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II. A Consolatory Oration on the Departure of Salius, bis confidential friend, who was going into Illyricum.

III. An Epistle to the Emperor Constantius.

IV. A Manifcito to the Senate and People of Athens; written soon after his being proclaimed emperor of the Gauls, and while he was marching with his army against Conítantius, ex: plaining the motives of his conduct, and fully describing the patience with which he had borne the repeated injuries and provocations of Conftantius, and the great reluctance with which, by the concurrence of the army, he was exalted to' the empire.

V. An Allegorical Fable. Julian has worked the crimes and misfortunes of the family of Constantine into this alle, gory. It forms the conclusion of the seventh pration.

VI. The Duties of a Prieft, extracted from the Fragment of an Oration, or an Epistle. This piece confits of initruc, tion, addrefied by him, in quality of Sovereign pontiff, to a pagan prieit. Though this apoftate has expressed himself with great virulence against the sacred writers ; yet most of the yules, which he prescribes to his pontiffs, are formed upon the idea of what the Christian church requires of her clergy. The translator has omitted the author's ' blasphemies.'

VII. The Cæfars. Julian composed his fatire after he was emperor, in 361. This is deemed the matter-piece of Julian, Mr. Gibbon Styles it, one of the most agreeable and instructive productions of ancient wit.' The abbé de la Bleterie fays, • It is a moving picture, in which the spectator fees rapidly, paffing before his eyes, but without confusion, those matters of the world, despoiled of their grandeur, and reduced to their vices and their virtues. By the aid of a fimple and in: genious fiction, Julian 'makes those, who have dishonoured the purple, disappear with ignominy; and among those, who deserve to be placed in the number of sovereigns, he chooses the most i!luftrigus, to make them contend for pre-emninence Though he seems to leave the question undetermined, it is sufficiently clear, that Marcus Aurelius is the hero of the piece ; that Julian gives him the preference, and means to announce to the world, that he has taken that philosopher for his model. I do not think, continues this writer, that in any work to short, are to be found at once fo many characters and panners, so much refinement and folidity, so much intruction, without the author's ever affuming a dogmatical tone, so much wit and pleasantry, without his ever ceasing to initruct. The work however, he allows, is not exempt from faults. Some of his railleries are frigid, others appear to be ground

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less, or too severe; and the indecent manner in which he treats his uncle Constantine the Great, is inexcusable.

In this fable, the gods and the Cæfars are supposed to be invited by Romulus to a banquet. On the appearance of the Cæfars, Silenus, Apollo, Mercury, &c, make remarks on their follies and foibles, their virtues and vices. It will be expected, that we should give an extract from this applauded performance. We shall take it from the first


which relates to characters more known and intereiting to the generality of readers.

• As soon as the table was spread for the Cæsars, the first who appeared was Julius Cæsar. Such was his passion for gloty, that he seemed willing to contend for dominion with Jupiter himself. Silenus, observing him, said, “Behold, Jus piter, one who has ambition enough to endeavour to dethrone you : he is, you see, strong and handsome, and, if he resembles me in nothing else, his head, at least, is certainly the fellow of mine."

Amidit these jokes of Silenus, to which the gods paid little attention, Octavianus entered. He assumed, like a camelion, various colours, at first appearing pale, then black, dark, and cloudy, and, at last, exhibiting the charms of Venus and the Graces. In the lustre of his eyes he seemed willing to rival the sun ; nor could any one encounter his looks. “ Strange !" cried Silenus; " what a changeable creature is this ! what mif* chief will he do us !” “ Ceaie triling,” said Apollo,

“ After I have configned him to Zeno, I will exhibit him to you pure as gold. Hark ye,” added he to that philosopher ; " Zeno, undertake the care of my pupil,” Hle, in obedience, suggests ing to him a very few precepts, as if he had muttered the incantations of Zamolxis, foon rendered him wise and virtuous.

"The third who approached was Tiberius, with a grave but fierce alpeei, appearing at once both wise and martial. As he turned io fit down, his back displayed several scars, some cauteries and fores, severe itripes and bruises, scabs and tumours, imprinted by lust and intemperance. Siienus then saying,

" Far diff'rent now thou seemeft than before, in a much more serious tone,

Why so grave, my dear?” said Bacchus. “That old fatyr,” replied he, " has terrified me, and made me inadvertently quote a line of Homer.” “ Take care that he does not also pull your ears,” said Bacchus ; " for thus, it is said, he treated a certain grammarian.” “ He had better,” returned Silenus, “ bemoan himself in his solitary island (meaning Caprex) and tear the face of some miserable fisherman.”

• While they were thus joking, a dreadful monster (Caligula appeared. The gods averting their eyes, Nemesis delivered him to the avenging Furies, who immediately threw him into Tartarus, without allowing Silenus to accost him. But on the




approach of Claudius, Silenus began to sing the beginning of the part of Demofthenes in the Knights of Aristophanes, ca. joling Claudius. Then turning to Quirinus, “ You are unjust,” said he, “to invite your descendant without his freedmen, Narcissus and Pallas. But, besides them, you should also send for his wife Meffalina, for without them, he appears like guards in a tragedy, mute and inanimate.”

• While Silenus was speaking, Ners entered, playing on his harp, and crowned with laurel. Silenus then turned to Apollo, and said, " This man makes you his model.” “I shall foon uocrown him,” replied Apollo : " he did not imitate me in every thing, and when he did, he was a bad imitator." Cocytus therefore instantly swept him away, diverted of his crown.

• After him, seeing many come crowding together, Vindex, Otho, Galba, Vitellius, Silenus exclaimed, “Where, ye gods, have found such a multitude of monarchs? We are suffocated with smoke; for beasts of this kind spare not even the temples of the gods.” Jupiter then looked at his brother Sc. rapis, and said, pointing to Vespalian," send this miser, as soon. as possible, out of Egypt, to extinguish thefe flames. Bid his eldeft fon (Titus] solace himself with a prostitute, but chain, his younger son [Domitian), near the Sicilian tyger.”

• Then came an old man (Nerva), of a beautiful aspect (for even old age is sometimes beautiful), in his manners moit gentle, and in his administration mild. With him Silenus was to delighted, that he remained filent.

“ What!” said Mercury, 6 have you nothing to say of this man ?” Yes, by Jupiter," he replied ; " for I charge you all with partiality, in suffering that blood-thirsty monfter to reign fifteen years, but this man scarce a whole year.” “ Do not complain,” answered Jupiter ; “ many good princes shall succeed him.”

Trajan immediately entered, bearing on his houlders the Getic and Parthian trophies. Silenus, observing him, said, in a low voice, but loud enough to be heard, “Our lord Jupiter must now be careful, or he will not be able to keep Ganymede to himself.” After him advanced a venerable fage (Hadrian], with a long beard ; an adept in music, gazing frequently on the heavens, and curiously investigating the abstruseft fubjects. “ What,” said Silenus, " think you of this fophift? Is he looking for Antinous ? If so, one of you may tell him that the youth is not here, and thus check his madness and folly.To these succeeded a man of moderation, not in venereal but political pursuits [Antoninus Pius.] Silenus, on seeing him, exclaimed, “ Strange ! how important is he in trifles! This old man seems to me one of thole who would harangue about a pin's point."

• At the entrance of two brothers, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, Silenus contracted his brow, as he could by mo means jeer or deride them. Marcus in particular, though ho fri&tly scrutinised his conduct with regard to his fon aid his


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wife; as to her, in his immoderate grief for her death, though The little deserved it; as to him, in hazarding the rain of the empire by preferring him to a difcreet fon-in-law, who would have made a better prince, and studied the advantage of his fon more than he did himself. Notwithitanding these failings, Silenus could not but admire his exalted virtue. Thinking his fon (Commodus unworthy of any ftroke of wit, he silently dismified him, And he, not being able to support himself, or associate with the heroes, fell down to the earth.'

After the Cæsars had passed in review before the gods, and among them Alexander the Great, it was agreed, that the most renowned heroes should contend for saperiority ; that every one should severally speak for himself, and that the gods Mould give their votes. When their proper turns were asfigned them, Julius Cæfar thus began :

" It was my good fortune, O Jupiter and ye gods, to be born, after many heroes, in that illuitrious city, which has ex. tended ber dominion farther than any other; so that they all may be satisfied, if they obtain the second place. For what other city, deducing its origin from three thousand men, has, in less than fix hundred years, carried its conquests to the utmost extremities of the earth? What other nation has produced so many distinguithed warriors and legislators, or such devout worshippers of the gods ? Born in a city so renowned, I sure passed, by my actions, not only my contemporaries, but all the heroes that ever lived. Of my own countrymen I know not one that will deny me the superiority, But as this Grecian is so prefumptuous, which of his actions will he pretend to put in competition with mine? His Persian trophies, perhaps, as if he knew not how many I won from Pompey. And who was the most experienced general, Pompey or Darius ? Which of them commanded the bravest troops + Instead of the refuse of mankind, Pompey had in his army more warlike nations than were ever subject to Darius ; of Europeans, those who had often routed the hostile Afiatics, and of them the most valiant ; Italians, Illyrians, and Gauls. Having mentioned the Gauls, can the Getic exploits of Alexander be compared with my conqueft of Gui? He passed the Danube once; I twice passed the Rhine; and of my German viétories no one can dispute the glory. I fought with Ariovistus.

"I was the first Roman who dared to cross the German ocean. Though this was a wonderful atchievement, however it may be admired, more glorious was my intrepidity in being the firft who leaped on shore. Of the Helvetic and Iberian nations I say nothing ; nor have I mentioned my actions in Gaul, where I took above three hundred towns, and defeated iwo millions of men. Great as these actions were, that which followed was greater and more illustrious. Being obliged to wage war with my fellow-citizens, 1 vanquished the uncon



quered and invincible Romans. If we hould be judged by the number of our battles, I fought thrice as many as are afcribed to Alexander by his greatest panegyrists; if by the namber of towns taken, not in Asia only, but also in Europe, I reduced more. Alexander saw and traversed Ægypt; 1, while I fealted there, subdued it. Will you also com pare the clemency of each of us, when vi&orious ? I pardoned my enemies, and received from them such a return as Nemesis has revenged. He never spared his enemies, nor even his friends. In particular, as you dispute the pre-eminence, and will noc immediately yield to me, like the rest, you compel me to mention your cruel behaviour to the Thebans. On the contrary, how great was my humanity to the Helvetii! The cities of the former were burnt by you ; the cities of the latter, burnt by their own inhabitants, were re-built by me. Which, in fhort, was most illuftrious ; your defeating ten thousand Greeks, or my repulsing the attacks of a hundred and fifty thousand Romans? Much more could I add, both of Alexan. der and myself; but as I never had leisure to study the art of oratory, you must excuse me, and, forming a just and impar. tial judgement both from what I have said, and what I have omitted, will, I doubt not, give me the fuperiority.”

Alexander replied in a spirited harangue, which, on account of the limits of our Review, we must omit,

VIII. The Misopogon. Julian having been insulted in satires and libels by the people of Antioch, contented himself with an inoffensive mode of retaliation ; compofing, under the title of The Enemy of the Beard, an ironical confession of his own faults; and a fevere satire on the licentious and effeminate manners of Antioch.

Two short paragraphs from this piece will be fufficient to give the reader an idea of the emperor's pleasantry.

First, I will begin with my face. To this, formed by nature not over beautiful, graceful, or becoming, my own perverseness and fingalarity have added this long beard, to punith it, as it were, for no other reason but because nature has not made it handsome. Therefore I suffer lice to scamper about it, like beasts through a thicket : I cannot indulge myself in eating voraciously, and must be cautious of opening my mouth wide when I drink, left I swallow as many hairs as crumbs. As for kissing, and being kissed, they give me not the least trouble.

• Yet amongst other inconveniencies of my beard, this is one, that it prevents my joining pure lips to smooth, and, I think, much sweeter lips, as was formerly observed by one, who, ina fpired by Pan and Calliope, made some verses on Daphnis. You fay, that " it is only fit to twift into ropes.” That I would readily allow, provided you could fo artfully extract the bristles, as to prevent their hurting your soft and tender fingers..

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