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hold intercourse with man, to guide his present and the blandishments of women, he often forgot actions, and to reveal to him the colour of the future. || the thought of empire, and descended to the level If there be less of this feeling in the West, you must of his meanest courtier; gradually yielding more and not thence conclude that it is, or ever can be, extinct. more to the suggestions of his senses, a poison put Indeed, travellers even from England often exhibit a period to his life, and sent him still victorious to in the valley of the Nile a stretch of credulity, the stars. Literally, therefore, was the declaration which would-do no discredit to the most illiterate of the Oracle fulfilled. He met with no serious reArab. If, then, we carry our minds back to the verses during his whole life, as he went on adding infancy of civilization, when the whole philosophy || kingdom after kingdom to his empire, while he was of nature was a still greater mystery than it is every day losing more and more his command over now, it would not be difficult to conceive how men himself. could persuade themselves into the belief that they It was in the footsteps of this man, Mr. Bayle St. were holding intercourse with heaven. Even at the John went to, and returned from, the Oasis of Sipresent day the wanderer from Europe feels, as he wah, which few Europeans have visited since the breathes the air of the desert, that it is pervaded by Oracle ceased to utter responses. It is now inhabi. the influence of superstition. He listens at night||ted by a fierce race of Berbers, imbued with all with a sort of breathless eagerness, as if he expected the prejudices of El-Islam, but still capable of being the voice of nature to become audible, because there subdued by long continued acts of forbearance and are influences at work around him which induce him courtesy. During the stay of Mr. St. John and his to personify her, to clothe her with intellectual attri- companions, however, they displayed the most inbutes, and to imagine that she sympathises visibly hospitable disposition; though, towards the end, they with man.
exhibited some tokens of a desire to make amends Still, from the tenor of Alexander's questions, for their ill-behaviour. A few weeks more would and the replies made to them, it is impossible to probably have opened for the travellers the way into doubt that the whole was a political stratagem, put the City of Salt; but they were weary of ill-usage
, in play by the conqueror, in conjunction with the of being shot at in their tent at night, of being repriests of the Nile, for the purpose of operating | fused provisions, and incessantly threatened with upon public opinion. The vulgar easily seize upon starvation. We cannot wonder, therefore, that rumour, and convert it into truth. Accepting it when, at the eleventh hour, the Sheikh of the Oasis with doubt and misgiving at first, they soon fa- || entreated them to prolong their stay, and even to miliarised it to their minds, and found themselves return when they had actually started, they should interested in maintaining what they received with have persisted in quitting so disa greeable a race, out examination. The saying of the oracle was with whose caprice and insolence nothing but the soon spread through all lands; and it cannot be moderation and curiosity of travellers could have doubted that it reached the valley of the Nile before | induced them to put up so long. The reader, we the return of the son of Ammon himself. He was think, will derive much pleasure and instruction destined to become the king of the whole earth. from Mr. Bayle St. John's volume, which describes Ammon had declared so much; and, therefore, though || a portion of the desert which has very rarely been the King of Persia might still choose to fight for visited. We ourselves have beheld it far southward, his crown, the idea insinuated itself into his army, | within the tropics, where the atmosphere is nerer and unbraced the sinews of those most devoted to his moistened by a single shower, where no cloud is ever service. It was a precisely similar idea that sat on visible, and where the sun rises and sets in unmitithe edge of Mohammed's sword, and gave him per- gated splendour from one year's end to another
. petual victory. He was the prophet, commissioned | This grand monotony is not beheld in Marmarica. to instruct the nations, and, at the same time, to There the travellers sometimes walk beneath a casubdue them. It was therefore, in some respects, nopy of rosy clouds, which cover the whole arch of impious to contend against him.
the horizon for a few minutes before the sun goes Alexauder, though a man of genius, and an astute down. This also is beautiful, though we prefer the statesman, was still too little the master of his own imperturbable serenity which broods over the intepassions to keep up the imposture. Constantly al- | rior wastes, and renders them so delicious to the imalured and subdued by pleasure, by wine, feasting, ||ginative traveller.
"I KNOW a bank where the wild thyme blows,"
By the broad river, bending o'er whose brim The blossoms woo their shadows, as it flows
Through the flat mead-lands with a solemn hymn. And there the heaven-turned willow branches weave
A gauze-hung temple by the stream; all o'er The grassy slope young Spring is wont to leave
Prints of her footsteps bloom-ray'd on its floor, Of “ox.lips,” “nodding violets,” by “woodbine”
“O'er-canopied;" there Fancy oft will see, “Lulled in these flowers,” the Poet's form recline,
Or wandering in thought, and "fancy-free,
There have I heard the distance-mellowed chime
Peal on the summer breeze, down Aron's wave,
Of world-wide pilgrims to the Poet's grave.
Ilis feet have wandered from his homestead there?
Each form imbuing with a hue more fair.
Yet from this bank song's halo ne'er departs;
HUDDERSFIELD-ITS PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, MANUFACTURING, COMMERCIAL,
AND RELIGIOUS CHARACTERISTICS.
In the debtor and creditor account which I keep of || not quarrel with them about their title-deeds, however; the pains and pleasures of life, I esteem it no small although I fancy that the right of appropriation, seitem of the balance sheet in my favour, that I live in cured to every deserving person by the charter of life, a hilly and beautiful country, where I can walk at my is of an older and more ancient date than any sheet of leisure, and enjoy, in Nature's own picture gallery, the parchment can boast of. I am, nevertheless, content sight of innumerable, rich, and varied landscapes. I to enjoy the goods and estates of men, without having am so sensible of this privilege, and of the high in- | a legal possession of them; and am grateful
, moreover, fluence which beautiful scenery exercises over the mind, for the faculty of enjoying. I persuade myself of the that I would sacrifice many private comforts rather || justice of Providence, in the apparently unequal distrithan forego this public and bountiful enjoyment. I bution of the chattels and commodities of life, by this have always, indeed, been well enough content with very consideration—that those who have not, can apsmall household means, when I have had free access to preciate the things of those who have; and so secure the golden largess of Nature. It has even happened them, in the highest sense of the term, as the spito me, more than once in my life, to keep the wolf upon ritual appurtenances of their own nature. my hearthstone; or, in other words, to sit down hob and lofty moments of existence, when the spirit is and nob with Poverty, beating time with my knuckles || abandoned to those holy and unseen influences which to the wild overtures of famine which this unwelcome haunt the woods and dells, the meadows, moors, and guest has whistled at my empty board; but I no mountains of our native land, are not in any way sooner stepped forth into the free and generous air, || either enhanced or deteriorated by the fact that a amid the pomp and magnificence of Nature, than I man owns, or does not own, the landscape as a heriforgot my companion and my misery alike, and felttage. Beauty lives for him who has the eyes to see that I was a born king of these realms. No doubt and admire her; but she has the heart of a saint, and this was a poetical and pleasant way of cheating the will be worshipped for herself alone. The dukes who appetite for bread, which, somehow or other, is natural own the forest of Sherwood are more remarkable for to me; and I certainly got some valuable lessons out the pride they take in the forester's account of the of the process and the remedy, so that I can now look| trees that are ready for the axe, than for their acknowback
upon those Barnecidal times with more pleasur-| ledgment of the splendour of that beautiful domain. able than painful feelings.
I have the vanity to think myself richer even than It has been my good fortune throughout life, with these noble proprietors, inasmuch as Beauty herself but one or two exceptions, to reside in neighbourhoods has given me the key which unlocks all their possesof more than ordinary loveliness and grandeur. In mysions, and has shown m the sunny spots and tiny young days, whilst yet in my teens, I found myself glades where her profusest wealth is scattered. It is one fine morning in July upon the top of a mountain a privilege reserved for good and cultivated persons, in the other hemisphere, looking out of the window of that they shall have Nature for their friend, however my schoolhouse, upon the broad and sunny bosom of hardly they may be dealt with by the world; and I the Hudson, over which many beautiful craft were should rejoice to see that more men were worthy to gracefully sailing. The river was dotted with little claim it. I owe so much to this befriending, that I do islands of luxuriant verdure, which were occupied by not know very well how to speak for it. Nature has Dutch fishermen, whose wooden shanties were suffi-|| been my teacher more than books ; and although I ciently aquatic and picturesque. Beyond the river have the profoundest reverence for these silent friends, swept the bold outline of the green and wooded hills,|| I should love them less, if Nature had not taught me with flocks of sheep grazing upon them; whilst here to love her more. Every walk a man takes, if he be and there the handsome house of some rich old settler | in an open and receptive mood, is as good as a course peeped through the openings of the trees, in the neigh- of lectures in any modern university, and goes far bourhood of a miglity cataract. The sunny days and more toward his spiritual fashioning and culture. The starry nights of this gorgeous climate amply compen- || forest of Sherwood has been a kind of alma mater to sated, in the discipline and culture they afforded me, me: a paradise, also, as well as a school. I have spofor the losses of English civilization. I became ac- ken so osten of this forest, and in such unwonted enquainted with new and strange sights and sounds, new thusiasm for these literary times, that some of my plants and animals, new men and manners, and with a closest friends have thought me a little cracked in the large, wild, and romantic life, which both charmed and matter, until they visited themselves the scenes I had
At a much later period I dwelt on the celebrated. I lived within a few miles of it for nearly borders of Sherwood Forest, still following my early three years, and earned the right of speaking in its avocation of teaching, and rejoicing in the fine wood-praise, by making myself acquainted, far and wide, land property which I had stolen, without any com- with its rich and varied beauty. punctions of conscience, from the Dukes of Portland The poets tell us many strange stories about the and Newcastle, and their noble peers, the Lords Man-footfall of angels, and how they caught their inspiravers and Scarborough, who, before my felony, and eventions in the woods; and the Platonists talk to us now, I believe, clain Sherwood as their own. I will about the divine aflatus, the rushing of fiery wings
from heaven to earth, and the possession by gods of || idea of the beautiful aspect it presents when it is in the souls of chosen men ; and although these things || full blossom. But I must stop short in these descripsound rather extravagantly, as being out of the ordi- || tions, or I shall forego my original purpose, and write nary usages of nature, I must confess myself a faithful | a paper about Sherwood instead of Huddersfield. believer in them, and hereby subscribe my name in
It is these fine recollections, however, which make witness of their truth. If any one doubt the fact, let || life dear to me, and give an edge to all my doings and him go down into Sherwood Forest, Notts, where all|| affections. I regard life indeed as a sacred possession, these things shall be confirmed unto him, and some and delight to set it in the most costly jewels of others, perhaps, which neither he nor I can just now memory. To this end, I seek all manner of brave and imagine. Every writer loses his common sense, and beautiful experiences, and go forth, in the true spirit of says uncommon things, when this forest is the theme | chivalry, to win them by my adventures. It is not of his pen; and I can plead the cases of Irving, well, however, to confine one's errantry to scenery Howitt, Pemberton, and others, in justification of all alone; and every cultivated man should find out all the nonsense I have uttered here and elsewhere—or the men and women of his neighbourhood, to whom all I may yet utter-upon this subject. The truth is, he is related, and make the landscape dearer to him that the scenery of Sherwood is unlike that of any for their private and moral beauty. I esteem myself other English forest. It reminds us of a “strange, happy in knowing one man, at least, of so great and solemn, and old universe,” which we have seen in hospitable a nature, so good, wise, and benevolent, some ante-natal state, and now dimly recognise. The that the sun never seems to set over his home. He finest part of it lies between Ollerton and Worksop; is the friend of all men, and the benefactor of many, and the little village of Edwinstone is its capital. One especially of the poor and the orphan. His gate and part, which is called Bilhagh, and extends east and his heart are always open; and the beautiful women of west for about three miles, is an aboriginal remnant of his household administer with their own hands to the the old forest, as it stood 1200 years ago, when the sick and the afflicted. And these private doings, kings of Mercia hunted the wild boar in its brakes, which are all the more estimable on account of the and chased the red deer over the green sward. The motives from which they spring, and the secrecy with brand of King John's foresters has been discovered which they are performed, are extended, in the same under the bark of many oaks which have lately been unobtrusive manner, to the more public offices of edufelled by the woodmen; and in John's time they must|cation, in the moral training and mental discipline of have been in the prime and vigour of their glory. the children of operatives and mechanics. In this Now they are old, bare, and grey; the fox makes his latter undertaking, he is supported by all the flower den in their hollow trunks, and the daw and the star- and virtue of his neighbourhood; and, by these joint ling build nests in their branches. I have often been efforts, a noble institution of learning has been estabmuch struck, and sometimes quite overpowered, with lished, whose influence is clearly perceptible in the the loneliness and desolation of this “ruined Palmyraculture and conduct of the working classes. In this of the forest.” It was by no means an uncommon fine example of manly greatness we see the true mis. thing with me, whilst I was in that part of the coun- sion of man unfolded and illustrated in the most practry, to walk eight miles in the evening—both winter tical form: and I coufess that Nature, with all her and summer—that I might spend an hour alone with loveliness, has nothing to compare with this moral the apparitions of these old forest kings in the moon- | beauty, which, without profanity, deserves, I think, to light. Shut out from the sight and sound of men, || be called divine. and buried in the living ruins of this wonderful world, I designed, however, at the outset, to speak of the I have recalled the olden traditions and histories which physical, social, manufacturing, and religious characterare associated with its name; the mighty events which istics of Huddersfield, and have been led from my its mighty oaks have survived, connecting the past purpose into a very rambling kind of gossip by the and the present together, and making our long and seductive recollections of my past life. It is time, weary civilization, which has trailed its garments therefore, to begin the play, since we have had the through the blood and dust of centuries, to appear but prologue; and, first of all, let us introduce the as the birth and growth of yesterday.
scenery. Beyond Bilhagh, and nearer Edwinstone than Oller- Huddersfield lies in a valley, and is surrounded by ton, the character of the forest is entirely changed. hills, which are here and there well wooded.
The The gorse flanks it for miles, like a vast and burning river Coln runs at the foot of the town, with a canal sea of gold; but this, of course, is in the spring and a little on this side of it. Seventy years ago, it was
-although I can scent, even whilst I write, the a miserable, straggling village, more easy for passenrich odours which rise from its yellow blossoms. Welgers to find their way in, than out of. The houses have now a real Paradise before us, full of more were hovels, and the people were poor and ignorant. beautiful creatures than Mahomet ever dreamed of in || Around them stretched the black moorland, his vision of houris. It is called Birkland, and well || claimed by the plough or the spade ; and the sides of called so, for it is crowded with the finest birches that | the noble hills were covered with shaggy moss
, brambles, are to be found in any part of these dominions. A || and wiry creepers, or coloured, in the appointed senson, broad glade, of nearly two miles in length, divides this with the golden gorse and the purple heather. Here land of enchantment, where the wood-birds sing all and there, on the hills and in the valleys, day long, and the winds make music in the drooping lonely cottages, built of stone, with little gardens before tresses of the trees. Still further, at Budby, about a them, and patches of land broken up for the growth of mile from Birkland, is a forest of white thorns ; and || oats and potatoes ; whilst a cow or a sheep might be no words that I am acquainted with cau convey any ll scen cropping the rauk herbage Lard by, The chief
were a few
occupation of the people, both of Huddersfield and the I have heard the ancient men of the place say that, in scattered district around, was the manufacture of cloth. || the early times we have spoken of, all the dealings of Every house had its loom and its spinning-wheel, and the manufacturers were transacted in the open air, and the entire fabrics were wrought by hand labour. There that their goods were placed upon the low wall of the were no factories then in existence. Tlfe river, now | parish church, which was then their place both of dved black with woad and minerals, ran clear and beau- market and exchange. These good men might be tiful, singing a musical song, all the way upon its seen, carly in the morning, •descending the hills, and course seaward, to the woods and valleys which it emerging from the valleys, on stout horses, which were passed by in its long, joyous meanderings. John o' the laden with bales of cloth. The roads were rough and Brook, and Will o’the Moor House, might be seen, in | bad, and the modern usage of horse and cart was iinthe fine summer evenings, among the bearded rocks practicable in their case. In course of time the roads and the woods overhauging the river, fishing for trout were mended, factories sprung up and centralised the in the rapids and rushing eddies of the shallows, or operations of manufactures and commerce, until at last hunting the otter with their merry dogs. The whole a commodious Cloth Hall was built, and it became evicountry round was wild and barren, the population dent that Huddersfield was to have a civil history. sparse, often ill fed and ill clad; and no sign of the Money, however, was then very scarce, and it frequently present prosperity gleamed through the darkness of happened that an entire company of manufacturers, that time. The enchanted palaces, by which name wealthough comparatively rich in the goods they had may truly call the existing factories, were all asleep in brought to market, were unable, when all their pockets the future. No whirling of water-wheels, nor thunder were ransacked, to muster the fees necessary for their of steam-engines, nor mid-day smoke of mighty chim- admission into the Cloth Hall. Now, the whole neighneys, darkening the sunshine and the blue of heaven, bourhood abounds with wealthy men, who could very were heard or seen. No working magii directed their well afford to buy the Cloth Hall for their stable. wondrously intelligent machines, and compelled them, The
around Huddersfield is bold and romanas I have elsewhere said, to do the work of men with-tic; and my partiality for the place makes me think it out hands or feet, and weave garments for the naked worthy of so grand a framework. Some parts of the backs of the world. The true empire of magic, and town are more clevated than others, and the streets romance of the actual, had yet to be broken up, and no form a kind of vistas, through which beautiful glimpses man could have imagined that the period of its accom- of the surrounding landscape are visible. I live in so plishment was so nigh at hand. But already in this favoured a spot, that from my study windows I look wild people were deposited the seeds of a great manu- over the roofs of half the town, and take in at a glance facturing community. Huddersfield Proper, to use a several miles of prospect. Nor am I altogether singugeographical expression, was to grow out of them. lar in this respect; for some houses, even of the opeThey were to acquire the skill necessary to build a ratives, command a more extensive view of wood, mountown, wherein they might weave broad cloths and em- tain, and moorland, than is to be seen from the Gothic broidered fabrics, the fame of which should reach to windows of many old ancestral mansions. I have the very ends of the civilized world—and they have often been pleased to witness the enjoyment of the done so. Seventy years have changed the face of this factory workers, when, in the twilight of the summer vast district; for during that time heads and hands have evenings, they sat smoking their pipes at the doorsteds, been at work, conquering the wild dominion of nature, gazing over the dim and distant hills, and watching and making all her elements serve them. Thus, the the silent muster of the starry hosts, whilst their wives river has been converted into artificial beds, and the were gossipping in twos and threes, and the little waters arrested in their course by weirs, and compelled children were playing around them. I take it to be a to turn the wheels and supply the steam-engines of the high compliment paid to Nature when men stop at home hundreds of factories which are built upon the river's to woo her in the presence of their wives ; and I prebanks. Man could scarcely have achieved a greater | fer this semi-infidelity to the downright atheism of the triumph than that which shews itself in the work he pothouse. I attribute much of the bland and cheerhas done in this town and neighbourhood. Go where ful demeanour, the bravery and independence of our you will-east, west, north, or south-the signs of his operatives, to the silent influences of our hills and skies. triumph are around you. The savage moorland has | Tell, who loved the freedom of his native mountains, been cultivated, and parcelled into cornfields and pas- | and the noble Swiss who fought with him for the liberty tures. The hills, in many cases, wave, even to their of their country, had more of the rock and waterfall, stony summits, with rich herbage; and from the wildest the pine forest, and the trumpet spirit of the mighty glens and ravines rise the chimneys of noble factories, / winds in them than they knew of. Climate and scenery sending their black smoke through the green foliage of have much to do in the formation of human characthe trees, every one of them the centre of a little work- ter. The god Thor, with his wild humour and prodigious ing community-for, wherever a factory springs up, strength and valour, was the type of all the Scandithere, likewise, spring up the elements of towns and navian people; and I discover as many features of the civilization. Thus Huddersfield has grown into im- | northern scenery and climate in bis person as there portance; and, what is more, she has fostered towns are marks of Teutonic blood in his character. We and villages in her immediate neighbourhood, and made absorb without our knowledge the physical attributes them also important; so that, within six miles of her, of the country we live in. We are the mirrors of there are, as I learn, some hundred and thirty thousand | Nature, and reflect in moral aspects the external feasouls engaged in manufactures, and in the commerce tures which she shews us. We are, no doubt, in. to which these manufactures give birth. Few towns || debted to the sea-pirates of the north for the handcan boast of such rapid growth and prosperity as this. some bodies we inherit, and for much of the manly abilities which distinguish us as a nation; but what time is consumed in receiving orders for work, and in culture we have is our own. I do not say we owe carrying it back completed, so that the former sum I nothing to the world in this respect, for we are all have mentioned may be taken as the average of their debtors and creditors alike, bound together in one im- | earnings. In some of my walks I have seen strong measurable electric chain of thought and sympathy, | men, about the middle age, employed in washing the which reaches from the beginning, and will extend to apparel, and performing all the servile drudgery of the the very end of time. What we owe to Adam and household; and asking the reason for this strange rehis sons, however, we pay in our own coin, and do not version of domestic usage, I have received this answer— steal from the coffers of other people. Our die is de- “ I can get no work at the factories. What I once cidedly British, and cannot be mistaken for that of our | did, my children now do; their fingers are nimbler neighbours. Nay, the very form of modern civilization than mine, and can do the work better, for a less wage. has been largely fashioned with British tools. The My wife, who ought to be here, is gone there too, and Norse fire still burns in our blood, and flames in our I'm obliged to subunit, because it ain't good to starve." smithies. It makes steam-engines, electric telegraphs, || The influence of such occupation, however, upon the and railroads, power-looms and spinning-jennies, weaves character must be deteriorating in the lowest debroad cloths and cotton fabrics, and establishes com- gree; and I have marked with pain the sense of humerce over all the coasts and islands of the planet. || miliation which evinced itself in the averted eyes and Commerce prepares the way, like John the Baptist of quivering lips of the men who were exposed to it. old, for Christianity; Christianity for letters, science, The independence and moral courage of the working art, government—until there is no end of this great classes in this neighbourhood are most strongly manibusiness.
fested in seasons of commercial depression. I have To return to our Huddersfield people, however, in known many families reduced to a state bordering upon the West Riding of Yorkshire, I repeat that they par- starvation, and yet too proud to ask alms, or to solicit take a good deal of the character of the surrounding parish relief. My position here throws me into conscenery. They have been bred and nurtured amongst tact with five or six hundred families during the the hills, and have ate so much oatmeal porridge that year, and, although I have witnessed much distress, I they are as strong and bold as the hills themselves; and have rarely heard any murmurings, nor seen that sullen have, moreover, a proud mountain-look about them, || spirit of dissatisfaction and defiance which has lately giving you very clearly to understand that they are moved so many populations into rebellion and bloodnot to be trampled upon. They are certainly rude and shed. Hope and fortitude have carried our people uncouih in their manners; but underneath this rough through two years of extraordinary depression and exterior there are strong fountains of affection, and deep calamity without the least sign of public disturbance. mines of undeveloped intelligence. If I were called A great change has come over them in this respect upon to characterize them generally, I should say that during the last ten years, and I attribute it mainly to rugged nobility and manliness were their distinguishing the facilities which this town affords for popular edumarks. They lack the notorious Yorkshire cunning, cation in the classes, library, reading-room, and lectures although they are shrewd enough, and make up for of the Mechanics' Institution; to the general spread of this welcome deficiency by brave and open-handed sound knowledge and healthy literature; and last, dealing. They are full of broad humour, generosity, || although not least, perhaps, to the experience which and hard work. From morning to night you may hear the people have received of the duplicity and villany the noise of looms and shuttles, all over the hills and of some of their charlatan leaders. valleys, mingled with the merry songs of the weavers ; Whatever may have been the causes of this change, for Huddersfield, being the centre of the fancy manu- however, it is certain that the character of the people facture of England, employs hundreds of hands in their is higher, and that their habits are more moral and cottage homes, besides those who are engaged in the domestic than they were before education was made factories. These cottages are all built of white stone, so accessible to them. I like to watch the straws which abounds in this district, and some of them are which indicate the direction of the popular current; very mean and inferior dwellings. The better sort and, for this purpose, I now and then visit the cheap have two stories, and three or four rooms in them.print-shops, and buy up samples of what literary wares The largest of the upper rooms is generally occupied I find there, inquiring at the same time into the staas a workshop, and here the looms are put up. The tistics of their circulation, and the classes amongst room on the ground floor is called the house, where whom they circulate. A few years ago, Lloyd used to the domestic operations are performed, and the rest sell his penny works by thousands amongst the lower are sleeping apartments. A little garden is generally orders of the people; and had so spiced the palates of attached to these cottages, which is always well culti- bis readers, that a healthy writer, no matter how clever vated, and the occupier prides himself upon his store and interesting his compositions, had no chance of sucof potatoes, peas, mint, thyme, and gooseberry trees.cess in the presence of this common sewerage. In the The most chaste and beautiful designs are executed by meanwhile the Mechanics’ Institution was absorbing these persons, who are all hand-loom weavers. It is by the rising generation; thousands and thousands of their skill and cunning that our brave gentlemen are de- young men were passing through its classes; their corated; and I wish their reward were equal to their minds were not only stored with knowledge, but had merit. I am often very sorrowful to think there should || a high direction given to them in the lecture-room ; be such disparity between work and wages as that which they were aided in their choice of books from the liexists in the instance of these poor weavers, who, evenbrary, taught to write down upon paper their own when they have full employment, cannot realise more thoughts and reflections upon the subject they had than eight or ten shillings per week. Much of their | read, and to regard themselves accountable for the