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- They do not appear in any public procellion till the 1339, when they are mentioned in the description of the cea remonies, with which Anne of Cleves was received, by the disappointed monarch, who did not fuffer his disguft to tarnih the fplendour destined to attend her arrival. The little alterations, made by Mary, were soon resored by Elizabeth, who poffeffed the magnificence of her father. We must here take leave of their fplendour. Lord Hunsdon, their captain during the latter part of this reign, describes them, in a letter to James, in the following manner.

• They are in all fifty gentlemen, besides myself, the lieu: tenant, standard-bearer, clerk of the cheque, and gentleman harbinger, chofen out of the best and ancienteft families of England, and fome of them fons to earls, barons, knights, and esquires, men thereunto especially recommended for their woc. thyness and sufficiency, without any stain or taint of dishonour, or disparagement in blood. Her majesty, and other princes, her predecessors, have found great use of their service, as well in the guard and defence of their royal persons, as also in fundry other important employments, as well civil as military, at home and abroad; infomuch as it hath served them always as a nursery to breed up deputies of Ireland, ambassadors into foreign parts, counsellors of state, captains of the guard, governors of places, and commanders in the wars, both by land and sea. Withall, I cannot omit to fignify to your majelty their alacrity and affection wherewith, upon the decease of her high nefs, they did embrace your majesty's title and cause; infomuch that, upon my motion, they did molt willingly offer themselves to a strong and settled combination, by a solema oath and vow, to defend and profecute your majetty's lawful right and title by themselves, their friends, allies, and followers (being no contemptible portion of this kingdom) to the last drop of their blood, against all impugners whatsoever ; with which humble and dutifull desires of theirs to serve your majefty, I thought it my part and duty to acquaint you, and with., all humbly defire to know your majesty's pleasure and resolution as concerning them.”,

At a subsequent period, lord Clare declared that, when he was in the band, he did not know a worfe man in it than himfelf, though he had then an inheritance of 4000l, per


But all these representations had little effect on the indigent and parfimonious fucceffor of Elizabeth. The rank of the pensioners gradually decayed; the diet, appointed by Eliza. beth, was retrenched ; and in lieu of it board-wages were allowed. This difgraceful change feems to have been continued during the reign of the first Charles, when their attendance

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was rigidly exacted. During the protectorate, the band was neglected : they had too loyally adhered to their master, to expect Cromwell's attention ; and, in that precise court, show was very little regarded. But the mistrustful usurper retained the guard nearly with the same title : twenty gentlemen, with axes, were ordered constantly to attend him. With Charles the Second, the pensioners appear almost in their former fplendour ; but, in 1670, were reduced to forty, their present number.

We have thus given a short history of this company, with as great precision as our limits will permit. Their present duty is only mounting guard in the presence chamber; but, formerly, they served both as horse and foot on different occasions, with their spears or their axes. They received orders to attend with their horses in 1745; and they will perhaps allow us to express our earnest wishes, that we may never see them in every part of their former office.—Though the subjects of these two little volumes be not capable of much ornament, yet they are highly interesting to those who are fond of similar speculations; and we imagine that few possess so little curiosity, as not to derive confiderable entertainment from inquiries, so nearly related to the former customs, and to the history of their own country.

A Review of Locke's Denial of Innate Ideas, Secondary Que

lities, &c. 8vo. 25. 6d. Law. LOCKE was opposed with violence, while he lived, and the

warring spirits were scarcely subdued by his death. But, his political tenets hávc, lately procured him more enemies or admirers than his metaphysical disquisitions : they have have been the touchstone by which all his merit has been appreciated. The reviewer before us, if he has felt this bias, has concealed it, and the metaphysics of Locke are his chief object; but his discernment and acquisitions are not fufficiently confiderable to prepare him for this sharp conteft. He is sel. dom precise or diftin&t in his conceptions; and more feldom clear or accurate in his language. The metaphysician, who can confound ' innate ideas' and · inherent faculties,' can judge as well of his subject, as a deaf man of the tone of a harpfichord, or a blind one of the colours of a rainbow. Our readers will be contented with this part of the reasoning, as a short specimen.

• He talks of inherent faculties (end of sec. 2.) What is it but these very inherent faculties, so named by him, by 1


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which a supposition of innate ideas had generally taken place ? Locke, by his inherent faculty, attempts to overturn what cannot be overturned without proving that all along fallacious by which it is overturned ; and it seems very strange that he should admit inherent faculties, and yet so ftrenuously argue against the stedfastness of moral light : chap. iii. sec. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13. Moreover, how do his citations in the 9th fection of that chapter, agree with these words of this?" And. no less unreasonable would it be to attribute several truths to the impressions of nature and innate characters, when we may observe in ourselves faculties fit to attain as easy and certain knowlege of them, as if they were originally imprinted on the mind.” How, I say, are the ignorances and enormities he speaks of, reconcilable with such inherent faculties which he somewhere terms native ? And I would ask, what truths our faculties" easily and certainly" enable us to attain, since he affirms in the next page that " whatsoever is, is," and “ it is intpossible for the same tbing to be, and not to be,” are unknown to a great part of mankind, and (chap. iv. sec. 8, particularly) That many, that whole nations, civilized nations, have no knowlege of the grand and manifeft truth, the existence of God, or different and contrary opinions of bim :" see chap. iv. sect. 17. Is it imaginable that any civilized nation should be without persons possessed of ro important a knowlege, “ easily and certainly attainable ?” Nay, is not the appellation manifest contradictorily in terms applied to truths thus unknown. Then, on the other side, if the facts are as he represents them, then I say, his inherent faculties, fubtitutes of innate ideas, become likewise inane. If whole nations, whole civilized nations, are deftitute of such persons, mankind can lay no claim to stedfastness, to any consistent ideas, innate or adscitious,'

We should not have stated this question, if the strange in. attention of our reviewer to definitions, and his mistakes on the most obvious subjects, had not rendered it necessary. The point in dispute is, whether all our ideas (taking the word in its common meaning) cannot be ultimately derived from those which are conveyed to the mind by the organs of sense, though their appearance be changed by abstraction or combination ; so that, in different circumstances, they appear as sensual, intellectual, or in all the variety between each.

This question has little connection with inherent faculties, unless so far as both are related to mind. It may indeed be a question whether, as the mind is a distinct being, it may not possess ideas as well as faculties; but, in our present state, it will be impoflible to resolve it. If the most wanton ramblings of


imagination, or the most distorted images of a fick man's dreams, present nothing but the mangled limbs, or unnaturat combinations of what was originally derived from our fenses, the question will not only be incapable of an anfwer, but unAeceffary: if we poffefs a source from which our intellectual riches may be derived ; and if nothing appears in the offspring inconsistent with the qualities of the parent, no rule of philo. Sophy, no dictate of common sense, should induce us to look up to another origin.' The result then will lead us to attend 'to fa&s; and this is the result, to which we wish to bring every metaphysical difquifition, fince by the means of it, we fhall acquire materials for a work much wanted, a Naturat History of the Human Mind. This History mast confist chiefly of facts : many are at present ascertained; but they lie feattered in numberless volumes : many are still to be enquired into, and new ones to be observed. Dr. Hartley's work will furnith the best foundation ; for, amidst many errors, there are the most valuable observations; and the extensive in. fluence of association is, in the metaphyfics, as fplendid a discovery as gravity, in the natural world. Why is not this system illustrated by a liberal commentary, instead of being mutilated by, and frittered into, extracts ?

We find nothing in this work which materially invalidates the doctrines of Locke, relating either to innate ideas or fecondary qualities. The late discoveries in natural philosophy and chemistry, require indeed that some alteration should be made in the latter subject; but this is an alliitance which our author is not qualified to give, and which, perhaps at last, would not essentially contribute either to the pleasures or ad. vantage of mankind. These are errors which may reft in peace; their corinuance or amendment would be equally ufeless in the consequences. The rest of the Review relates to Locke's dispute with the bishop of Worcester, which is not greatly elucidated in the present pamphlet.

We do not think that Locke's reputation is much affected by this antagonist. His style is the flippant pertness of a modern author; and the little respect Mown, in every part of this work, for a man so highly respectable as Locke was, will disgust every attentive reader. We are obliged to the author for not transcribing the passages on which he animadverts ; though then his book would have contained fomet hing valuable, but it would have been contaminated, like a metal in its matrix, and we should have tegretted the trouble of separation. At present however it is difficult, and often inconvenient, to compare the text with the commentary,


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Harmonica. By John Keeble, Organist of St. George's Church, Hanover Square.

4+0. 11. 15.

White. MR.

R. Keeble has enjoyed for many years, the reputation of

being the best organ-player in London, in the old style. We foon discovered that he had learned the theory of music, from Dr. Pepusch, who numbered among his scholars Dr. Boyce, Mr. Travers, Mr. Kelner, Mr. Immins, and many other musicians of the same class. It was a firm principle with Pepusch, in common with other great men, that we must re. cur to the Greek school for the true principles of music, as well as of the other arts. Consequently, he' taught all his pupils that every thing was contained in the tetrachord, the magical tetrachord, which, like lord Peter's brown loaf, was the quintessence of mutton, beef, &c. Now, though we hold it of great moment to be acquainted with what was for. merly known in every science, yet if modern improvements must be cramped by ancient principles, it were better that they had remained unknown. Mr. Keeble is also a great advocate for the tetrachord; but we are very glad that his prac. tice has got the better of his theory, or we should have lost much of the pleasure we have received from his masterly performance at St. George's church. So far from modern music being indebted to the Greeks, that we date its existence within the last hundred years. We mean by music, that judicious mixture of harmony and melody which constitutes the art, and not a mathematical investigation of the proportional vibrations of an octave, a fifth, &c. nor the different ways of disposing of the femitone, in the fourth ; nor how to compose a fourth, of sounds less than a semitone, and more than a tone, &c.

Mr. Keeble seems to be thoroughly persuaded that the knowlege of numbers is neceffary for the practice of music.

• This ease and fimplicity will naturally engage she attention of the professor, who will readily give up fome part of his time from that more severe and laborious practice, which all inftru. ments now require, to a study that will not only lessen his labours, but at the same time encrease his mechanical powers, and raise his reputation on the most solid and lasting foundation.'

How the knowing that certain intervals are expressed by particular ratios, and the varicus mechods of combination, can increase his • mechanical powers,' will be doubted by some of our best performers, who make not the least pretensions to the mathematics ; and who would smile, to be told that they could not do without something, of which they have never Vol. LIX, "Feb. 1785.



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