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ing such a sentiment is not consistent with the lan-|| against, we think we speak quite within bounds when guage of the treaty of 1824, in which it formally dis- I we say, that the Dutch never intended, from the first, avows all claim to supremacy in the Archipelago. Tem- to act up to the stipulations of the treaty. They imminck, therefore, though an official personage, and mediately imposed duties which it did not sanction, writing from official information, must be regarded as concluded treaties with native princes equally in defiusing unofficial language, when he talks of the Dutch ance of it, and gradually excluded us from one part as the masters of the Archipelago. He evidently, how- | after another of their colonial possessions, to secure us ever, desires it to be understood by the public that he access to which the treaty was framed. Had the Dutch is the interpreter of the designs of his Government; and been an overwhelmingly powerful empire, we should with that affectation of prudence, which is one of the have said that their conduct since the year 1824 was characteristics of would-be-diplomatists, declines lifting|| merely meant to be an insolent display of force towards the dark veil which conceals the future of Borneo. In a rival too weak to protect itself. But this not being the meanwhile, it is to be presumed that, behind that the case, we can only infer that Holland, having undark veil, Dutch diplomacy will perform many feats bounded faith in the generosity of Great Britain, and which it would not like to do in the face of the world. || pushing to its utmost extent the privilege of the weak, It is for its interest, therefore, that the veil should has presumed that Great Britain would not retaliate continue to be dark; though we can comprehend the because of the helplessness of its rival. Nothing could possibility of the mystery being dissipated without the have been easier for us than to expel the Dutch a consent, and contrary to the wishes, of the Dutch Go- second time from all the Eastern possessions. But to vernment. M. Temminck writes with extreme passion, this no reference, even the most tacit, was ever made. which betrays him into statements which not only have We suffered them to plunder our merchants by exact. no foundation in facts, but which stand in direct con- | ing exorbitant taxes in direct defiance of the treaty, to tradiction with all the facts of the case.
He says our
exclude us from Sumatra, from Borneo, from Celebes, occupation of Labuan is an act of brutal force, and en- from the Moluccas, from Bali and Lombock, and even deavours to mystify his readers by a phrase which from the whole of Java itself, with the exception of either has no meaning at all, or one which is untrue. the three ports of Batavia, Samarang, and Sambaya. From the literal interpretation of his language, the Ultimately, that our trade in the Archipelago might proper inference is, that the Dutch have settlements in not be wholly extinguished, our Government deternearly the whole northern coast of Borneo; whereas, in mined to take possession of Labuan, that we might, reality, they have no settlement north of the river without the interference of the Dutch, carry on a trade Kapoeas, which divides Sanubar from Sarawak. Hav- with Northern Borneo, the greater part of which being made this unfortunate assertion, which everybody is longs to us by treaty, and with the other islands of capable of disproving, he goes on to say that our occu- | the Archipelago, which we may now do through the pation of Labuan strikes a blow at the independence of instrumentality of native merchants. the native princes of the north. But what does this Monsieur Temminck is compelled to confess that language signify? What is meant by native princes, is the occupation of Labuan does not directly violate the a number of feeble chiefs, whose independence did not treaty of 1824; though, separating the letter from the suffice to protect them even from a handful of pirates. / spirit
, after the established fashion of Dutch diplomacy, The very Sultan of Borneo was unable to defend him-| he asserts that it runs counter to the manifest aim of self against the Balinini, who, he asserts, converted his that treaty. But to make such affirmations is easy. capital, against his will, into a nest of pirates. Under We invite Monsieur Temminck, or any other Dutch any circumstances, therefore, we were justified in doing || author, to explain clearly to the world what the aim what we did, because no one but ourselves could ensure of that treaty was, and then to show how the occupapeace to the Archipelago. The Dutch had tried for a tion of Labuan works against it. We have already, hundred years, and failed. The Sultan professed to we fancy, demonstrated that all the treaties and prohave done the same thing during his whole lifetime, ceedings of the Dutch, since the year 1824, have been with the same result. It only remained, therefore, for inconsistent with their engagements to England; us to try our power, which, as the pirates soon found, whereas nothing we have done in Borneo can by any was not to be resisted. The Sultan's case is soon dis-degree of ingenuity be shewn to be contrary to the posed of : either he was an encourager of pirates, or he stipulations of that convention. Consequently, M. was their victim. If the former, then we had a right Temminck shoots altogether beside the mark when he to put him down with the other pirates ; if the latter, it insists on the occupation of Labuan as an action inwas a signal act of humanity to protect him. Therefore, consistent with the spirit of the treaty of 1824. It unless the Dutch desire the continuance of piracy, they would betray us into the use of language harsh and must rejoice at the step we have taken in repressing it. | indecorous to characterize Mons. Temminck's repre
Were it lawful to draw a general inference from a sentations as they deserve. He writes as though all particular case, we should say that the history of the the world were in perfect ignorance of the proceedings treaty of 1824 would prove the utter inutility of all of Holland since the year 1834, and then affects to such arrangements; for no sooner was it entered into draw, from the course of British policy, which he has than both parties put a different construction on the been endeavouring to characterize, a proof that Great language employed, and the Dutch, acting on their falsc Britain acts on the odious maxim that powerful States interpretation, inflicted on British commerce injuries so need only preserve their faith with weaker so long as flagrant, that had not the forbearance of Ministers been they have no interest in violating it. If these views still greater than the injustice of Holland, they must and feelings were confined to inefficient writers like inevitably have led to a war. Without indulging in Mons. Temminck and the journalists of Rotterdam rash imputations, which should, of course, be guarded and the Hague, though we might condemn them se
verely, we should never think of converting them || cealed his head in a thicket, therefore he and his purinto matter of accusation against Dutch Ministers; || pose remain unseen. There is, unfortunately, no misbut when we find Baron de Zeiler and Baron de Von | take possible. He is angry with England, and loses Vustolk holding pretty nearly the same language, no opportunity of sneering at her morals and her pauthough a little modified by the decorum of office, || perism, which, he says, without much regret we fear, we are forced to the conclusion that throughout are undermining her social system, and urging her to the whole of diplomatic society in Holland there pre-search for outlets for her manufactures without much vails an obliquity of vision which prevents persons regard to justice or right. Probably they who examine from seeing the gross and grievous faults they them- | attentively the history of the relations between Great selves commit, while it renders them lynx-eyed towards Britain and Holland, subsequent to the treaty of 1824, the faults of others, and occasionally enables them to will rather be of opinion that, instead of overstepping discover blemishes where none exist.
the bounds of justice and equity, our Government has Temminck admits the value of Labuan, and indeed submitted patiently to injuries and affronts from Holenlarges upon its importance in order the more effec- | land, which it would not have endured from a more tually to exalt the regret of his countrymen at its hav- powerful competitor. ing fallen into other hands. But then, when we come In giving us advice respecting the direction in to consider the duties which this possession must im. which we ought to pursue our conquests, the Dutch pose upon us, viz., those of extirpating piracy, civi- writer adopts the policy of the lapwing, which, by a lizing the natives, and extending the empire of com- thousand maneuvres, seeks to allure the intruder from merce, he seems suddenly to desist from his hostility, || her own nest. So Mons. Temminck says we shall be and observes, we fear somewhat ironically, that the performing a meritorious act of philanthropy by conNetherlands will certainly not envy us the advantages quering the Sulu Archipelago, and all the other great we may thus have acquired. And the reason he as- islands (including Palawan and Celebes, we presume), signs is an odd one. The Dutch navy is not in a con- || which lie between Borneo and the Philippines, and dition, he says, to contest with us the conquests we thus subjecting to the sway of civilization counmay make in those regions, and therefore it is that tries which have hitherto obstinately refused to put on Holland does not envy us.
If it be so, this is perhaps its yoke. In time this wish of Holland may possibly the first time that weakness has extinguished envy. || be realized, not so much perhaps through the spirit of Looking at the laws which usually govern human na- self-aggrandizement as in the interest of humanity. ture, we should probably have come to a different con. But we shall commence with Borneo itself, or at least clusion. But M. Temminck is positive, and must, || include it in our system, because there we have a letherefore, we suppose, be right. Of course, M. Tem- || gitimate claim to exercise influence-first, because we minck’s eloquence and sophistry are inspired by pa- || inherit the rights of the Sulus in that island, and next, triotism, and should, therefore, be regarded with some because the natives desire our protection both against degree of respect. He must not, however, delude him- the piratical hordes who infest the Archipelago, and self into the belief that, because he seems to have con-ll the Europeans, who are little less destructive.
THE YEARLY THANKSGIVING.
The stars are glittering o'er the fells
In myriads grand and bright,
Hung on the tomb of night;
Sound calling unto sound,
Surging up a rough ground;
Come creeping down the lanes,
By the twinkling window panes ;
And lain his bundle down,
His brother of the town;
The Father whose soft, dewy night,
And orient, azure morn,
Lured forth the young, green corn;
From earth the wing'd hymn floats
Down-prest with wet cold thoughts
Damp fear away, and doubt,
And sobs its glad voice out;
Till all is clear, to your warm homes
Go-lay you down and rest;
And on the mountain's breast;
THE CHANGING YEARS.
Dight in the crystal robe of thought, I stood
Exer lamenting, smote his forehead sear,
* I am the passing - I am the passing Year !” And Death, the husbandman, wrought in the meadow,
Peopled with harvest grain, beside that flood,
Showed where he stood !
In icebergs of piled cloud, - I would that I
Murmured he ever, with a monody
Up from the future land, a spirit come, And very nigh unto his presence draw,
As he would seek the self-same phantom home, « Thy breath is chill, eld churl,” he carroll’d vaunting;
And a blithe sprite, call’d Hope, that with him came, A fabled list of joys to come kept chaunting,
High parsuivant seem'd he of power and fame! "Greet me not mockingly, though I am fleeting,"
Answered the Old Year; "there has been much good Done in my reign, though still the world is cheating
Truth of her own, with sanctimonious mood;
Truth, holy maiden, they have treated ill;
Bat mould their doings to the beauty of her will!"
Clad in a robe all torn and stained - once white. Her eye-its light a planet might inherit-
Was full of tears, that gave nor marred in light, "I see that chaunting spirit by thy side,
I half remember she was once by mine;
I missed her not, 'till seen again by thine.
Of the bright crown thou bearest on thy brow.
I pray thee, who art thou?”
A silvery gush, like morning's, gleamed transcendent
O’er the youth's forehead, as he answered clear,
Men call the good New Year!'
It augurs of much good, she telleth me:
O'er Time's unfathom'd sea !
To teach their human bretheren how strong
In her they have abused and spurned so long !
Are buddings of a yet unfolded Spring,
Their being back for future years to bring ;
Where'er thy footfall steps of joy disclose,
To light and tone, in mine, as pure as those !
To excel the past, in all things, fronı its youth,
In Time's broad tide, the sainted garb of Truth!”
Grew giant-like, as trees in Autumn mist,
By a half-hazed, yet solemn, glory kissed.
Promise of ease, to Truth, of half her woc;
“ They call me,"—said the good New Year,—“I go!" And, as he spake, the sightless belfry clock
Thrilld with a voice as though the scythe of Death
And rung, vibrate with triumph, as the breath
From the dim shadow-land of Fancy's birth,
SUGGESTED BY THE FOLLOWING SINGULAR CIRCUMSTANCE :
"Oar readers," says a London journal,“ remember the melancholy wreck of the splendid steamer the “ Atlantic, when forty souls perished. At that time a piece of the wreck, with the steamer's beli attached to it, became, and continues still fustened between two rocks. During every swell of the waves the bell tones forth its melancholy note orer the spot where the vessel's living cargo was engulphed." OʻzR the blue ocean's wild and billowy surf,
From which depends the shatter'd vessel's bell ; Commingling with the deep, lone voice of waves,
And as each wandering wave lifts up its head, A knell floats mournful—where no upraised turf
It poureth forth its melancholy knell, Gives indication of a place of graves
To tell the winds of the untimely dead. A dirge funereal rises on the deep,
There, ever, as the foam-crown’d billow rolls, And marks a tomb round which no mourners weep,
That death-knell ’mid the waste of waters tolls. A fatal spot, where rocky cliffs prevail,
And sadly strange those funeral notes ascend O'er which the breaker roams with fiercest roar,
Above their watery bed, so lone and bleak; Where rose the vessel's crash--the fearful wail
But howling winds, which with the billows blend As ocean's victims sank to rise no more;
Their dreary moanings, nor the sea-gull's shriek, Whilst angry billows, in their fury, cast
Nor boisterous breaker, with its foamy crest, Betwist the rocks a beam, and made it fast,
Disturb the sleepers in their dreamless rest.
(Continued from vol. 15, page 840.)
Invercauld House is the nearest mansion, on the west, || when the snow was covering the fertile wheat-growing to Balmoral, which is now one of the Royal palaces. | districts of Scotland to a considerable depth in many Mr. Farquharson, of Invercauld, is “the nearest neigh-|| places, and brought with him specimens of our summer bour” to her Majesty, when in her Highland residence.| roses, pulled from bushes quite exposed to every wind The mansion of Aberfeldy, eastward of Balmoral, is not that blows. There is no doubt that the climate of in its owner's keeping. Like many other Highland the western Highlands and Isles, and some parts of the estates, it has fallen into trust. The estate of Aber- western mainland, is far superior to many of the inland feldy is entailed; and the entail, we suppose, cannot be districts; but our business is with the inland parts of broken. An unentailed estate, adjacent to Aberfeldy, the country, and its eastern side. with its small but picturesque old mansion-house, Birk- The estates of Invercauld bulk very largely. They hill, previously belonging to the proprietors of Aber-measure many miles of length; but the productive feldy, has been recently purchased for his Royal High-land is now a narrow strip. The forests still contain ness Prince Albert, at from £13,000 to £14,000. The old and very valuable timber; and some care is disannual wanderings of the Royal family in the Highlands || played in their management. The railway speculaare probably closed; and they have decided finally on tions of the last few years opened a great market for making Balmoral and Deeside their autumnal“ High- the sale of young trees for sleepers; and, in many dis·land home.” The next estate, pursuing the course of tricts of the Highlands, the woods have been greatly the river downwards, is Monalterie, on part of which thinned, and the thinnings have helped to swell many the pretty little village of Ballater has been built, chiefly slender incomes. The immense forests on the Inver for the accommodation of summer visitors, and “pa- cauld and Fyfe estates, but especially on the former, tients” to the celebrated Pannanich wells. The ma-l contain many noble trees that have witnessed all the jority of the latter class do not seem to labour under changes of centuries; and if they could have kept diaries, hopeless diseases; but wear all the appearance of people we should have had many sad and many pleasing very well satisfied with the world. Monalterie estate tales of the past, now lost for ever. The misfortune and house belong to a branch of the Farquharsons. Il of these Highland trees is, that they see the world The present proprietress, Mrs. Farquharson, is an aged always getting worse, and their position becoming more lady; and the estates of the next proprietor, on the and more lonely. The improvements that time brings river, the Marquis of Huntly, are also under trust. He to the Lowlands do not reach them. A young friend now resides at Aboyne Castle occasionally, but his es- of ours published a volume of poetry,* of such poetry as tates are managed for trustees. From various causes, might have been read with more advantage than twomore than half the Highland estates are under trustees. thirds of the volumes that we receive, and full of the In very few cases was the expenditure which led to thoughts of southern trees; but nobody has ever this state of things occurred on the estates. The land- brought those dark and mighty pines of the mountain owners have not been injured by injudicious improve-l into the confessional, to draw from them the stories ments on their farms, or extravagant expenditure on or of their experience. around their mansions, although the latter occurred in A green terrace, with a steep sloping bank, runs some instances; but generally their property has been around the house of Invercauld, surmounting the lawn burdened in consequence of an outlay in other quar- between the house and the river, and overshadowed, ters—in the metropolis or on the continent—without in a wintry day at noon, by the huge rocks of the the slightest advantage to their tenantry or to their Charter Chest and the Lion's Face. The woods that district of country.
cover the hill at the back of Invercauld sweep down at These facts give to the Highlands a deep interest east and west to meet and shelter the narrow corners in the repeal of the entail laws. The people never of the bank, and form a crescent round the mansion. will be able to turn their glens and braes into the Within one mile of that terrace, in September, 1715, most productive account without the aid of an unbur-the Earl of Mar, surrounded by minor chiefs, and dened proprietary. All the harassing evils of a ten-| thousands of vassals, struck the flag-staff of the house ancy-at-will exist in the Highlands almost equally with of Stewart in the earth, and unfurled its challenges to the south and west of Ireland. Those tenants who the Highland breeze. have obtained leases are generally the parties who do On another day of September, 1848, a royal lady, not require them; being sheep-farmers, who make the heiress of the house of Hanover, her husband, and little or no outlay on their lands. We believe that all her children, stood, on that terrace, to receive the holarge portion of the Highlands should always be em- mage and the welcome of the descendants of those ployed in rearing sheep and cattle; but to a far greater Highland chiefs, and the fragments of their tenantry extent than at present by green-cropping, for which still left in the land. no district in the land is more suitable than the This was one of time's changes. But the river western Highlands and Isles. An erroneous opinion rolled on quietly now as then. No feature was broken is very generally entertained of the capabilities of the Western Isles. A friend of ours came from one of
* "Man of the Woods, and other Poems," by William Macthe principal islands in this past gloomy December, () doual, Dumfries,
in the Lion's Face, no crag was shivered from the Highland demonstration on a great scale is now scarcely Charter Chest, and still over all the scene Loch-na-Gar possible. The kilt, as an ordinary article of daily use, looked sternly down with its dark peaks unchanged. || does not come down below Castleton. It does not A century and a third had passed by. The men of reach to Lochnagar. The Celtic language is equally the past were almost forgotten. The place that knew circumscribed. It is not the common dialect beneath them once knew them now no more. The broad do- || Balmoral; and on all the banks of the Dee the Engminions of the house of Mar, over which its successive lish language is quite well understood, and freely Earls ruled with a monarch's sway for many genera- | spoken. tions, had passed into other hands; and the descendants The Highland games closely resemble those of the of the forfeited nobles, the heirs of the sources of Dee border, and consisted, in this instance, when, as in the and the Earldom, had gained distinction in other fields. far distant times of chivalry, Royalty presided over the The country that had furnished their ancestors, when | exhibition, and the monarch distributed prizes to the ever their standard was raised, with many thousand fol- || victors, of those athletic exercises common in all parts lowers, was drained to make an exhibition of Highland of the country, with additions characteristic of the games before royalty. The same course had been Highlands. Foot races on the level sward can be seen tried in other districts, and had evidently failed. The in any county, and the Highland runners did not annual Highland games were to be celebrated at seem to us peculiarly agile; but the race to the top of Braemar; and it was supposed that a respectable ga- | the Charter Chest cannot be imitated everywhere, thering might be made. If the Highland aristocracy because a similar hill does not enter into every landwould consent to call the affair by its proper name- scape. not a gathering, but a gleaning of men—
The London pictorial and illustrated journals pubapproach the truth. Detachments of Highlanders lished sketches of the scenery and the games. The in the “Ogilvie” interest, from Forfarshire, were drawings and engravings were done rapidly; and all brought through the Cortachy Glen, and of Athol drawings fail to convey a good idea of a mountain race, Highlanders from Perthshire by the Perthshire road. || through a forest here, next amongst tangled brushThe Duffs and Farquharsons collected all their avail- | wood, then over and round overhanging crags or loose able followers; the Duke of Leeds had his company || toppling rocks, with everywhere, unless upon the hard on the ground—and the assemblage might altogether stones, treacherous bushes of heather or long grass, have numbered three or four hundred men in the covering crevices and ditches for the reception of the Highland garb, some of them tolerably well trained incautious amongst the steeple-chasers.
The race and armed. The number of persons altogether on began with the river, and then for some time it was the lawn never exceeded two thousand, although continued amongst the thick pine wood, where the they certainly contained a greater proportion of aris- runners were effectually concealed—but as they rose tocratic rank and splendour than may be often met higher on the hill, the affair became more interesting; in such a small assemblage. The reflection seemed and finally, although a good race it could not be called natural enough that all the old families still had their where the parties rather crawled than ran, yet the representatives there, with the exception of the great hill was climbed with amazing rapidity by half-a-dozen chiefs of the district. The descendants of those competitors, who left many more, wearied of the mounFarquharsons, Ogilvies, and Drummonds, who joined tain, far below amongst its trees and crags, meditating in every revolt against the house of Hanover, joined on disappointed ambition. The dances and the music now in offering their homage to the head of that family of the Highlanders, formed also exclusive features in —the representative of the principles of the revolution their gatherings. The former are interesting--the that banished the Stuarts from the throne—in the latter somewhat noisy within doors; but the violin, a midst of their old fastnesses, in the centre of the Lowland instrument, was substituted in the tent erected mountains, where allegiance to the fallen dynasty had for the dancers, and to whom her Majesty distributed lingered longest, and been vindicated by the greatest || prizes of some value. The Highlanders themselves sacrifices. This lingering shadow of feudal power was complained that the games were spoiled. They might not called up alone to welcome the monarch; but is an cast the stone or throw the hammer as they pleased, annual affair-a kind of desperate effort made under for nobody except the competitors cared for the perthe patronage of the nobility to sustain old Highland || formance. The visitors had all come to see the Queen, customs without the men. The contrast between the the Prince, the Princes, and the Princess, while hamthousands who crowded round the standard of James, || mers and bars were grievously neglected; and so the in 1715, when The Independence of Scotland, and more sanguine competitors felt the Royal visit in the “No Union,” were the watchwords woven into the shape of a calamity—with the exception of the fortu folds of his flag ; and the hundreds who welcomednate persons who received prizes from the Sovereign's Victoria and her family, when her carriage drove up | hands, and they will regard the brooches and silver to Invercauld, in 1848, rebuked the system that for snuff-boxes as most precious relics, to be decorously half a century had been followed in this country. It || preserved, and handed down to future generations. was useless to expect in a land peeled and desolate- Competitors, who had been in training for twelve from a race scattered to many colonies—a great demon- | months, to throw the hammer, or cast the bar, or to stration of attachment to their Sovereign. In the do any other feat of strength better than their neighlower districts of the river, where the population is bours, felt their labours lost, because nobody seemed numerous, the utmost attachment and deference had to care for them; and all the visitors turned to the been shown to the Sovereign--the most popular of her Royal Lady on the terrace, the Prince, and their chilfamily. The same feeling was exhibited at the Inver- | dren, so that the hammers might have been thrown to cauld gathering, so far as numbers admitted; but all the bridge of Inyercauld without being missed. These