had risqued an affertion so positive. He treats too of this species as one scarcely, if at all, known in England; though it had been particularly described in the volume of Philosophical Transactions before referred to.

On the whole, we have received some information from thefe experiments, and recommend them, on that account; but they should be read with caution, and perhaps a little distrust.

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An Elay on draining and improving Peat Bogs. By Mr. Nicholas Turner. 8υο. .

35.

Baldwin. THE

HE author of this Essay gives clear and explicit directions

on a subject little understood : if the chief part of his plan is not new, yet it comes under the fanction of experience, attended with some additional illustrations. Peat bogs are frequently called the moss; and there are few who do not recollect the devastation occafioned by the increase of Solway Moss, in the year 1771. The natural history of this fura prising phænomenon is still imperfect: the moss proceeds by degrees, appearing like a spongy body, whose pores are filled with a fuid ; in reality, it is a semi-fluid mass, consisting of

a peculiar vegetable, whose fibres are matted together, and .' the interstices filled with water and earth. It 'advances flowly; but its force is irresistible: hedges, trees, and different bodies, in its progress, yield to this seemingly insignia ficant power : corn-fields, meadows, gardens, and plantations, are covered by a fatal enemy, and present only a dreary and melancholy waite. To drain the superfluous water, and to destroy this incroaching vegetable, is an arduous tásk; yet human ingenuity has effected greater changes. We think that our author's plan will, in many cases, fuc-** ceed; and if it is not always successful, it will suggest fome useful schemes in those instances where it has failed. Bogs, as he allows, are indeed of very different kinds.

ferent

Mr. Turner apologises for his deficiency in chemical knowlege ; and we shall again remark the almost absolute necesa fity of this science to every rational husbandman. The aseful parts are few, easily learned, and the necessary experiments can be made or repeated with very flight apparatus. Our author's mistakes are, in a great degree, owing to unfaithful guides; for, except Dr. Fordyce's very concise treatise, we have fcarcely a work in English which can be implicitly fola lowed. Why is Bergman's treatise · Sur les Terres geopo. niques' not yet translated? We shall insert the following description of peat from this author :

On dissecting a piece of peat, its foliage will be found distinct and lateral : as a proof, take a piece from within à foot of the surface, and on a moderate compression, you will find it lose eight-tenths of its thickness; but use the same force in lateral pressure, it being against the grain, it will not lose one-fourth. Besides roots and flaggy leaves, there is also now and then a thick and hollow tube, in which the lateral leaves are inserted, composed of very ftrong rigid fibres that run down perpendicularly ; these are so strong as to make the tube impervious to the water, and are for the conveyance of air to fuch part of the bog as is within about four feet of che farface ; after that depth I am inclined to think vegetation' ceases, from the peat that is dug there being more compact and weighty, and containing no roots or air tubes : as there is ever a fermentation in the change of all bodies from and entire to a corrupted state, so it is probable, in this case par ticularly, from the peat being darker, that there is a gentle one sufficient to diffolve the tubes and roots, but that the want of heat, and the admision of the external air, together with the accesfant qualities of peat, retard a further putrefaction.'

The antiseptic property of peat, for the wood which has laid for ages in a peat bog remains almost entire, is attributed to the, bitumen, and to the acid which it contains. Our au. thor thinks that the moss Aourishes chiefly in bituminous waters. The oil arising in the analysis of peat seems to be VoL. LIX. Jan. 1785.

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