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ind impofitions to answer for; and that my good father and grandfather little merited those fair characters which they left behind them, and for which I have ever respected their me. mories I will make to the public a family confesion, and I hope I Hall obtain from the public a family absolution.

In my grandfather's time for it is a tale to which I have often willingly attended, whatever the reader may do-it was the custom for ladies and gentlemen to come to the hop, and to order their own teas.—The cheits used to be spread out, and when my grandfather had mixed some of them together, in the presence of his customers, they used to taste the tea : and the mixing was varied till it suited the palates of the purchasers. At that time of day, no person would have liked the tea, if it had not been mixed. The custom of the purchasers tasting tea in this manner was seldom practised in my father's time : now, it is scarcely ever practised: but the old custom of mixing teas has been uniformly continued : and if I must now lay it aside, I can only say, that I have been learning a leffon, which is not very easily learned, to little purpose. I think howeter that the custom only requires proper explanation to be approved. Throw off the veil of mystery, aud many things which were before alarming, appear to be perfectly harmless.

• Whoever understands tea, and clears home, for example, twenty chefts of hyson, will find, upon tasting them separately and accurately, that some have rather too much flavour, and are therefore coarse, some have too little, and are therefore weak; and that others have-perhaps like those who are to drink them—some little peculiarity, which a proper union will totally remove. By making a judicious mixture out of these cheits, a better tea inay be got, than any of the chests, taken fingly, could afford. Besides, if this custom were not to be pradiled, it would be impoffible to preserve that fimilarity of tea, at any given price, which every dealer must preserve, if he means to give satisfaction to his customer. The pound of tea which he bought out of one of the twenty chests to-day, might perhaps be approved : but if he comes to-morrow, that chest may be gone, and another neither is, nor of course can, without mixing, be made like it. As to imposition, if the tea, when mixed, be good, and honestly worth the price which is required for it, who is imposed upon? Who will complain? If the tea, though taken out of a single chest, be not good, and not worth the money which is asked for it, will not every perfon think himself imposed upon ? Will not every person complain? I hope then that the tea-dealer who fairly and anxiously mixes his chests of genuine tea together, in order, not to impole upon his customers, but to give them fatisfaction, will no longer be ranked aniong the adulterators of tea.

• I have confined myielf to the instance of my own practice, because I have no right to speak with equal freedom, and equal certainty, of the practice of others : lo far however from in.


tending to lay claim to the fole poffeffion of the art of mixing, I verily believe it is, and always was, generally practised. There is indeed one species of tea'-I mean bloom-which though it actually improves other teas, when properly mixed with them, would, by itself, be almost universally difiked. If, after all, any person should prefer his own opinion in this matter to that of the tea-dealers, and would be better pleased with his tea, if it me out of a fingle chest, than if it were mixed, he may certainly have it fo.'

The other accusation, or that of adulterating tea, relates to a practice so extremely iniquitous that it merits the fevereft reprehenfion. Mr. Twining, upon the authority of a gentle man who is said to have made very accurate enquiries with regard to this subject, has also disclosed to the public the infamous arts of adulteration. These are fuch as cannot buc excite the most indignant sentiments in every reader : and though we approve the ingenuousness with which Mr. Twining has communicated this information, we should not have tained our Review with the recital of such Stygian prepa rations, were we not of opinion that the publication of those abominable frauds is more likely to operate in the way of prevention than of incitement. The following are the prescrip: tions.

“ Method of making smouch with anh tree leaves, to mix with black teas.-When gathered they are first dried in the fun, and then baked, they are next put upon a floor and trod upon until the leaves are finall, then lifted and steeped in cop. peras, with sheeps dung; after which, being dried on a floor, they are fit for use."

Another mode.-When the leaves are gathered they are boiled in a copper with copperas and sheep dung; when the liquor is ftrained off, they are baked and trod upon, until the leaves are small, after which they are fit for use.

“ The quantity manufactured at a small village, and within eight or ten miles thereof, cannot be ascertained; but is sup. posed to be about twenty tons in a year.-One man acknow, leges to have made fix hundred weight in every week, for fix months together.

“ The fine is fold at 4.. 4s. per cwt. equal to gd. per lh. “ The coarse,

21. 2s. 'ditto, ditto, 41d. ditto. “ Elder buds are manufactured in some places, to represent fine teas."

• 'This iniquitous trade has been carried on a long time: though not in so extensive a way as within these few years. In the 11th Geo. I. cap: 30, sect. 5, it is enacted, " That the dealer in tea, or manufacturer, or dyer thereof, who shall coun terfeit or adulterate tea, or shall alter, fabricate,' or manufacture it with terra japanica, or with any other drug or drugs D4


whatsoever, or shall mix with tea any leaves, other than leaves of tea, (thus, in the time of Geo. 1. real tea was allowed to be mixed with real tea), or other ingredients whatsoever, thall forfeit the sum of one hundred pounds."

• It is also recited, in the 4th of Geo. II. cap. 14, feet. That several ill-dispored persons do frequently dye, fabricate, or manufacture, very great quantities of floe leaves, liquorith leaves, and the leaves of tea that have before been used, or the leaves of other trees, Thrubs, or plants, in imitation of tea, and do likewise mix, colour, itain, and dye such leaves, and hkewise tea, with terra japanica, fugar, moloffes, clay, logwood, and with other ingredients, and do fell and vend the fame as true and real tea, to the prejudice of the health of his majesty's fubjects, the diminution of the revenue, and to the rain of the fair trader :" and the dealer in, or seller of, fuch 4 fopbisticated" tea, is to forfeit the sum of ten pounds for every pound weight.

It appears from the 17th of Geo. III. cap. 29, “ that this trade had increased to a very great degree, to the injury and destruction of great quantities of timber, woods, and underwoods, the prejudice of the health of his majesty's subjects, the diminution of the revenue, the ruin of the fair trader, and to the encouragement of idleness :” and, by the fame act, the feller or manufacturer of such tea is to forfeit five pounds per pound weight; or upon non-payment of that fum, be committed to prison, for any time not exceeding twelve months.

Hitherto government has not been able to supprefs this trade : but, when the smuggling of real tea shall claim less of their attention, I hope they will exert themselves with vigour, and put a stop to the manufacture of English tea.

• It is, then, sufficiently apparent, that there is such a thing as adulterated tea : there is plenty of it. and the public may naturally enquire how they are to avoid it. My answer is, by buying iheir tea of reputable tear dealers, who are, I dare say, to be found in every part of the kingdon ; and by avoiding those dealers of a different description, who ofter their teas to sale at lower prices than those at which legal and genuine teas can be afforded.'."

Mr. Twining afterwards proceeds to consider the principal objections that have been made to the tea-act, with the mean of rendering it productive of the purposes for which it was framed,

He observes that the present failure of the bill is to be corrected by lowering the prices of tea, until they correlpond with those which were held out to the public. This, he thinks, can be effected by one method only; which is, by the company's having an ample quantity in this kingdon. Let them but have this, says he, and the smuggler muit. inevitably give way. He is bowever of opinion, that the company cannot have from China á fuficient quantity of each Species of

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tea before the year 1786 : but he observes that there are already large quantities of tea upon the continent: more are expected to arrive there; and from this tock, the East India company ought, if poflible, to fupply themselves. This me. thod, which is clearly founded in good policy, would certainly be productive of advantageous effecs ; for by purchasing the foreign teas, not only will the legal market be furnished with that supply which it so much flands in need of, but the illegal market will be deprived of the resource by which it is fupported.

Having laid before our readers. this account of Mr. Twining's Observations, a regard to juftice obliges us to acknowlege, in the most explicit terms, both the real and the difcerament which he has fo, remarkably manifefted, by the ata tention bestowed on this fubject. His habits of life have afe forded him the most favourable opportunities of acquiring in formation in whatever relates to the tea-trade; and at a time which peculiarly called for the aid of such knowlege, he has contributed his experience towards the interests of the community, in a manner so unreserved, fo judicious, and at the fame time fo modeft, though not diffident, as reflects great credit, not only upon his understanding, but his public virtue.

Remarks on the Repurt of the East India Directors, respecting the

Sale and Prices of Tea. By Richard Twining. 8vo. 1$. 6d, Cadell. W ITH respect to any other mercantile fubject, we are of

opinion that the greater part of our readers would excuse us from entering upon any detail of prices, calculations, and, in general, all technical circumstances; but when tea, when all-fubduing tea is the object of enquiry, did we appear not to bestow fufficient attention upon it, we should most cere tainly incur the censure of the politest circles in the kingdom. We therefore consider ourselves as under the necessity of ex, hibiting a more full account of the pamphlet before us, than the nature of fuch commercial publications might otherwise reqaire : and we are glad to find that the great intelligence discovered by this author, relative to the tea-trade, is likely to render the narrative more interesting to the public.

Mr. Twining admits that the Ealt India company was liberal in putting up, at the first sale, much more tea than had been enjoined by the act of parliament; and that the company might, perhaps, reasonably think, a priori, that the quantity would be suficient. He cannot however admit,

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that the company has abundantly fulfilled the intentions of the legislature, in point of supplying the market with a fufficient quantity of tea.' • They have indeed, says he, done more than fulfil the bare direction, but I shall never think they have fulfilled the intention of the legislature, or that the market has been supplicd with a fufficient quantity of tea, till the price is reduced as low as it ought to be.' Mr. Twining ob. ferves that the December sale, though it contains half a mila lion inore than the quantity mentioned in the act; and though it might be sufficient to keep the prices right, if it found them fo, is by no means sufficient to effect that reduction which ought to take place. If the directors should say, that their stock of teas would not enable them to make a larger sale, especially of congou and scuchong, where the excess principally is, he acknowleges that their plea is founded in fact. But he observes, it is one thing to say that they could not put up a sufficient quantity, and another thing to say that they pave done it.

In treating of the account of the saving alledged to have arisen upon teas, according to the Itatement of the Report, in which the annual consumption is estimated at ten, eleven, twelve, thirteen, and fourteen millions, our author makes the following observations.

· The annual average consumption of tea, which paid duty, was 4,889,390 pounds weight. To whatever sum the actual reduction of price upon that quantity of tea thall amount, that fum will certainly be saved. If the directors intended to Mew the saving which would result from a larger quantity, they ought not to have reckoned any more dury-paid tea than 4,589,390 pounds : and they should have calculated the deficiency at the price of smuggled tea. If, for inttance, the dis re&ors wihed to thew what effect the new plan would have, upon a supposition that the East India company were to se! 12 millions of teas annually, at the present prices, they should have contrasted the amount of 12 millions at those prices, with the joint amount of about five millions of tea at the old average prices of duty-paid tea, and seven millions at the old average prices of smuggled tea. Instead of doing this, they reckon the whole 12 millions at the price of old duty-paid tea; and hav. ing thus obtained a vast and imaginary ium of saving, they give the public reason to look for it at the hands of the team dealer. But to hold out such large savings as never will, never can, be obtained ; and to infinuate blame to others, if they be not obtained, is not less an imposition upon the public than unfair and ungenerous treatment of the tea-dealers.

• Whatever {úm the public, or rather the former consumers of duty-paid tea may have saved upon the last sale, it is certain that they have saved upwards of 150,cool, lels than they ought


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