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in the court-yard of the principal mosque at Mardin. A simple || surprised to find, about fire feet beneath them, the remains of a but elegant tomb, surrounded by flowers and evergreens, was building. Walls of unbaked bricks could still be traced; but the raised over his remains; and an Arabic inscription records the slabs with which they had been cased were no longer in their virtues and probable reward of one of the most honest and ami- | places, being scattered about without order, and lying mostly with able men that it has been my lot, in a life of some experience their faces on the flooring of baked bricks. Upon them were both amongst men of various kinds, to meet. I visited his monument || sculptures and inscriptions. Slab succeeded to slab; and when on my return to Constantinople. From the lofty terrace, where I had removed nearly twenty tombs, and cleared anay the earth it stands, the eye wanders over the vast plains of Mesopotamia, | from a space about fifty feet square, the ruins which had been stretching to the Euphrates one great mendow covered with the thus uncovered presented a very singular appearance.
Abore tents and flocks of innumerable tribes."
one hundred slabs were exposed to view, packed in rows over
against the other, as slabs in a stone-cutter's yard, or as the leaves Mr. Layard details the leading facts as they occur- of a gigantic book. Every slab was sculptured, and as they were red in his search amongst the ruins, without minutely || placed in a regular series according to the subjects upon them, it describing the daily progress made by his Arabs and was evident that they had been moved, in the order in which himself. His firman from the Porte enabled him to they stood, from their original positions against the walls of proceed regularly without the slightest interruption. | sun-dried brick, and had been left as found, preparatory to their
removal elsewhere. That they were not thus arranged before He had now reached the interior of one palace. Each being used in the building for which they had been originals new excavation opened out new treasures. The sculptured, was evident from the fact, proved beyond a doubt chambers were entirely covered with sculptures re- by repeated observation, that the Assyrians carred their slabs markable for the “variety and elegance of the orna- after, and not before they were placed. Subjects were continued ments.” Sometimes the figures were in groups, and
on adjoining slabs, figures and chariots being divided in the cen
There were places for the iron brackets, or dove-tails. sometimes "winged figures before the sacred tree; | They had evidently been once filled, for I could still trace muks religious animals, and elaborate scroll-work, all fur- and stains left by the metal. To the south of the centre bulls nishing not only beautiful designs, but important illus- / were two gigantic figures, similar to those discovered to the trations of the religion of the Assyrians.” A singular
“These sculptures resembled, in many respects, some of the and touching discovery was made in one of the cham
bas-reliefs found in the south-west palace, in which the sciupbers. Mr. Layard describes its position on the plan; || tured face of the slab was turned, it will be remembered, towards but without this plan we are incompetent to convey an the walls of unbaked bricks. It appeared, therefore, that the accurate idea of the room :
centre building had been destroyed, to supply materials for the
construction of this cdifice. But here were tombs orer the “In the centre of the mound, to the north of the great winged ruins. The edifice had perished; and, in the earth and rubbish bulls, I had in vain endeavoured to find traces of building. Ex- accumulating above its remains, a people, whose funereal vases cept the ohelisk, two winged figures, and a few fragments of || and ornaments were identical in form and material with those yellow limestone, which appeared to have formed part of a gi- || found in the catacombs of Egypt, had buried their dead. That gantic bull, or lion, no remains of sculpture had yet been disco- race, then, occupied the country after the destruction of the vered. On excavating to the south, I found a well-formed tomb, || Assyrian palaces ? At what period were these tombs made ? built of bricks, and covered with a slab of alabaster. It was What antiquity did their presence assign to the buildings beneath about five feet in length, and scarcely more than eighteen inches them? These are questions which I am yet unable to answer, in breadth in the interior. On removing the lid, parts of a and which must be left undecided until the origin and age of the skeleton were exposed to view. The skull, and some of the larger contents of the tombs can be satisfactorily determined.” bones, were still entire; but on an attempt being made to move them, they crumbled into dust. With them were three earthen
The singularity of these tombs is, that they were vessels. A vase of reddish clay, with a long, narrow neck, stood || formed apparent above the ruins of palaces that in a dish of such delicate fabric, that I had great difficulty in re- have been built a thousand years previously. Many of moving it entire. Over the mouth of the vase was placed a bowl, the small articles, found in these old chambers, were or cup, also of red clay. This pottery appears to have stood near
of most minute and beautiful workmanship :the right shoulder of the body. In the dust which had accumulated round the skeleton, were found beads and small orna- “ The chamber V is remarkable for the discovery, near the en. ments belonging to a necklace. The beads are of opaque-coloured trance a, of a number of ivory ornaments, of considerable beanty glass, agate, cornelian, and amethyst. A small crouching lion of and interest. These ivories, when uncovered, adhered so firruly lapis lazuli, pierced on the back, had been attached to the end of to the soil, and were in so forward a state of decomposition, that the necklace. The vases and ornaments are Egyptian in their I had the greatest ditficulty in extricating them, even in fragments. character, being identical with similar remains found in the tombs I spent hours lying on the ground, separating them with a pril of Egypt, and preserved in collections of antiquities from that knife, from the rubbish by which they were surrounded. Those country With the beads was a cylinder, on which is repre- who saw them when they first reached this country will be amare sented the king, in his chariot, hunting the wild bull, as in the of the difficulty of relieving them from the hardened mass in which bas-relief from the north-west palace. The surface of the cylinder they were imbedded. The ivory separated itself in flakes. Even has been so much worn and injured, that it is difficult to distin- the falling away of the earth was sufficient to reduce it almost to guish the figures upon it. A copper ornament, resembling a mo- power. This will account for the condition of the specimens which dern seal, two bracelets of silver, and a pin for the hair, were have been placed in the British Museum. With all the care that also discovered. I carefully collected and preserved these in- I could devote to the collection of the fragments, many were lost, or teresting remains, which seemed to prove that the body had been remained uperceived, in the immense heap of rubbish under which that of a female.
they were buried. Since they have been in England they have been “On digging beyond this tomb, I found a second, similarly admirably restored and cleaned. The gelatinous matter, by which constructed, and of the same size. In it were two vases of highly the particles forming the ivory are kept together, lind, from the glazed green pottery, elegant in shape, and in perfect preservation. decay of centuries, been completely exhausted. By an ingenious Near them was a copper mirror, and a copper lustral spoon, all process it has been restored, and the ornaments, which on their Egyptian in form.
discovery fell to pieces, almost upon mere exposure to the air, * Many other tombs were opened, containing vases, plates, have regained the appearance and consistency of recent ivory, mirrors, spoons, beads, and ornaments, Some of them were built and may be handled without risk of injury. of baked bricks, carefully joined, but without mortar; others “ The forms and style of art have a purely Egyptian character; were formed by large carthen sarcophagi, covered with an entire | although there are certain peculiarities in the execution and alabaster slab, similar to those discovered on the south-east cor- mode of treatment that would seem to mark the work of a foner of the mound already described.
reigu, perhaps an Assyrian, artist. The same peculiarities“Having carefully collected and packed the contents of the the same anomalies-characterised all the other objects discovertombs, I removed them, and dug deeper into the mound. I was ed, Several small heads in frumes, supported by pillars or pedes
tals, most elegant in design, and elaborate in execution, show not of the second Assyrian period, and from the Egyptian character only a considerable acquaintance with art, but an intimate of the small objects found in the earth above the ruins of the knowledge of the method of working in ivory. Found with buildings of the oldest period, there was a close connexion with them were oblong tablets, upon which are sculptured, with great | Egypt, either by conquest or friendly intercourse, between the delicacy, standing figures, with one hand elevated, and holding in time of the creation of the earliest and latest palaces; and that the other a siem, or staff, surmounted by a flower, or ornament, the monuments of Egypt, the names of kings in certain Egyptian resembling the Egyptian lotus. Scattered about were fragments dynasties, the ivories from Nimroud, the introduction of severa! of winged sphinxes, the head of a lion, of singular beauty, but Assyrian divinities into the Egyptian pantheon, and other eviwhich, unfortunately, fell to pieces; human heads, hands, legs, dence, point to the fourteenth century as the probable time of and feet; bulls, flowers, and scroll-work. In all these specimens the commencement, and the ninth as the period of the terminathe spirit of the design and the delicacy of the workmanship are
tion of that intercourse. eqnally to be admired.”
“4th. That the earlier palaces of Nimroud were alrealy in
ruins, and buried before the foundation of the latter; and that it Did the Assyrians borrow from the Egyptians, or is probable they may have been thus destroyed about the time of the Egyptians from the Assyrians ? We believe that the 14th Egyptian dynasty. the Nile was indebted to the Tigris, and not the Tigris
“ 5th. That the existence of two distinct dynasties in Assyria, to the Nile. The question admits of doubt, from the and the foundation, abont two thousand years before Christ, of an circumstance elicited by Mr. Layard in his examination Assyrian monarchy, may be inferred from the testimony of the
most ancient authors; and is in accordance with the evidence of of the mound of Nimrod, that it contains the ruins of Scripture, and of Egyptian monuments. I cannot pretend to palaces and temples built at distant periods—at dates draw any positive conclusions from the data that I have attempted so distant, that the slabs and decorations of the oldest to bring together. It has been my object to place before the temples have been used in the more modern erections.
reader the facts which have been afforded by the examination of
the ruins-facts, which, it must be admitted, will go far towards From the position of the tombs already mentioned, it enabling us ultimately to form some opinion as to the comparamay be inferred that there were two destructions of Ni- tive, if not the positive date of these newly discovered monuments. neteh, or that two cities in nearly the same locality had I trust that I have at least succeeded in showing that there are been at different dates entirely destroyed. We know grounds for admitting the possibility of the very early origin of that the latest Nineveh was destroyed by the Persians hitherto made inconsistent with the early dates which the dynas
some of these edifices; and that there is nothing in the discoveries seven centuries before the commencement of the Chris- | tic lists, and the statements of ancient authors, would assign to tian era; and the oldest must necessarily have been the foundation of Nineveh. The subject is new, and has not founded, its palaces erected, its sculptures devised and yet been illustrated by the remains of the people themselves. executed, and its records inscribed, at a period not much | The vast ruins of Egypt-its written and sculptured records-posterior to that assigned in Scripture for the erection have enabled the antiquarian to enlarge and rectify the notices
preserved to us through the Greeks and Romans; but hitherto of a city by Nimrod. These views explain fully the ! Assyria has furnished no such materials. Their very absence essential difference apparent in the religious emblems. has compelled us to neglect a branch of inqniry replete with inThe earliest sculptures would hear simpler and more terest, as connected with biblical study, and with the history of sublime references to religion than those executed at
the human race. Further researches will probably lead to the a later date, when the corruptions of ages had crept great mass of materials which in the last three years has been
discovery of additional monuments and inscriptions, adding to the deeper into the original traditions received from the placed in our possession. It would scarcely be reasonable or fathers, and when Egypt had probably returned the consistent, after what has already been done, to discard all eviknowledge she borrowed, intermingled with most fan- dence of the antiquity of the Assyrian empire, because there are tastic and pernicious errors.
The “mystic tree,” | discrepancies in the statements of such authors as Ctesias, Ensebius,
and the Syncellus; and at the same time to found arguments which mingles in many of the sculptures of the Assy-|| against that antiquity upon an isolated and doubtful passage in rians connected with religion, is not improbably a type Herodotus, or upon the absence of the mention of an earlier of the tradition respecting the original state of man- | Assyrian king in the Scriptures.” kind, in a locality forming part of the Assyrian terri
We have not attempted to present an abstract of tory; and may have been symbolical of the tree of the information contained in these two extraordinary knowledge, that exercised so fatal influences over the rolumes. The character of the work may have been inhabitants of Eden. On these topics many specula- | indicated, and we have not endeavoured to exceed tions might be raised; but until the inscriptions of the that point. The second volume contains very inte. monuments can be fully translated, we continue igno- resting statements regarding the Chaldean Christians. rant of much that they would disclose. The summary The author visited their villages after the late perseof information afforded by Mr. Layard is the most con-cution by the fanatie Kurds, who slaughtered a vast eise representation of our knowledge respecting the number of the inhabitants, burned their churches, deAssyrians that can be given. It is in the following vastated their fields and orchards, and committed the
most lamentable excesses. The persecution of the " 7st. That there are buildings in Assyria which so far differ | Nestorian Churches in recent years was a disgrace to in their sculptures, in their mythological and sacred symbols
, Christian nations, whose ambassadors at Constantiand in the character and language of their inscriptions, as to nople might have prevented or speedily closed the ex. lead to inference that there were, at least
, two distinct periods of treme persecution of that harmless people. The numAsyrian history. We may moreover conclude that either the ber of persons killed was greater than appeared from people inhabiting the country at those distinct periods were of the statements in the newspapers at the time; but different races, or of different branches of the same race, or that, by intermixture with foreigners, perhaps Egyptian, great changes even this was not equal to the abstraction of the had taken place in their language, religion, and customs, between young into captivity, and their compulsory conversion the building of the first palace of Nimrod and that of the edifices from the faith of their fathers; and this last crime of Khorsabad and Konyunjik.
occurred in numerous instances amongst the mountain “ 20. That the names of the kings on the monuments show a lapse of even some centuries between the foundation of the villages of Chaldea, while we believe that the ambasmost ancient and most recent of those edifices.
sador of no Christian power has ever moved in any 3d. That from the symbols introduced into the sculptures | way for their restoration. These Chaldeans form the
most interesting community, in some respects, in the They were amongst the carliest converts to Christiaworld. They have remained from the commencement nity, and it seemed meet that the Gospel of forgive. of time near to the nativity of mankind, and near to ness should be soon conveyed to the scene of the acts the second birth-place of the race from a single family. || that first rendered it necessary. The Chaldeans, in They represent the nation that first introduced cities, || profane history, are known to have been the earliest civilities, letters, arts, and sciences into the world. cultivators of many sciences; and the last fragments They are the lineal descendants of the men who formed of a great people should not be left to perish without the largest and the longest-sustained empire of Asia. I an effort.
TII E BIRTH OF DAY.
RESTLESS, and tired of wooing sleep, I rose,
Beneath me lay the sea, waveless and still ;
A western breeze
Gaily, then rose
COLIN RAF BROWN.
AN OLD TRUE TI E ME.
It is an old, yet golden dream,
That looking back to days gone by;
By poets harped continually.
The theme oft times, yet, scorning, hears
And falsely masks its heart with sneers.
Great truths are common --Why deny
The bridegroom lov'd of Memory?
Of truth has rifled, and she turas
Where, o'er Youth's heedless travell’d clime,
Thought's planetary beauty burns ;
Those regions blest: a word, a strain
The portals of those ways again ;
Deceits of Time those hopes endow-
And, dream-wise, mock existence now:
Nor through the past of life despond.
POES Y AND POETS.
O, POESY! sweet manna of the mind!
For what is poesy? What can it be
MIRANDA: A TALE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION,
THE 10TH AUGUST AND THE 20 SEPTEMBER.
BY PERCY B. ST. JOIIN,
TIIE PRINCESS DE LAMBALLE.
It was now broad day. A bright autumn sun was streaming through a cloudless sky over the old roof of the
ex-convent. Nature seemed sleeping in calm repose, When the Duke de Ravilliere and the Lady Adela looking in upon that blood-stained speck upon the earth. stood before their judges in the court of the Abbaye, the Hideous indeed was the scene. The judges, bloated with scene, though still fearful in the extreme, had somewhat drink and excitement, were, however, calm beside the changed. No dead bodies were visible. The court, it is assassins. These men, their naked arms and feet satutrue, was saturated with blood, but this was in part con-rated with human blood, stood glaring with eager impacealed by the litter of straw which lay upon the ground. tience at every new victim. A yell of delight greeted all Maillard sat rigid at his table. The Duke and Adela condemnations; a yell of fury met acquittals. gazed with wondering horror at him and the rest of the But these very men washed their feet and hands to judges.
lead home prisoners whom Maillard had declared innocent, Adela quivered with alarm, and then with surprise, for and the judge seemed to take a wild delight in absolving she hou recognised Paul Ledru among the twelve judges all those against whose name no black mark was appended. who surrounded Maillard.
It was a fearful struggle between a feeling of justice and There was a sentry at the entrance of the outer court, horrible thirst for human blood. while only some two dozen of the assassins surrounded the “Your name?” said Maillard, sternly, prisoners.
“De Lamballe, ex-Savoy-Carignan.” Adela and the Duke were not alone.
Thy age?” A beautiful and lovely woman stood beside them.
“ Twenty-five." The Princess de Lamballe, ex-Savoy-Carignan, was the A few other indifferent questions were put and answered widow of the youthful son of the Duke de Penthievre. readily. Adela, who expected the same ordeal, studied She belonged to a royal house; and her extreme beauty, || carefully the questions, in order to reply. amiability, and mental charms had created in Maria An- “ Thy answers to my questions are satisfactory,” said toinette a passionate attachment for her. This circumstance Maillard. “Swear the love of equality and liberty, and caused her confinement in prison at the period of the Sep- | hatred of kings and queens.” tember massacres. The popular hatred of the Austrian “ I will willingly swear the first,” replied the princess, Queen, l'Autrichienne, made them equally hate all around “ but as to hatred of the king and queen I cannot swear her, Louis XVI, would have been far less loathed had he -it is not in my heart." had a French princess for his wife; and the Princess de “Swear everything,” said Paul Ledru, leaning towards Lamballe would probably never have seen the inside of a her, “or thou art lost ; we cannot save thee if the people French prison but for her devotion to the ill-advised but become angry.” unfortunate Queen.
The Princess de Lamballe, a little alarmed, did not She had at first followed Marie Antoinette to the seem to understand, and remained silent. Temple ; but the Commune of Paris allowed none but Adela touched her gently. the royal family to remain in this locale. The Princess Say anything,” said she, “what matter; so we escape de Lamballe was speedily transferred to another prison. from here?”
When the September massacres were bruited abroad, “ What am I to answer?'' asked the Princess. the old Duke de Penthievre became alarmed. The old “ Thy answers have satisfied us. Thou hast doubtless man loved his daughter-in-law, the widow of his dead son, been a victim, not an accomplice, of the Austrian woman, as if she had been his own child. Living in retirement || Go out; and when thou art in the street, cry Vive la Naat the Chateau de Bizy, in Normandy, he watched over tion." her from afar. A secret agent was dispatched to Paris, “ May I wait for my friends ? " with 300,000 francs to purchase the safety of the prin- If thou wilt ; but perhaps they are not so innocent as
This money, well spent, had had its effect. In the thou,” said Maillard, rather uneasy at saving three vicCommune, ainongst the judges, and amongst the execu- tims, one after another. tioners, the Princess de Lamballe bad friends.
“ I am sure Adela is as innocent as a babe," replied As Adela and the Duke came down, the princess ar- the princess. rived from another door. A single femme-de-chambre “ We shall see,” said Maillard, sternly. woonpanied her.
“ Thy name ?" asked another judge. "I am to be murdered,” she whispered, and fainted in “ What?” replied the old man, whose mind was wanthe arms of her servant.
dering: The assassins murmured; but Hebert and Lhuilier, Thy name?" thundered a judge. who stood by, and who were in her interest, interposed, “What does that monsieur say?” said the Duke me. and held them back,
chanically. The princess soon recovered to clasp Adela to her breast, “I am not a monsieur, but a citoyen,” replied the and then to answer the questions of the judges.
“The old fool is mad," said Paul Ledru, stoically, " let The Princess de Lamballe could scarcely walk : Truus question the daughter."
chon, alias Grand Nicolas, and another man, supported Luckily for him, he appears to be so," observed the her. judge, whose indignation had been roused at being called The whole party then moved towards the outer court. monsieur.
On reaching this, the Princess de Lamballe, who was first, “Thy name, citoyenne ?” said Maillard.
caught sight of the dead bodies. “Adela Ravilliere," replied the young girl, firmly. My God! how horrible,” cried she, recoiling.
The judges sniiled at the way in which she dropped the “Silence,” said Nicolas, putting his hand upon her de, and thus plebeianised her name.
mouth. “ Not de?" observed Maillard.
Adela held her father by the hand, and looked neither “ I want no distinction from my fellow-citizens," said to the right nor to the left. Adela, who, though she had never joined in the political The street was reached. In the distance were two discussions of Miranda and Charles, now remembered their coaches waiting ; one for her, one for the Princess de lessons in the time of need.
Lamballe. A murmur of applause showed her how rightly she had Outside the gate of the Abbaye was a crowd of the asjudged.
sassins reposing an instant from their work. They were “ But thou art an aristocrat,” said a judge.
armed with pikes, swords, and knives ; and as the three“I am not,” replied Adela firmly, “I am a citoyenne.' respited victims passed, they murmured. “ But," put in Paul Ledru, "what proof havo you ?” “ The people are betrayed,” said one.
“ The name of my affianced husband, and his bosom They are good citizens,” said Nicolas. friend."
They passed on. “Ah! ah ! the citoyenne seeks to do her duty to the « Vive la nation."" said a drunken hair-dresser, named Republic," observed a judge.
Charlot, coming out of a wine-shop. “ What is the name of thy man ?" said Maillard.
The Princess de Lamballe was close to him. “ Charles Clement, the friend of Robespierre."
“ Tien?” cried the intoxicated brute; “a pretty aris“ Vive la nation ! Vive Robespierre!" cried the crowd. || tocrat, and a pretty cap she wears." “ And the name of his friend ?"
And with his pike he, by way of brutal and drunken “Gracchus Antiboul, one of the conspirators of Charen- | bravado, tried to strike off the cap she wore. ton,” said Adela, looking at Maillard.
The pike, ill-directed, struck the beautiful princess on “ Thy proofs of civism are good,” said the judge ; "but || the forehead, and blood spurted forth from but a slight what part didst thou play in the Tuileries on the 10th || wound. August ? "
The assassins of the gate rushed forward, as if this had “ We remained there because Charles Clement told us been a signal. to do so."
“ Off! off!" cried Nicolas, at the peril of his life ; "the “ Thou wert not, then, afraid of the people ?"
citoyenne has been declared innocent.” “Why should I ?” said Adela, naively, “ Charles Cle- “ She is a friend of the Austrian woman's," said one ment had taught me to love them and pity them.” Grizon, who—brutal and infamous wretch--felled her to
“Thou art an excellent citoyenne," cried Maillard, "and the ground with a log of wood. thou art free to go with thy father where thou pleasest.” “ A bas l' Autrichienne," said the drunken Charlot,
“But the father is an old aristocrat,” murmured the seizing the stunned princess by the hair. crowd.
In an iustant she was dead, an axe severing her head “ Citizens,” cried Adela, with a sublime effort, her from her body; and one of the awful crimes of history was nerves still strong, her heart still calm. “My father is a consummated. child. Give him to his only child.”
Adela, who held her father's hand, stood petrified with “ Go! go!” answered the assassins.
horror. Her very eyes seemed starting from her head. “But,” said one- -it was Fournier, the American, the Her brain whirled. She could not see. ex-coachman of the Duke-stooping down glass in hand, Charlot had the head of the wretched princess in his and raising it filled with human blood, “drink to the an- hand. He held it up to the face of her unfortunate nihilation of all aristocracy, in this."
friend. The Princess de Lamballe raised her hand, as if to strike Adela gave a wild shriek, and fell senseless in the arms down the glass.
of Charles Clement, who had seen her afar off, and who, “ Hand it to her, or you are dead," whispered Truchon, || with Gracchus Antiboul, had left his post, just in time to the man who had engaged to save her.
save Adela from the fury of the assassins of Madame de The princess handed the disgusting potion to the young | Lamballe. girl.
"Bear her to the carriage," whispered Truchon, who She looked to the heavens-at her father and sbe was now joined by Paul Ledru and Duchesne. thought of Charles.
Charles raised the insensible girl in his arms. “ Drink,” said Fournier, doggedly.
Gracchus took the hand of the Duke. “ To the annihilation of aristocracy," cried Adela; and Truchon, Paul Ledru, and Duchesne, armed to the she raised the glass to her lips.
teeth, brought up the rear. When she took it away, it was empty.
Stop the aristocrat," bellowed Charlot. This horribly sublime act of devotion had saved her “Hold thy tongue, mouchard," responded Truchon, father.
felling him like an ox to the ground. « Vive Adela! Vive la nation!” cried the assassins; At this moment, the facre was reached. The Duke and they were permitted to depart.
was assisted in, Charles bore Adela on his knees, and,