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our apparel as often as the weather changes is ata tended with a great loss of time, and supposes a fit opportunity, and a certain degree of independence. Such time and opportunity are seldom at the disposal of sailors, soldiers, and husbandmen. Consider the dormouse: it is so clothed with hair, which slowly communicates heat, that Mr. Hunter could not freeze it, even in a freezing mixture, till he had thoroughly wetted it's hair. [Observ. on certain Parts of the Animal Economy, p. 89.] And if such a reptile as this be qualified, by a covering of hair to, maintain a similar degree of heat in all seasons and çlimates, will my reader believe that man might not also more effectually brave inclemencies of weather if he had such a covering?
The practice of wrapping ourselves up in flannel at the approach of winter, changing it for calico at the approach of spring and autumn, and wearing linen only during the summer, is equa!ly absurd aud hurtful; many have fallen martyrs to it; for it prevails equally among the strong and the weak, those of thirty and those of sixty. Besides, the temperature is seldom the signal for these changes, it is the day of the month! No man can certainly foretell what covering may be most suitable for to-morrow,
and the states of the weather are too inconstant and variable for him to possess a covering proper for every one. People in ease and affluence tell us that clothes should be changed as often as the weather changes, appearing to have only the care of themselves at heart; for poverty will always preclude the labouring poor from the advantages of so frequent a change, provided it be ever so necessary.
On bearing Cold. It is hoped that men will begin to consider the folly and mischief of a warm regimen, which in health often prepares them for sickness, and in sickness often encreases the disease, and hastens death; a regimen which would be much more proper for one that is to have a sudden passage into a warm country, than for us who are to prepare ourselves for the bearing of cold; an inconvenience we cannot fly from, and therefore ought to accommodate ourselves, and which is neither forinidable nor dangerous. The inhabitants of England formerly went naked, and were more healthy than we are now. ple of Canada, and all the cold continent behind Newfoundland, go much after the same manner, without any inconvenience from it, but are rather fortified against the accidents they would be subject to, if their pores were much opened, and relaxed by too much warmth; and we may readily distinguish the rational from the savage part, by as thin a habit as decency will permit. It is strange that people should be fond of supplying their skins, and keeping their pores too open; as if a man did not really perspire, when there is no sensible moisture upon the skin. If men considered how much sweat impairs the skin, and inclines it to wrinkle, as Sanctorius remarks in one of his aphorisms, they would be fully persuaded that nature can make discharges by finer and better ways than those which are so perceptible, and that Aannel is scarcely necessary on this side of old age. The nervous parts of the skin have certainly a very great elasticity, and are capable of being strengthened by good and suitable management,
even to a habit, as well as those of other parts. When the glands of the skin throw out a very sensible
quanty of sweat in some particular parts, these parts grow accustomed to the air, or other moisture, and receive little or no hindrance in their discharges from it; as we see the palms of the hands sweat copiously, notwithstanding the external air immediately striking upon them; and none are more strong and healthy than those who are accustomed to have their feet wet, without changing their shoes and stockings. The stomach placed in the midst of the body, and consequently exquisitely warm, is so adapted as to bear large draughts of the coldest liquor without the least danger or inconvenience, unless the body has been extremely heated; and tho’ it's office seems to require great and continual heat, yet it is not obu structed in it by the admission of cold things; nor are it's glands benumbed or constringed, so as to hinder the secretion of digesting juices; and can we suppose the fabric of the skin less perfect and exquisite, when by it's position it is to be immediately subject to the effects of the external air? Can we think it's vessels are not endued with a strength sufficient to answer the force and weight of the incumbent air? and it's glands of such a make, as that the particles they strain shall be of so fine a texture, as to pass the skin, when it seems to us to be too close to permit any transition ?
The effects of too much heat is evident in the maladies of hot countries. Let us instance the disease of the cholic, which, when it seizes any one among us, the chiefest care is to be secured from cold. Now the cholic is the epidemical distemper of hot countries, and so common at Surat, that about noon the whole town will smell of assafædita, which they mix in most of their dishes, to preserve them from that tormenting distemper, which the heat of the air (so far from exempting them) renders them liable to, by rarefying the blood and humours, and opening their pores; by which it is probable many among us bring on accidental cholics. When muffs were worn universally, men were accustomed to let them hang upon their bellies.
I have heard a healthy man complain, that on leaving off bis muff for a day or two he has been griped. Any one in the world will from hence infer, that keeping the part too warm prepared it for the ill effects of the air, and that the same may happen in any part of the body; so that it is folly for people, in most cases, where the lungs are not concerned, to nurse up a distemper, which was at first perhaps in a great part owing to a tender way of life, and by continuing that course, must be increased rather than perfectly rooted out. [Fuller's Medicina Gymnastica.] Advantages to be derived from a Woollen Covering next
the Skin, contended for. “ It is a mistaken notion," says Sir Benjamin Thompson, “that flannel is too warm a clothing for summer. I have worn it in the hottest climates, and in all seasons of the year, and never found the least inconvenience from it." [Phil. Trans. vol. 77.] “ And I can aver," says Dr. Vaughan," that I have worn it several years, in summer as well as winter, in the warmest rooms, and under the most fatiguing exertions, withoutever feeling the least inconvenience. Nay, since I have worn it, I have never once felt
any complaint in my breast, which I frequently did before. In short, since I have worn it, I have never experi
enced an hour's ailment. “ But why is linen and calico preferred to flannel? We are told, it is because flannel heats more than linen or cotton. Now, it must be allowed it is not the heat of our covering that is ever disagreeable to us, but it's being soaked in sweat and confined next the skin. Did any one ever feel uncomfortable froin mere heat? No; he could not: he can only have felt uncomfortable from his wet shirt sticking to his skin. • Flannel is preferable to linen, because with the former we can perspire without danger, and exercise ourselves without any unpleasurable feeling. But who can do so when linen is next the skin? If one dance with flannel next the skin, the perspiration is necessarily encreased, the matter perspired is conveyed through the flannel to the atmosphere, and the skin remains dry, warm, and comfortable. Ifone dance with linen next the skin, the perspiration is also necessarily encreased, but the matter perspired is not conveyed through the flannel to the atınosphere; much of it being condensed into a fluid state, retained in the linen, and kept in contact with the skin.
Here then are two sources of heat, which those who wear flannel next the skin are never subject to; these are the condensation of the vapour of the skin (all vapours in becoming fluid, and all fluids in becoming solid giving out heat) and the greater capacity of linen for heat. “Suppose, again, that after dancing and perspiring greatly, necessity obliges me to go into the open air. I have done it many times with flannel next my skin; but I never caught cold by it, nor did I feel uncoinfortable. And doubtless the reason is because my skin was kept dry by the flannel conveying away the matter perspired, before it lost it's form of vapour.