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This day is published a new Treatise on the Upper Regions of the Air, being the result of many observations thereon during a considerable time of refidence in the Upper Regions of the Atmosphere, upwards of ten miles distant from the earth. -Together with fome few remarks on the means of preserving a due respiration in a pure æther : calculated principally for the use of the gentlemen now engaged to make a journey to the moon. By T. B. member of the Lunatic Society in Moore fields.

But in the year 1787, the invention seems to be almost com. pleted; and our author, if he indeed believes his own oracles, might have exclaimed with Pope,

• Think what an equipage thou hast in air,

And view, with scorn, two pages and a chair.' « Advertisement. Mr. Stargazer, of Half-moon-Itreet, being allowed by all those he has the honour to be acquainted with, to be the completest builder of castles in the air of any architect in this kingdom, begs leave to acquaint the nobility and gentry, that, should he meet with proper encouragement, he could fix places of refreshment in the middle regions of the air, at several stages in the course to Bath, whereby they might, on travelling thither, be accommodated with any thing they may want on the voyage, without the trouble of descending to the earth-which cannot but be agreeable during the hot summer months.'

We shall take our leave of this merry author, by returning now, as we had not an earlier opportunity, his compliment of merry

Christmas and a happy new year.' Birth-day Conversation anticipated ; or, a Peep into the Dracving

Room, on the 18th of January. 410. Is. 6d. Smith. This author has contrived to bring together a number of eminent personages of both sexes; but their conversation is far from doing honour to the British court, either in point of ingenuity or delicacy. Should he ever be admitted to more than an imaginary peep into the drawing-room, he foon would become sensible that he has entirely misrepresented the dialogue of that elegant affembly. In the mean time, as we wish him not to incur any disappointment, we hope he has not also anti: cipatid much profit from this production. 'Tis well if it can afford a bottle of honeit port to celebrate her majesty's birth. day. An Address to the Officers of the British Army; containing a Sketch

of the Case of Capt. Kenith Mackenzie, who was lately tried by a Special Commision at Justice-Hall in the Old-Dailey, for the Murder of Kenith Mackenzie, at Fort Morea, on the Coast of Africa. 8vo. 15. 6d. Keariley.

While the case of captain Mackenzie excites universal commiseration, it also exposes a very important defect in the cria minal jurisdiction of this country, fo famed for the equity of its decisions, both in respect of what concerns the property and the life of the subject. The mode of trial by a jury is the invaluable

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privilege of Britons; but this privilege, however highly

and juftly prised, would become of little avail to the public, tolald either the integrity or the undertanding of juries ever be found defective. Of the integrity of the jury which tried captain Mackenzie, we do not imagine that the smallest degree of doubt can be entertained; but, without any impeachment of their natural understanding, their competency for judging in such a case as the present may reasonably be called in queition. There is a palpable impropriery in trying by a civil jury the conduct of a military officer for an act committed in the discharge of his professional department. In a trial of such a kind, the prisoner is, in fact, not judged by his peers, and is therefore denied the protection of that principle which is regarded as inseparable from liberty.

The author of the present address has placed this circumstance in a very clear light; and his reasoning is, in our opinion, so forcible, that it must meet with general acquiescence. If we are not misinformed by the news-papers, an enquiry, at the command of his majesty, has lately been made into captain Mackenzie's conduct by military officers. The result of the investigation has not yet transpired, but there is the strongest reason to expect, that by a tribunal fo conftituted, the offence will not be deemed capital. From all the circumstances of the case, it appears that the conduct of captain Mackenzie was di&tated by necessity; and that, had he not exerted himself in the manner he did, not only his own life, but the possession of the fortress, would have fallen a sacrifice to chat daring spirit of mutiny discovered by the deceased, and with which the:e was reason to fear the whole garrison was deeply contaminated, That captain Mackenzie will receive his majesty's pardon is not to be questioned; but we cannot help regretting, that any subject of the realm should be reduced to the situation of a capital convict, under circumstances which strongly plead for a deviation from the usual mode of trial in indictments of this kind. A genuine Detail of the several Engagement, Pofitions, and Move.

ments of the Royal and American Armies, during the Years 1775 and 1776; with an accurate Account of the Blockade of Boston, and a Plan of ihe Works on Bunker's Hill, at the Time it was abandoned by bis Majesty's Forces on the 17th of March, 1776. By it illiam Carter. 410. 25. 6d. Kearsley.

The information afforded by these letters may be true, but they seem not to relate the whole truth; and Mr. Carter's authority is in general too vague to convey any such idea of the military transactions, as might enable us to judge with regard to the conduct of the commanding officers on either fide. The letters are short and distinct, but fo inconsequential, for the reason we have mentioned, that we shall make no other obfervacion to Mr, Carter than -jubes renovare dolorem,'

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CORRESPONDENCE.
To the EDITOR of the CRITICAL REVIEW.

SIR,

AS you were so obliging as to announce my intention to revive the Theological Repository, I hope you will indulge me once more with leave to acquaint the friends of free inquiry, that the First Number of it was published on the ift of December last, the Second will be ready for publication on the ift of February next; and that it will continue to be publithed occasionally, as proper materials are received for it. Several very important articles are already in the course of discussion ; and as it will be open to any query, or difficulty, relating to religion, and it is wined that the writers should conceal their names, it is hoped that many persons may derive great alistance from it in their enquiries. A particular account of the plan of the work may be seen in the Introduction to it. I am, Sir,

Birminghairt, Your obliged humble fervant, 2;th fart. 1785.

J. PRIESTLEY.

To the EDITOR of the CRITICAL Review. SIR, AS you have admitted into your candid and useful publication, a cenfure on the (fuppofed) indelicacy of those who, during the life-time of the authoress of the Introduction to the reading of the Scriptures,' have printed a new edition of that little piece, with defalcations and alterations,' some of the persons involved in that cenfure, request the favour that you would make their apology to the lady and the public, by stating the real fact in your Review.

They folemnly declare that they neither knew from what hand that work had proceeded, nor whether the writer of it was alive. Much pleased however both with the plan and the execution of the work, and urged by the desire of farther ex. tending its utility, they formed the resolution of publishing a new edition of it; in which design, as well as in a suspicion that the writer was dead, they were confirmed, by understanding that the work had been out of print for some years.

Under these circumstances, the production seeming to them to have become publici juris, they resolved that the new edition 1hould be improved with such alterations and remarks as would accomniodate it more generally to the different fects of Proteftants. Having been actuated neither by motives of emolument nor fame, but merely by benevolence, and a regard to the intereits of Christianity, they flatter themselves that their conduct will not incur the disapprobation of a lady who has herfelf displayed, in that cause, so much zeal as well as abilities.

This, Sir, is the true state of the case ; and if you will be fo good as to communicate it to the public, you will do a favour to all concerned, and particularly to the

EDITOR of the Introduction, &c.

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CRITICAL REVIEW.

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For

FEBRUARY, 1785.

Medical Communications. Vol. 1. (Concluded, from p. 14.)

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Deglutition. By the late William Keir, M.D.-The difficulty of degulition was attended with cough, and the Auid swallowed was rejected, seemingly before it reached the stomach. The cause was a fingular one. A large ulcer in the upper and back part of the lobe of the langs, had penetrated through the crophagus, and partly through the substance of the trachea ; so that Auids' passed into this cavity, which extended from the first to the fourth vertebra of the back, instead of the stomach. The fubfcquent cough is easily explained. The case is related with fingular precision and perfpicuity.

XII. A Case of Ascites, in which the Water was drawn off by tapping the Vagina. By Henry Watson, F.R.S.-The ascites was a compound one ; for, besides the usual collection of water in the cavity of the peritoneum, one of the ovaria was much enlarged, and filled with a fluid. The chief curio. sity in this history is the mode of operation, which the author thinks more convenient than the common one, on account of the part being more depending than that usually punctured. To the method, with the precautions which Mr. Watson recommends, we at present see no objection. We hall not abridge them, left we might undefignedly misrepresent.

XIII. A Cafe of Peripneúmony, attended with Emphy. sema. By Gcorge Hicks, M. D.-Instead of a Case of Pe. ripneumony, attended with Emphysema, we think it may be more properly styled a Case of Emphysema, producing appearances of Peripneumony. The explanation of the fact feems to be, that by too great exertion, some of the smaller' veficles of the lungs bad burst: the air, escaping into the cellular texture, pressed on the vessels, and impeded the circulation through this organ. The author observes, that on the return of the emphysematous swelling about the breast and VOG. LIX. Feb. 1785.

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neck, there was a constant exacerbation of the peripneumonic symptoms ;' and the disease yielded only to a continuance of the remedies for emphysema. The expectoration might be a symptom of the cure, as well as the cause of the relief.

XIV. A Case of Emphysema, brought on by severe Labour Pains, Communicated by Samuel Fuart Simmons, M.D.F.R.S. -This Case was suggested by the former: the vesicle burst from. the straining of labour in the upper part of the langs; but the air did not diffuse itself through the lungs. It paffed immediately through the cellular texture of the surface, and consequently did not produce any peripneumonic symptoms.

XV. An Account of a large Aneurism in the Abdominal Portion of the Aorta; with some introductory Reflections on the Artery in its diseased state. By Henry Watson, F.R. S. -The introductory remarks on this subject are not very important: the case itself is neither void of curiosity, nor of utility, so far as it is useful to be able to distinguish diseases, whose appearance is equivocal, and which we cannot cure The pain, from too great exertion, was first confined to the patient's back, it then extended to his left side, and afterwards through the whole abdomen. The swelling first appeared under the false ribs of the left side ; and at length a pulsation was to be felt in it. If we except the last, neither of these symptoms would be readily attributed to an aneurism. On dissection however, it really appeared to be an aneurism of the aorta, extending from about one inch and a quarter above the cæliac artery, to some way below the mesenteric trunk. The diseased portion was in length about two inches and three quarters. It lay across the spine, and had forced the left kidney from its place, which formed the anterior part of the tumor.

XVI. An Account of the Effect of some Medicines employed in the Cure of Cutaneous Diseases. By James Care michael Smyth, M. D. F.R. S.-Every one, frequently engaged in practice, has experienced the obstinacy of cutaneous diseases. They often seem to yield, but it is to return again with the most tiresome perseverance. The usual medicine is mercury, with which we sometimes cure the complaint at the expence of the conftitution.

Plummer's alterative pill is the most innocent form. Dr. Smyth's views have been properly turned to other medicines. In one case, the tincture of cantharides succeeded ; but, except in this instance, he never completely cured the herpes with this medicine alone. We have been more fortunate ; and when the patient could bear it in a large dose, have not often failed. It seems however more frequently useful in the moist, than the dry herpes. Dr.

Smyth

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