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Mob. Each day still better other's happiness ; Or chivalrous design of knightly trial : Until the heavens, envying earth's good hap, And, when I mount, alive may I not light, Add an immortal title to your crown!
If I be traitor, or unjustly fight ! [charge! K. Ricb. We thank you both : yet one but K. Ricb. What doth our coufin lay to Mowbray's flatters us,
5 It must be great, that can inherit us 3 As well appeareth by the cause you come ; So much as of a thought of ill in him. [true; Namely, to appeal each other of high treason. Beling. Look, what I said, my life shall prove it Cousin of Hereford, what dost thou object
That Mowbray hath receiv'd eight thousand nobles, Against the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray? In name of lendings for your highness' foldiers;
Boling. First (heaven be the record to my speech!) 10 The which he hath detain’d for lewd employments, In the devotion of a subject's love,
Like a false traitor, and injurious villain. Tendering the precious safety of my prince, Besides I say, and will in battle prove And free from other misbegotten hate,
Or here, or elsewhere, to the furtheft verge Come I appellant to this princely presence. That ever was survey'd by English eye,— Now, Thomas Mowbray, do I turn to thee, 15 That all the treasons, for these eighteen years And mark my greeting well; for what I speak, Complotted and contrived in this land, My body Mall make good upon this earth, Fetch from falseMowbray their first head and spring. Or my divine soul answer it in heaven.
Further I say, and further will maintain Thou art a traitor, and a miscreant;
Upon his bad life, to make all this good, Too good to be so, and too bad to live;
20 That he did plot the duke of Gloster's death; Since, the more fair and crystal is the sky, Suggest his foon-believing adversaries; The uglier seem the clouds that in it Ay.
And, consequently, like a traitor coward, [blood; Once more, the more to aggravate the note, Sluic'd out his innocent foul through streams of With a foul traitor's name stuff I thy throat; Which blood, like facrificing Abel's cries, And with, (so please my sovereign) ere I move, 25 Even from the tongueless caverns of the earth, What my tongue spcaks, my right-drawn' sword To me, for justice, and rough chastisement; may prove.
[zeal: And, by the glorious worth of my descent, Mowb. Let not my cold words here accuse my This arm shall do it, or this life be spent. 'Tis not the trial of a woman's war,
K. Ricb. How high a pitch his resolution foars ! The bitter clamour of two eager tongues, 30 Thomas of Norfolk, what say'st thou to this? Can arbitrate this cause betwixt us twain;
Mowb. O, let my sovereign turn away his facer The blood is hot, that muft be cool'd for this. And bid his ears a little while be deaf, Yet can I not of such tame patience boast, 'Till I have told this flander of his blood, As to be hush'd, and nought at all to say: How God, and good men, hate so foul a liar. (ears: First, the fair reverence of your highness curbs me,35 K. Rich. Mowbray, impartial are our eyes, and From giving reins and spurs to my free speech; Were he my brother, nay, my kingdom's heir, Which else would post, until it had return'd (As he is but my father's brother's fon) These terms of treason doubled down his throat. Now by my sceptre's awe I make a vow, Setting aside his high blood's royalty,
Such neighbour nearness to our sacred blood And let him be no kinsman to my liege, 40 Should nothing privilege him, nor partialize I do defy him, and I spit at him;
The unstooping firmness of my upright soul: Call him-a Nanderous coward, and a villain : He is our subject, Mowbray, so art thou ; Which to maintain, I would allow him odds; Free speech, and fearless, I to thee allow. And meet him, were I ty'd to run a-foot
Morb. Then, Bolingbroke, as low as to thy heart, Even to the frozen ridges of the Alps,
145 Through the false passage of thy chroat, thou liest ! Or any other ground 2 inhabitable
Three parts of that receipt I had for Calais, Where ever Englishman durst set his foot.
Dirburs’d I to his highness' soldiers : Mean time, let this defend my loyalty,
The other part reserv'd I by consent; By all my hopes, most falsely doth he lie.
For that my sovereign liege was in my debt, Boling. Pale trembling coward, there I throw 50 Upon remainder of a dear account, my gage,
since last I went to France, to fetch his queen: Disclaiming here the kindred of a king;
Now swallow down that lie.For Glofter's And lay aside my high blood's royalty,
death, Which fear, not reverence, makes thee to except: I new him not; but, to line own disgrace, If guilty dread hath left thee so much strength, 55 Neglected my sworn duty in that case. As to take up mine honour's pawn, then stoop; For you, my noble lord of Lancaster, By that, and all the rites of knighthood else, The honourable father to my foeWill I make good against thee, arm to arm, Once did I lay an ambush for your life, What I have spoke, or thou canst worse devise. A trespass that doth vex my grieved soul:
Mowb. I take it up; and, by that sword I swear, 60 But, ere I last receiv'd the facrament, Which gently lay'd my knighthood on my shoulder, I did confess it; and exactly begg'd I'll answer thee in any fair degree,
Your grace's pardon, and, I hope, I had it.
* Meaning, his sword drawn in a right or just cause.
z i. e, not habitable.
3 1. e. pofless us.
K. Ricb. We were not born to sue, but to cony last by It issues from the rancour of a villain,
mand: A recreant and most degenerate traitor :
Which since we cannot do to make you friends, in laptop ter which in myself I boldly will defend;
Be ready, as your lives thall answer it, ritmi
And interchangeably hurl down my gage 5 At Coventry, upon St. Lambert's day;
There shall your swords and lances arbitrate til del To prove myself a loyal gentleman
The swelling difference of your settled hate;
Justice decide the victor's chivalry._
K. Ricb. Wrath-kindled gentlemen, be rul'd by Be ready to direct these home-alarms. [Excurile prestane Let's purge this choler without letting blood:
N E 11.
The Duke of Lancaster's Palace.
Enter Gaunt, and Dutebess of Glofter.
Gaunt. Alas! the part 4 I had in Glofter's blood
Doth more solicit me, than your exclaims,
To ftir against the butchers of his life.
Gaunt. To be a make-peace shall become my age : Which made the fault that we cannot correct,
K. Ricb. And, Norfolk, throw down his. Who, when they see the hours ripe on earth, 0826 Share Gaunt. When, Harry? when ?
Will rain hot vengeance on offenders' heads.
Dutch. Finds brotherhood in thee no sharper spur?
(foot : 25 Edward's seven sons, whereof thyself art onc, km Mowb. Myself I throw, dread sovereign, at chy Were as seven phials of his sacred blood,
My life thou shalt command, but not my shame: Or feven fair branches, springing from one root:
Some of those seven are dry'd by nature's course, (Despight of death, that lives upon my grave)
Some of those branches by the destinies cut.
Is hack'd down, and his summer leaves all faded,
35By envy's hand, and murder's bloody axe. Give me his gage :--Lions make leopards tame. Ah, Gaunt! his blood was thine; that bed, that Mowb. Yea, but not change their spots : take
womb, but my shame,
That metal, that self-mould, that fashion'd thee, And I resign my gage. My dear dear lord, Made him a man; and though thou liv'it, and The purest treasure mortal times afford,
breath'jt, Iso-spotless reputation; that away,
Yet art thou fain in him : thou doft consent Men are but gilded loam, or painted clay.
In some large measure to thy father's death, A jewel in a ten-times-barr'd-up chest
in that thou seest thy wretched brother die, Isma bold spirit in a loyal breast.
Who was the model of thy father's life.
Teaching stern murder how to butcher thee:
That which in mean men we entitle-patience, begin.
solis pale cold cowardice in noble breasts. Boling. Oh, heaven defend my soul from such What shall I say? to lafeguard thine own life, foul fin!
The best way is to venge my Glofter's death. Shall I seem crest-fallen in my father's fight?
Gaunt. Heaven's is the quarrel; for heaven's Or with pale beggar face 3 impeach my height
substitute, Before this out-dar'd daftard ? Ere my tongue
S5 His deputy anointed in his fight, Shall wound mine honour with such feeble wrong,
Hath caus'd his death : the which if wrongfully, Or found so base a parle, my teeth shall tear
Let heaven revenge; for I may never lifc The slavih motive of recanting fear;
An angry arm against his minifter. And spit it bleeding, in his high disgrace,
Durch. Where then, alas! may I complain myself? Where shame doth harbour, even in Mowbray's 60 Gauni. To heaven, the widow's champion and face.
defence. 'i.e. no advantage in delay or refusal. 2 Baffled, in this, as has been noted in a former place, means, treated with the greatest ignominy imaginable. 3 i. e, with a face of lupplication.
4 i.e. my relation of confanguinity to Glorier,
ea in the
Dutch. Why then, I will. Farewel, old Gaunt ! |And by the grace of God, and this mine arm,
furbid Thou go'st to Coventry, there to behold
To prove him, in defending of myself,
, it can lik Or if misfortune miss the first career,
At thy Be Mowbray's fins so heavy in his bosom,
K. Ricb. Marshal, ask yonder knight in arms wake an That they may break his foaming courfer's back, Both who he is, and why he cometh hither og det And throw the rider headlong in the lists,
Thus plated in habiliments of war;
* Up! A caitiff recreant to my coufin Hereford ! 10 And formally according to our law Farewel, old Gaunt; thy sometime brother's wife Depose him in the justice of his cause.
th With her companion grief must end her life. Mar. What is thy name? and wherefore com'n ys! Gaunt. Sifter, farewel : I must to Coventry :
Speak like a true knight, fo defend thee heaven!
in lists, on Thomas Mowbray, duke of Norfolk, Though this be all, do not so quickly go;
That he's a traitor, foul and dangerous,
And, as I truly fight, defend me heaven!
25 Mar. On pain of death, no person be fo bold,
Except the marshal, and such officers
And bow my knee before his majesty:
Exeunt. That vow a long and weary pilgrimage;
Then let us take a ceremonious leave,
35 And loving farewel, of our several friends.
Mar. The appellant in all duty greets your high de proy Mar. My lord Aumerle, is Harry Hereford arm'd?
[T. K. Riche Aum. Yea, at all points; and longs to enter in. And craves to kiss your hand, and take his leave.
Mar. The duke of Norfolk, sprightfully and bold, K. Ricb. We will defcend and fold him in our
So bethy fortune in this royal fight!
, my blood; which if to-day thou shed,
Bufny, Bagot, and others: when they are fet, enter 45 Boling. Oh, let no noble eye profane a tear
For me, if I be gor'd with Mowbray's spear :
Against a bird, do I with Mowbray fight.
My loving lord, I take my leave of you ;
[To Mowbray. But lusty, young, and chearly drawing breath..
Mowb. My name is Thomas Mowbray, duke of Whose youthful spirit, in me regenerate,
60 Add proof uoto mine armour with thy prayers;
* Mr. Steevens obferves on this paffage, that « waxen may mean either foft, and confequently penetrable, or flexible. The brigandines or coats of mail, then in use, were composed of small pieces of steel quilted over one another, and yet so flexible as to accommmodate the drels they form to every mction of the body,"
sind furbith new the name of John of Gaunt, And for our eyes do hate the dire aspect [fwords; za ven in the lusty 'haviour of his son
Of civil wounds plough'd up with neighbour's Gaunt. Heaven in thy good cause make thee (3 And for we think, the eagle-winged pride prosperous !
Of sky-aspiring and ambitious thoughts, e swift like lightning in the execution;
With rival-hating envy, let you on und let thy blows, doubly redoubled,
To wake our peace, which in our country's cradle all like amazing thunder on the calque
Draws the sweet infant breach of gentle Reep;] of thy adverse pernicious enemy :
Which sorouz’dup with boisterous untun'd drums, ouze up thy youthful blood, be valiant and live. And har/h-resounding trumpets' dreadful bray, Buing. Mine innocency, and faint George to 10 And grating thock of wrathful iron arms, thrive!
Might from our quiet confines fright fair peace, Moab. However heaven, or fortune, caft my And make us wade even in our kindred's blood, lot,
[throne, Therefore, we banish you our territories ? There lives, or dies, true to king Richard's You, cousin Hereford, upon pain of death,
A loyal, juft, and upright gentleman : 15'Till twice five summers have enrich'd our fields, Never did captive with a freer heart
Shall not regreet our fair dominions, Caft off his chains of bondage, and embrace But tread the stranger paths of banishment. is golden uncontrould enfranchisement,
Boling. Your will be done : This must my More than my dancing soul doth celebrate
comfort be, This feast of battle with mine adversary.
20. That sun, that warms you here, than thine on me; Most mighty liege, and my companion peers,
And those his golden beams, to you here lent, Take from my mouth the with of happy years : Shall point on me, and gild my banishment. As gentle, and as jocund, as to jest",
K.Ricb. Norfolk, for thee remains a heavier doom, Go I to fight; truth hath a quiet breast.
Which I with some unwillingness pronounce : K. Rich. Farewel, my lord : securely I espy 251
The fly-now hours shall not determinate Virtue with valour couched in thine eye.
The dateless limit of thy dear exile ; Order the trial, Marshal, and begin.
The hopeless word of never to return,
Boling. Strong as a tower in hope, I cry-Amen. 30 And all unlook'd for from your highness' mouth:
[by, As to be cast forth in the common air, i Her. Harry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Der Have I deserved at your highness' hand. Stands here for God, his sovereign, and himself, The language I have learn'd these forty years, On pain to be found false and recreant, 135 My native English, now I must forego : To prove the duke of Norfolk, Thomas Mowbray, And now my tongue's use is to me no more A traitor to his God, his king, and him,
Than an unftringed viol, or a harp ; And dares him to set forward to the fight. Or like a cunning instrument cas'd up,
2 Her. Here ftandeth Thomas Mowbray, duke of Or, being open, put into his hands On pain to be found false and recreant, (Norfolk, 140 That knows no touch to tune the harmony. Both to defend himself, and to approve
Within my mouth you have engoal'd my tongues Henry of Hereford, Lancaster, and Derby, Doubly portcullis’d with my teeth and lips ; To God, his fovereign, and to him, disloyal; And dull, unfeeling, barren ignorance Courageously, and with a free desire,
Is made my gaoler to attend on me. Attending but the fignal to begin. [Acbarge founded. 45/1 am too old to fawn upon a nurse, Mar. Sound, trumpets; and set forward, com Too far in years to be a pupil now; batants..
What is thy sentence then, but speechlefs death, Stay, the king has thrown his warder 2 down. Which robs mytongue from breathing native breath? K. Ricb. Let them lay by their helmets, and their K. Rich. It boots thee not to be compassionates; spears,
15 After our sentence, plaining comes too late. And both return back to their chairs again
Muwb. Then thus I turn me from my country's Withdraw with us;mand let the trumpets found,
light, While we return these dukes what we decree, To dwell in folemn Thades of endless night.
[A long flourish; after whicb, tbe king K. Ricb. Return again, and take an oath with thee. Speaks to the combatants.
55 Lay on our royal (word your banish'd hands; Draw near,
Swear by the duty that you owe to heaven, And lift, what with our council we have done. (Our part therein we banish with yourselves) For that our kingdom's earth thould not be foil'd To keep the oath that we administer :--With that dear blood which it hath fostered, You never shall (fo help you truth and heaven!)
" Mr. Farmer remarks, that to jeft sometimes signifies in old language to play a part in a mask. 2 A warder appears to have been a kind of truncheon carried by the person who presided at these single combats. ; Mr. Pope restored these five verses from the first edition of 1598. 4 Instead of merit Dr. Johnson proposes to read, " a dearer meed,” or reward---have I deserved, &c. 5 Compassionate ior plaintiva.
Embrace each other's love in banishment; Bat you gave leave to my unwilling tongue,
Against my will, to do myself this wrong:
A partial Nander 2 fought I to avoid, This lowering tempeft of your home-bred hate ; And in the sentence my own life destroy'd. [fo; Nor never by advised purpose meet,
5 K. Ricb. Coufin, farewel :--and, uncle, bid him To plot, contrive, or complot any ill,
six years we banith him, and he shall go. (Flourije. 'Gainit us, our state, our subjects, or our land.
[Exit. Boling. I swear.
Aum. Cousin, farewel: what presence mult not Mowb. And I, to keep all this.
From where you do remain, let paper how. (know, Buling. Norfolk,--so far as to mine enemy';~ 10 Mar. My lord, no leave take I; for I will ride, By this time, had the king permitted us,
As far as land will let me, by your side.. [words, One of our souls had wander'd in the air,
Gaunt. Oh, to what purpose dost thou hoard thy Ban:fh'd this frail sepulchre of our felh,
That thou return'st no greeting to thy friends ? As now our flesh is banish'd from this land :
Boling. I have too few to take my leave of you, Confess thy treasons, ere thou fly this realm; 15 When the tongue's office should be prodigal Since thou hast far to go, bear not along
To breathe the abundant dolour of the heart. The clogging burthen of a guilty soul.
Gaunt. Thy grief is but thy absence for a time. Muwb. No, Bolingbroke; if ever I were traitor, Boling. Joy absent, grief is present for that time. My name be blotted from the book of life,
Gaunt. What is fix winters ? they are quickly gone. And I from heaven banith'd, as from hence ! Boling. To men in joy; but grief makes one But what thou art, heaven, thou, and I do know;
[fure. And all too soon, I fear, the king shall rue
Gaunt. Call it a travel that thou tak'it for pleaFarewel, my liege :-Now no way can I stray ; Boling. My heart will figh, when I miscall it so, Save back to England, all the world's my way. Which finds it an enforced pilgrimage.
[Exit. 25 Gaunt. The sullen passage of thy weary steps K. Ricb. Uncle, even in the glasses of thine eyes Esteem a foil, wherein thou art to set I see thy grieved heart : thy fad aspect
The precious jewel of thy home-return. Hath from the number of his banish'd years
Beling. Nay, rather every tedious stride I make Pluck'd four away ;-Six frozen winters spent, Will but remember me, what a deal of world
[Tu Boling. 30 I wander from the jewels that I love. Return with welcome home from banishment. Must I not serve a long apprentice hood
Boling. How long a time lies in one little word! To foreign paisages; and in the end,
Gaunt. I thank my liege, that in regard of me, 35 Gaunt. All places that the eye of heaven vifits, He shorteas four years of my son's exile :
Are to a wise man ports and happy havens : But little vantage Thall I reap thereby ;
Teach thy neceflity to reason thus; For, ere the fix years, that he hath to spend, There is no virtue like necessity. Can change their moons,and bring their times about, Think not, the king did banish thee; My oil-dry'd lamp, and time-bewaited light, 40 But thou the king : Woe doth the heavier fit, Shall be extinct with age, and endless night ; Where it perceives it is but faintly borne. My inch of taper will be burnt and done, Go fay-] sent thee forth to purchase honour, And blindfold death not let me see my son. And not the king exild thee: or suppose,
K. Ricb. Why, uncle, thou haft many years to live. Devouring pestilence hangs in our air, Gauns. But not a minute, king, that thou can'st give. 45 And thou art flying to a fresher clime. Shorten my days thou can'st with sulien sorrow, Look, what thy soul holds dear, imagine it And pluck nights from me, but not lend a morrow : To lie that way thou go'st, not whence thou com'ft: 'Thou can't help time to furrow me with age, Suppose the singing birds, musicians; [ftrow'd; But stop no wrinkle in his pilgrimage ;
The grass whereon thou tread'lt, the presence Thy word is current with him for my death; 50 The flowers, fair ladies; and thy steps, no more But, dead, thy kingdom cannot buy my breath. Than a delightful measure or a dance :
K. Ricb. Thy fon is banith'd upon good advice, For gnarling sorrow hath less power to bite Whereto thy tongue a party-verdict gave; The man that mocks at it, and sets it light. Why at our justice seem'it thou then to lour? [sour. Boling. Oh, who can hold a fire in his hand,
Gaun. Things Tweet to taste, prove in digestion 55 By thinking on the frosty Caucasus ?
Or wallow naked in December (now,
Dr. Johnson understands this paffage thus : “ Nerfölt, so far I have addresled myself to thee as to naine enery, I now utter my last words with kindness and tenderness, confefs sky treasons." ? i. e. the reproach of partialiij.