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statements by the Logislative Council of Canada, || colonial policy of the present ministers, both in the Atlantic Railway Company, and the United London and in Montreal, has irritated, but States committee, who reported to Congress on we hope not alienated, the Canadians. We are this subject.
therefore not surprised at the Montreal people runBritish shipowners say that they can compete ning into the opposite extreme, neglecting agriwith all the world, provided you give them fair culture and navigation, and adopting the Manplay—that is, give them untaxed materials for chester and Boston mania for manufactures. Let ship-building; untaxed, cheap labour, such as the the Canadians beware: abundance of food is the Prussians have; bring down wages to half the present only sure test and foundation of public wealth. rates; pay off British hands, and employ Germans, || The people of England have not made up their Spaniards, or Negroes. The wants of our revenue minds to cast off the colonies: they are only awakforbid the first of these reductions, at least so long || ing to a sense of their importance; and it is to be as the interest of the national debt is to be paid ; | hoped that the day is not far distant when the and there is just as much common sense left us as colonies, despite of mere theories, will be "treated will secure a preference for British sailors, instead as integral parts of the empire," as the provinces of Germans, Portuguese, or Negroes.
of that magnificent British Union, on whose empire Nothing fluctuates so much and so suddenly as the sun never sets. freight: it depends upon the supply and demand. The colonies must, however, co-operate with the The first ships that left Montreal last summer advocates of British and colonial industry in Great brought flour at 2s. 40. to 2s. 6d. a barrel; the last Britain, and assist us to defeat the alienation of the that left in autumn obtained 6s. 6d. to 7s,
only property that really belongs to the people, We think the Canadians committed a great error Why should not Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, in harping too much on freights alone, as an element New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Prince Edward's in the cost of bread stuffs to this country. The Island, and Canada, be as closely allied to each extreme agricultural protectionists in England other as each of them is, or ought to be, to the quoted the low prices of the far west, added the mother country? Why, but because official jobfreights, and then got up an alarm about being || bery must have five governors where one would be ruined by Canadian competition. Actual observa- || enough. In India, one governor-general rules tions
prove that there is such a thing as a geogra- | ninety-five millions. But the northern colonies, phical price.
Wheat is dear at 75 cents., 3s. with a population under two millions, have five a bushel, or 24s. a quarter, in Cleveland, get Colonial office proteges to maintain, India is freights ever so low. The same grain is worth not under the Colonial office: let us emancipate the double the money in Liverpool, in fact, is cheap at || American colonies from official tyranny, and elevate 48s, a quarter; and after all there may be loss to them to the rank of British provinces. Let us con. the speculator. The way to cheapen freight is to solidate their interests, redress their wrongs, and invite shipping, as formerly, with cargoes of British protect their industry. The silent oppression of the productions, instead of banishing trade by hasty || colonies was the work, not of this nation, but of a and anti-British legislation, If the Canadians clique whose days are numbered, whose power is would only encourage their own agriculture in the even now tottering. Valley of the St. Lawrence, and, duly considering There is yet hope for the working people of Great the natural and artificial advantages of their coun- Britain in their colonial connections, and hope for try, labour to develop its resources, clear the the colonists, that the industrial and social distresses country, increase population, and increase produc- l of this country have convinced the masses of our tion, we should soon hear less of the shipping || city populations that the colonies are still British monopoly, and more of Canadian exports and territory, and that the colonists may still sympaCanadian shipping. The anti-British and anti- || thise with us as fellow-citizens of one great nation.
RECENT AUSTRALIAN DISCOVERY.*
GEOGRAPHICAL discovery has made considerable pro-||tralia. The early part of the route lay over a country gress within the last twenty years. From the sunny | with every inch of which Captain Sturt was familiar. groups of the Indian Archipelago, as far as the most Along the base of a range of low hills, across naked remote limits of research, travellers have penetrated table-lands, through masses of bush, along the bed beyond the boundaries of former enterprise, and laid of a river, and over an undulating stretch of land before the world accounts of spots which had been clothed with varied vegetation, the party proceeded, hitherto regarded almost as the creations of fable. and at length entered upon wide grassy plains, where Adventurous men have not been wanting of late to the herbage became finer, greener, and closer as the push their researches into those unknown portions of travellers receded further from the coast. The weather the globe whose character has never before been cor- || in the early part of September was bitterly cold; there rectly ascertained, and around which Nature has, appa- was a considerable quantity of ice formed in the water rently with some mysterious end in view, thrown a buckets, and a keen wind blew throughout the night. belt of dangerous and difficult regions, which serve at But few natives appeared, and these kept aloof from once to baffle the enterprise and damp the zeal of the the travellers, until, having traversed a low ridge and explorer. The remotest sources of the Nile still re-encamped upon the borders of a great lagoon, framed main a mystery; the regions surrounding the head of within hills of a yellow and white colour, a small party the Niger are involved in comparative obscurity; and of the aborigenes consented to approach. A beautiful the interior of Australia, in spite of the numerous ex- green flat afforded abundant pasture for the cattle; and, peditions which have of late years been undertaken, tempted probably by the snug appearance of the travelyet remains a question to be discussed and set at rest | lers bivouac, seventeen or eighteen natives came down by future travellers. The centre of that vast island, and joined the train, evincing every sign of an amicable which some suppose to have been formed by an archi- disposition. pelago, some to consist of a great belt of land encir- A little further on, a gigantic mound, the grave of cling an undiscovered sea, has given rise to more inquiry | forty natives, who had perished in an encounter with than perhaps any other geographical problem. The the whites, testified, however, that peace was not unadventurous spirit of a Mungo Park might, perhaps, I broken in that district, and subsequent events added have unravelled the difficult question. We have no 11 strength to this observation. The plains, as the travelsuch travellers now. Few men would care to toil,lers advanced, presented striking evidences that a poalone and unprotected, through so savage a wilderness pulation, far from limited, was near at hand. Beaten as that which the explorer must traverse in order to paths intersected the grassy lands, some leading from penetrate the remoteness of Australia. The danger the bush to the river, others running between the fine of the enterprise deters men from it; and, perhaps, the pastures, while broad cattle-tracks were met at intercharacter of the country is less propitious to the adven-vals. The bullocks, which formed part of the expediturer than even the wild solitudes of Africa. Scarcity |tion, were observed be wearied with their heavy of provisions and water, the risk of hostile collision loads, which suggested to Captain Sturt the idea of with the natives, the inhospitable nature of the country seizing two or three of the wild animals. In this he —these are dangers and obstacles which induce the was unsuccessful, so that the party was compelled to explorer to set forth attended by a numerous company, I proceed with the same insufficient accommodation. At and furnished with cumbrous waggons and other means length the descent towards the valley of the Darling of conveyance. These obstruct the progress, while I was commenced. The country became better wooded, they increase the comfort, of the traveller, but are, per-|| and broad flats of brilliantly green grass alternated haps, unavoidable evils, when we consider the character with fields of more luxuriant and ranker vegetation. of the little-known districts of the Australian continent. || The river was reached, a camp was pitched, just as the
Captain Sturt had long distinguished himself by his sun was throwing his last lingering beams over the ardour in the cause of discovery. His vigour and per-| landscape. The cattle were turned loose to feed on the severance, his talent and patient endurance of privation, rich herbage, while the travellers settled to repose. were well known; and when, in January, 1843, he || Amid the branches of a large and hollow gum tree, a wrote to the Colonial authorities, tendering his services | | new fishing net was observed, carefully arranged; but to lead an expedition into the interior of Australia, the where the owner intended to use it was a mystery
, offer was at once accepted. Before the autumn of the considering that there existed in the neighbourhood no same year had fairly set in, a well-arranged party started river whence it appeared possible to obtain fish. from Moorundi, a small town on the banks of the The expedition would have started at an early hour Murray. Some sixteen white men, two natives, with in the morning, had not an aged native come down to horses, bullocks, a boat and boat-carriage, with drags, visit the encampment. He approached timidly, but, a cart, and two hundred sheep, two sheep and four having obtained a near view of the white men, assumed kangaroo dogs, were about to start on a journey across a certain degree of confidence. He recollected having a wild and partly unknown waste, to discover the seen Captain Sturt, in a boat on the Murray, when, in character of the interior of the vast territory of Aus- Jl company with another party of travellers, fourteen years
* "Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia: performed under the authority of her Majesty's Government, during the years 1844-5-6; together with a Notice of the Province of South Australia in 1847. By Captain Charles Sturt, F.L.S., F.R.G.S. London: T. & W. Boone."
previous, he was proceeding on a journey up that river. || from the encampment, left, after receiving some trifling The old man's demeanour was at first uneasy and suspi- || presents. cious, but it soon appeared that he was in doubt regard- The thievish disposition of some of the aborigines ing the safety of his fishing net. A word re-assured who hovered in the wake of the party caused conhim, however, and he entered into a free and friendly | siderable annoyance. The women, especially, were conversation.
suspected; and when Nadluck, seeing a crowd of A short progress brought them within view of a large them grouped on the opposite shore of the stream, native encampment, when it was debated whether or wished to invite them over
, Captain Sturt was comnot it would be prudent for the explorers to approach. I pelled to vow that he would cut off the head of the Nadluck, one of the men who accompanied the expe- first who came, with his long knife. This threat surdition, volunteered to go forward and reconnoitre; but || prised the native, who consulted another of the travelthe old native desired him to remain behind, while he lers, wishing to know whether it was likely that the stepped forward with an air of the utmost importance, // white man would do as he promised. In reply, he and, soon returning, said the white men might go. | received an assurance that nothing was more certain, Advancing up a slope, and descending to the bank of and a hint that his own head might not be quite safe. a clear and pretty river, they found themselves in the Such measures seemed to be rendered necessary by midst of a large company of the aborigines, mostly the predilection of the blacks for articles of European Fell armed, who, though evidently taken by surprise, | manufacture, which they endeavoured, with much inreceived the travellers with considerable cordiality. genuity, to make off with. The river still continued
to rise, and must have thrown an enormous body of "Some of the men were very good looking and well made, but I think the natives of the Darling generally are so. They looked turbid surface; but navigation was dangerous, and the
water into the Murray. A few canoes studded its with astonishment on the drags, which passed close to them; and I observed that several of them trembled gently. At this natives hesitated before venturing to cross the widentime Nadluck had walked to some little distance with two olding stream. men, holding each by the hand in the most affectionate manner, The country now became more open and barren, and he was, apparently, in deep and earnest conversation with the herbage more stunted, the scanty wood less remained seated on one of the drags until it descended into the abundantly covered with leaves, while bare and rugged creek. He then got off, and, walking up to the natives, folded flats were of more frequent occurrence. Large his blanket round him with a haughty air, and eyed the whole patches of red clay land, entirely destitute of vegetaof them with a look of stern and unbending pride, if not of fero- tion, were traversed, and it was evident that the city. Whether it was that his firmness produced any effect, I travellers were proceeding forward into an unknown cannot say, but after one of the natives had whispered to another, he walked up to Toonda and saluted him, by putting his hands and inhospitable region. Water became scarce, for on his shoulders and bending his head util it touched his breast. | they had now left the Darling, to pursue their course This Toonda coldly returned, and then stood as frigid as before, towards the centre of Australia. A slight divergence until the drags moved on, when he again resumed his seat, and left to save low hills brought them to little creeks, whence them without uttering a word. Nadluck had separated from his friends, after having, as it seemed, imparted to them some im
a scanty supply was obtained. As they advanced, the portant information, and, coming up to myself and Mr. Browne, green vegetation to which their eyes had been accuswhispered to us, 'Bloody rogue, that fellow: you look after tomed was observed to become less and less abundant, Jimlnek.
' The contrast between these two men was remarkable; until at length a little grass, lining the banks of an the crafty duplicity of the one, and the haughty bearing of the occasional creek, was all that cheered the arid aspect other. But I am led to believe that there was some latent cause for Toonda's conduct, since he asked me to shoot the natives, of the wilderness. The excitement of the expedition and was so excited that he pushed his blanket into his mouth, had now in reality commenced. Scarcity of water, and bit it violently in his anger. On this I offered him a pistol and the diminution of provisions, caused much anxiety, to shoot them himself; but he returned it to me with a smile. // while it was evident that every forward step taken Of course it will be understood that I would not have allowed him | plunged the explorers deeper into wild and uncultito fire it."
vated solitudes. Some few natires still accompanied Keeping at a short distance from the river, whose the party, and these occasionally enlivened the monobanks were thickly wooded with timber of little value, tony of the march by hunting dogs and a few other the expedition now encountered frequent parties of the als, which were encountered now and then in the natives, who appeared astonished that their property, || course of the day. The hills were gradually losing such as nets, game, and provisions, was pot molested. themselves in the plains, and before the eye there apThe Darling had dwindled into a mere stream of water,peared notbing but a vast level waste, across which in spite of which abundant verdure covered the flats . the expedition was about to pursue its way.
A cerAn extraordinary circumstance took place on the night tain degrce of excitement attends the traveller through of the 28th August.
When the travellers encamped, whatever country he may be journeying. Now scenes soon after sunset, near the bed of the stream, a shallow continually extend themselves before his view, he finds and diminutive flow of water alone marked its course. himself among strange society, and feels the presence On rising in the morning, however, they saw a wide of a civilisation to which he has not been accustomed. and deep river rolling before them, foaming and frothing Far otherwise is it with the explorer of new regions ! between the steep banks, with an immense volume of | He feels that every hour leads deeper into the unwater. Whence this flood had come was a mystery. || traversed districts of a land hitherto undescribed ; No satisfactory reason was assigned by the natives for || that features which have been liidden from the white the phenomenon. Captain Sturt supposes that heavy man's speculation since the creation, are every morains had fallen on the hills to the north-west, which ment revealing themselves to his gaze ;
for he is penehad poured into the Darling through some unknown trating into the abodes of wild tribes, to whom his channel. At this point the natives, who had followed llappearance is a phenomenon. All these, and nu
merous other circumstances, combine to render the hoped to obtain information concerning the route, Capprogress of an explorer one of excitement and enthu- || tain Sturt ordered his horse to be saddled, with the insiasm. We can, therefore, readily enter into the feel- || tention of going in scarch of them; but just at that ing of ardour which prompted Captain Sturt and his moment a native follower called out that three blacks adventurous companions to push their advance into the were crossing from the flats to the eastward. The uninviting regions of interior Australia.
Englishman, therefore, started after them on foot, An encampment was made at Parnari, a small glen, | directing his servant to follow him. The ground was or water-lole, of picturesque appearance. Three na- rough and stony, so that the alarmed natives were tives were surprised here, as they lay asleep beneath a rapidly gained upon by their pursuers :tree. Around such spots, where a spring affords “At last, seeing there was no escape, one of them stopped, who nourishment to the soil, a vegetation green, if not pro- proved to be an old woman with two younger companions. I fuse, springs up. A small grove encircled Parnari, I explained to her, when she got calm, for at first she was dreadwhile some beautiful plants grew in the bed of the fully frightened, that my camp was on the creek, and I wanted
the black fellows to come and see me; and taking Tampawang's creek. Having rested and refreshed themselves here, | knife, which hung by a string round his neck, I showed the old they pushed on again, and were soon compelled to re- lady the use of it, and putting the string over her head, patted new the search for water. To their great joy, a pond her on the back, and allowed her to depart. To my surprise, in was found; and, convinced that this want would be the about an hour and a half after, seven natives were seen approachgreatest obstacle to the progress of the expedition, ing the camp with the slowness of a funeral procession. They
kept their eyes on the ground, and appeared as if marching to Captain Sturt caused a small tank to be constructed, execution. However, I made them sit under a tree; a group of which he proposed to send on a day or two in advance. | seven of the most miserable human beings I ever saw. Poor emaThe thirsty sun which hangs above this region soon ciated creatures all of them, who, no doubt, thought the mandate dries
up the few detached pools which alone remain they had received to visit the camp was from a superior being, after the subsidence of the river floods. Dry and and had obeyed it in fear and trembling. I made them sit down,
gave them a good breakfast, and some presents, but could obtain naked plains, consequently, are of much more frequent no information from them-when at length they slunk off ; and occurrence than the small patches of verdure which
we never saw anything more of them.” occasionally gladden the traveller's eye. The leader
A short excursion which Captain Sturt made to the of the present expedition, therefore, resolved to pitch eastward showed the barren and desolate nature of the a camp near the pool
, which was surrounded with a country which extended beyond. Leaving Hood's verdant slope, or rather lay at the bottom of a hollow Creek, they left all signs of vegetation. Mount Lyell well, shaded by trees. Leaving the cattle and drags | rose there to the height of two thousand feet; but its in this favourable position, he undertook a journey to naked sides, totally uncovered, save where a deep cleft the hills; whence, however, he returned, little satisfied
or ravine afforded shelter to a grove of gloomy pines, with the aspect of the country, but convinced that || presented not a blade of grass. A few bushes grew on they were now steadily working their way towards the the summit; otherwise no vegetation appeared. A teleunknown centre of Australia. The expedition was at scopic view from the summit showed the same uninviting this time in a healthy and efficient state. It had not | landscape. Nothing save the dark patches of pine suffered severely from privation; the sheep, bullocks, | forest grew upon the land. It was a waterless wiland horses were in excellent condition, and a kindly and derness. To return to the camp, therefore, as speedily good disposition evinced by every member of the party || as possible, was the only resource. The distance was had contributed to render the journey agreeable to all
. || fifty-six miles; and during the whole of this progress The hope of effecting that, in the prosecution of which the traveller met with but one dirty pool, close to all others had failed, buoyed up their hearts, and, after which he sat down, and partook of a hasty meal. At a further progress of several miles, they bivouacked at the bivouac the wheels of the drags had been seriously Hood's Creek in comfort and comparative hilarity. || injured by the heat of the sun, so that a considerable Hitherto, however, they had not proceeded over en delay was necessary before the expedition could once tirely untrodden ground. One or two explorers had more be set in motion. A fire which broke out in one preceded them. But he may be termed a wanderer in of the carts caused another stoppage, and Christmasunexplored countries who is only the third or fourth day found them at no great distance from their former European that has ever traversed those regions ; con- | place of encampment. Mr. Poole, who had been sent sequently Captain Sturt was already a discoverer.
on an excursion to the north-north-east, now rejoined The district upon which they had now entered ap- the main party of the expedition. His report described peared less destitute of vegetation than the wide plain the country over which he had passed as one bleak they had already crossed. Indeed, it seemed to present and barren to the last degree. Now he had arrived at every necessary for the life of the savage. Trees, a place where the blacks had been digging in vain for bushies, and grass were far from scanty, game was water; now his course lay along the bed of a dried-up abundant, and a variety of vegetable productions fit creek; now he discovered a choked-up well, whence a for food were observed. Population, however, appeared || scanty supply was obtained; once he discovered a exceedingly restricted. Some six or seven natives only || patch of grass and a creek full of water—but a dark, were seen, hovering occasionally around Hood's Creek, dry scrub in general covered the land. A few native and these were so timid, that they never would consent huts, of rude and primitive construction, were observed, to approach.
though but one or two blacks were seen moving stealOne morning, however, some men who had been to thily among the brushwood. The onward progress the castward to tend the cattle, returned with infor-/ was across a country of precisely the same character. mation that four natives had been seen at a distance. Mounting to the summit of a low, naked range, the Anxious to see and converse with some of the aborigines travellers cast their view over an unbroken mass of of this part of the country, from whom, moreover, be the same brown arids, which swept before them like a
Waveless sea to the very verge of the horizon. A small / with small hillocks, upon the summits of which rested party had been despatched to search for water, and a rounded masses of gypsum, from three to ten inches fire which was noticed burning brightly to the east- | in diameter, flat and transparent, and connected with ard, but which was lost, was mistaken for a signal the ground by a pointed projection like that in a bull'sthat a well had been discovered. Such, however, did eye in window.glass. These curious substances were not prove the case; and the evening closed in, bringing very common in the district over which they were now disappointment to the travellers.
passing. We hasten on with Captain Sturt and his As day dawned, the travellers were in motion. False companions, omitting to notice several curious partihopes led them into a dark pine forest, full of sand- || culars, until we arrive at a native village, of which the ridges. Here they became entangled in the pathless article furnishes us with a curious and graphic repreand wood-covered expanse. The horses, bullocks, || sentation. The huts were formed of strong boughs, and sheep, were urged over successive ridges; but fixed in the ground in a circle, and meeting at the top. another and another presented itself, and night threat- || This framework was covered with a layer of grass and ened to set in wildly and darkly, and leave them leaves, over which was plastered a thick coating of wellstruggling to emerge from the solitudes of the pine worked clay. The larger huts were from eight to ten forest. The draught beasts were completely exhausted. || feet across, and four and a half high, each having a small Their strength had been worn out by long and unin-one at its side. The apertures were only sufficiently terrupted labour, so that a halt was necessary in order | large to allow of a man's creeping in on his hands and to recruit them a little. A little water was discovered, knees. All the dwellings faced the north-west. It a blessing at such a time, but the supply was insuf- || appears to be probable that the natives only inhabit fieient. About three in the morning, however, a their villages during the winter season, since their bivouac was reached, the exhausted animals were re-construction forbids the idea of comfort, which would freshed, and, after a day and night of unparalleled toil, || possibly be more consulted were the blacks in the a few hours' rest was obtained. The poverty of the habit of dwelling under roofs during the whole of the country was strikingly illustrated by one circumstance. year. As the expedition pushed further towards the Passing through the acacia-shrub, the explorers ob- centre, it was remarked that the huts were more com. served that the natives had been engaged in collecting | pactly built, and with smaller apertures, as though the the seed. Indigent and poverty-stricken, indeed, must winds were more bitter in those regions than in the the people be who can subsist on such food, dry and districts approximating nearer to the coast lands. Seveunpalatable as it is.
ral tribes of natives were encountered. Their behaThe heat was now excessive. The ground became viour was generally quiet and inoffensive, characterised so hoi that the bullocks could not stand upon it, and chiefly by timidity and astonishment at the strange every blade of vegetation appeared to have been withered sight presented to their view by the expedition, as it up by the sun. Both men and animals suffered dread. || wound its way, with drags, carts, bullocks, and a flock fully. Some of the former had their skin blistered up, || of sheep, across the country. while the dogs could scarcely drag themselves along; Sullivan and Turpin, two members of the expeaione of the most valuable perished on the way. The tion, were proceeding one morning to collect the cattle, sheep alone appeared not to suffer. They throve well, and seeing a native and his “luba,” or wife, crossing the their fleece was of a snowy whiteness, and they became plains to the eastward, proceeded after them. A large as fat as though they were rearing in a pasture at quantity of grass grew there, and the blacks were the colony. It appeared, however, as though the carrying stones to grind the seed, it being their har. travellers were to suffer until they could endure their vest time. Sullivan proceeded after them; but they, sufferings no longer, when a water-creek generally ap- being exceedingly alarmed, set fire to the grass. He peared to comfort them. One which was reached | leaped over the flaming piles, they threw themselves about the 3d of January was exceedingly pleasantly on the ground; and the lad, seeing their terror, de situated. Flowers and shrubs grew about it, shady sisted :trees arched overhead, and numerous birds peopled “No sooner, however, had the poor creatures escaped one their branches. Close in the neighbourhood were seve- dreaded object than they encountered another, in the shape of ral dwellings of the aborigines, the first which Captain Mack, who was on horseback. As soon as the
they Sturt describes :
took to their heels; but, putting his horse into a canter, he was
up with them before they were aware of it. On this they threw "They were all arched elliptically, by bending the bough of a down their stones, bags, net, and fire-stick, and scrambled up tree at a certain height from the ground, and resting the other into a tree. The fire-stick set the grass on fire, and all their end on the forked stick at the opposite side of the arch. A valuables would have been consumed, if Mack had not very prothick layer of boughs was then put over the roof and back, on perly dismounted, and extinguished the flames. lle could not, which there was a thick coating of red clay, so that the hut was
however, persuade either of the natives to descend, and therefore impervious to wind or heat. These huts were of considerable | rode away.” size, and close to each there was a smaller one, equally well made as the larger. Both were left in perfect repair, and had
This timidity of the aboriginal population is to be apparently been swept, prior to the departure of their inmates." || regretted, since it prevented the travellers from ob
The aborigines appear to have been much alarmed serving their characteristics, in manners, religion-if by the apparition of the white men traversing their they believe in anything--and general ideas. Mr. wild country. In one place thirty fires were found Poole, being accompanied by Mack, whom some of the still burning, with not a soul near them, whilst at in- | natives recognised, did once, indeed, come into contact tervals a group of empty huts was passed. Water with a man and woman, whose behaviour was friendly continued scarce; a few holes were discovered, but || and confident. On the strength of this, Captain they were full of nothing but thin mud. The soil was Sturt resolved to pay the tribe a visit, and accordingly caked and blistered, and of a peculiar character, dotted || started with a horse-load of sugar and presents, in the