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ever, he chiclly refts on Dr. Lind; and his remarks on the cause of this diseale are just and accurate. He combats this lait branch of ihe humoral pathology, in our opinion, with success. Experiments on the Red and Quill Peruvian Bark : with Observa

tions on its History, Mode of Operation, and Ufes. By Ralph Irving. 8vo. 35. in Boards. Robinson.

This subject is almoit exhausted : each practitioner has by this time decided, and we can no longer dwell on it. In these Experiments, which gained the Harveian prize, the red bark feemed the richest in resin, and the briatlett seemed the most active part of it. The pharmaceutic treatment of the bark in general, forms a considerable object of the author's attention ; but of this we can only give a slender outline. The aromatic portion seems to be volatile; consequently the decoction contains the vegetable ingredients, in some degree disunited, and the resin in a great measure feparates on cooling. In the infusion, the cohesion of the several parts is unchanged ; and, in our author's opinion, this is the best preparation. The in. fusion in cold water is preferred ; that in lime-water is much less strong, and probably less active; but the weet spirit of vitriol adds to the power of simple water, as a menitruum. The author's experiments militate strongly, in almost every infance, againit Dr. Percival's conclusions; and, on the subject of vegetable astringents, deserve attention. He clearly shows, that the change of colour, from the addition of a chalybeate, depends on many circumstances besides the strength of the ina fufion ; probably also, it may depend on the nature of the water employed. We thould have selected some of his obser. vations on the aftringent principle ; but they do not, in their present state, admit of any very useful conclusion : there are few fubjects which have yet been so little elucidated, though fo much within our reach. It may be worth observing, that Mr. Irving thinks fixed air, as an acid, constitutes a great share of this principle ; and that, with the essential oil, it may by fome particular modification constitute the relin itself. “We would recommend the last hint to his future consideration.

In a late review of Dr. Kentish's pamphlet, our opinion on the comparative efficacy of the different preparations of the bark, differed from that of Dr. Kentish, which Mr. Irving follows. The accuracy of their experiments is admitted, but our conclusion is very different. We decided from their effects ; and, though we have fince that time more particularly attended to the subject, we find no reason for altering our opinion : perhaps the evolution of the active principles of the bark, in the decoction, may contribute to the efficacy of the preparation. It is how ever necessary to add, that both the infusion and decoction are very inferior in strength to the smallest dose of the fubftance ; bat few are aware that, in substance, the remedy is frequently neither digerted nor carried off from the stomach. It lies like a heavy cold load, and adds to the complaint it was intended to remove. 7



In the author's examination into the mode of operation of the bark, he chiefly follows Dr. Cullen, in thinking that it acts by a tonic power. His account of the uses of his remedy is very concise, and neither new, or particularly interesting. On the whole, the Experiments deserve attention; and we are glad to see the Harveian medal prove so powerful, in drawing into action both genius and industry. A Track upon Indigestion and the Hypochondriac Disease. By James

Rymer, Surgeon. Small 8vo. Evans. The rules for dyspeptic patients, though not unexceptiona able, are yet, on the whole, very proper. The author improves in his knowlege, in his language, and in worldly wildom : for this little tract is only to introduce the use of his tincture, which is prepared by himself. This gives a questionable appearance to the moit falutary lessons.

M IS CE L L A N EO U S. The Life.of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. The Second Edition, with confiderable Adelitions and Correéiions. 12m0. 25. 6d. Kcarsey.

As we did not particularly mention the errors of the first edition, we cannot be exact in enumerating the emendations : in general they are numerous, and the errors, of course, greatly diminished. The anecdotes give a very favourable view of Johnson's shrewdness and benevolence. The account of Dr. Levet is humorous, and in a very different style from other parts of the work.

• Dr. Robert Levet, to whom Dr. Johnson very humanely gave apartments in his house for upwards of (thirty years, hav. ing most of his practice amongst the poor and middling ranks of life, used to accept of gin, brandy, or any other liquor of fered him, in lieu of his fee, sooner than have his kill exerted without any recompence. This singularity Johnson used to Fally with great pleasantry ;-at one time he said, " though he bated inebriety, it was more excusable in Levet than in others, because he became intoxicated on principles of prudence, and when a man cannot get bread by his profeslion, perhaps he is pardonable to accept of drink.” At another time he would say, " Had all Levet's patients maliciously combined to reward him with meat and ftrong liquors initead of money, he would either have burtt, like the dragon in the Apocrypha, through repletion, or have been scorched up like Portia by fwallowing fire."

The following reply appeared fhocking to Dr. Johnson ; yet perhaps it has a merit which bons mois fometimes want, viz. truth.

• Among his fingularities, his love of converfing with the prostitutes he met with in the streets, was not the least. He has been known to carry some of these unfortunate creatures into a cavern, for the sake of Itriving to awaken in them a proper sense of their condition. His younger friends, now and cher, affected to tax him with less chattised intentions; but he


would answer_" No, fir; we never proceed to the opus maga. num. On the contrary, I have rather been disconcerted and fhocked by the replies of these giddy wretches, than Plattered or diverted by their tricks. I remember asking one of them, for what purpose The supposed her Maker had beltowed on her so much beauty. Her answer was-“ To please che gentlemen to be sure ; for what other use could it be given me.”

The Life, in its present state, is not an unpleafing performance, and colerably correct; but the language is not very accurate : the whole is probably not fufficiently extended, or relieved with a proper portion of variety. Much till remains to be known ; and we need not fear, that information will be sparingly beftowed. After this literary meal, we shall probably rather resemble the dragon in the Apocrypha, than the lean kine of Pharaoh. Historical Remarks and Anecdotes on the Castle of the Bastile. Svo.

6d. Cadell. This is a translation from the French formerly published, and for both which the public is indebted to Mr. Howard ; whose motive was to excite in his countrymen a detestation of despotism, and a love for the laws which are the foundation of our liberty. Grammatica. Quest:ones, or a Grammatical Examination, &c. By obe Rev. Mr. Morgan.

Cadell. This publication is intended for the use of schools, particularly thole where the Eton Grammar is taught. That it may be of service towards the object of its defign, we have not any sloubt; bat its utility might have been rendered more general, by adapting it also to other grammars, and by accompanying it with notes, in which we are sorry it is detective.

1 2 mo.

Is. 6.

CORRESPONDENCE. WE have received Dr. Reid's complaisant Letter; and find, on referring to his Essay, the MS. of Dr. Stark quoted in the twenty-lixth page. This circumilance we did not recollect, in our review of the Medical Communications,' in the lait Number ; and we may safely add, that we did not particularly observe the quotation, when we first read the Essay. Dr. Reid will recollect, that it is once only tranfiently referred to, in the middle of chapter on Vomicæ ; and we could not thence fuppure that the substance of the whole chapter was taken from the manuscript. So much we would observe in our own de. fence : at the same time, we readily acquit Dr. Reid of endeavouring, unfairly, to appropriate the labours of another to himself. In this confidence, we shall wait for the work, preparing for the press,' in which it is explained, why the several paffages taken from Dr. Stark were not • marked with inverted commas,'

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Arctic Zoology. 2 Vols. 410. 11. 136. 64. in Beards. Large

Paper 21. gs. in Boards. White. HIS work reflects considerable credit on its author, who

has already been successful in the fame pursuits. Mr. · Pennant's first design was to become the zoologist of North America, while, as a Briton, he could lay some claim to the sovereignty of that vast tract; but since the revolutions on this continent have deprived him of his dominions, he is become a citizen of the world : he is now only confined by an imaginary limit, and occasionally steps beyond it. Perhaps, on account of his first disappointment, he seems to how, in every line where the subject will permit, the indig. nation and forrow which he feels for the separation of Ame. rica. "To us, who wish to view every subject in the most pleasing light, there are many sources of consolation. The present work affords one, which though inconsiderable, is worth mentioning; for had the first design oniy been com, pleted, we should probably have been deprived of a great share of the information and entertainment which we received from the introduction : not to add, that the pleasure which we always feel from accompanying our intelligent naturalist, must increase with the extent of his researches.

His first object was to describe the animals of North Ame. rica only; but he has extended his plan to the farthelt limits of the arctic world, including those of Kamtschatka and the western coasts of America. These he examines not merely as a naturalist, but frequently as a philosopher : an union which is always desirable, though it be not a very frequent occur

The introduction contains a fancied voyage, which has great merit, as it comprehends a philosophical description of the countries inhabited by those animals which the author afterwards describes. This kind of geography, though highly rational, and affording to the speculative mind great entertainment, has seldom been attended to. We gave a specimen VOL. LIX. April, 1785,




of it in our review of captain Cook's last voyage ; for we thought it would be a more instructive account of this celebrated navigator's great attempts, than we could give by extracting , description of the night-dance, or the proceflion of the chiefs of Owhyhce. To these articles, in the fifty-eighth Volume of our Journal, we shall have frequent occasion to refer. Our author fets out from London, and describes the eastern coafts of England and Scotland, the appearance of Shetland, the Feroe Islands, and Iceland, which he fupposes, with great reason, to be the Ultima Thule. From thence he returns to the Atraits of Dover, and examines the opposite coats of Flanders, Holland, Germany, and Jutland; the coaits of the Baltic, including the gulfs of Bothnia and Finland. He then goes along the winding and extensive coast of Norway, to the North Cape. From thence he' takes his departure' for the Cherie islands, and Spitzbergen, and returns to the Cape, again to proceed in order to the White Sea, the mouth of the Lena, the Icy Sea, and Tschutíki-nofs. From thience along a coaft which we have already described, he extends his voyage to the southern extremity of Kamtschatka, examining the intermediate islands, and the famous streight. On the coast of America, he begins his description at California, arid proceeds, in captain Cook's tract, to Icy Cape. From thence he steps to Coppermine river, to Greenland, and America: the survey of the eastern coast of America is finished at the Bay of Fundy.

This is an abstract of our author's philosophical voyage, which abounds with just reflections, accurate obfervations, and splendid descriptions, in his own peculiar energetic language, By a modern polis, the language would probably lose its force; but it would be also free from striking anomalies, both of spelling and construction. We agree with him in many respects, but sometimes think him miltaken. He chiefly fails, in considering the objects in detail, without observing the effects of each change on the neighbouring coafts. As our own situation is of the greates confequence to us, we shall select a specimen from the first part; and it will give us an opportunity of explaining the objection which we have just mentioned.

• Let me take my departure northward, from the foreights of Dover, the fire of the isthmus of the once peninsulated Britain. No certain cause can be given for the nighty convullion which tore us from the continent: whether it was rent by an earthquake, or whether it was worn through by the continual daihing of the waters, no Pythagoras is left to folve the Fortuna locorum :

Vidi ego, quod fuerat quondam folidiflima tellus
El frcrum.


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