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to make known what it aims at. On the other hand, || ment from the duty of twenty-five per cent., which the weaker State courts obscurity, labours to provide they had been previously accustomed to levy. Finding, itself with concealed loopholes, and, while professing therefore, that the new treaty in no way diminished the submissiveness and probity, secretly lays snares for the vexations which had long harassed our trade, the Eng. feet of its holder though less wary ally. For this lish captain proceeded to Singapore and other ports, reason, when time and circumstances have let in light where he disposed of his merchandise in the best way upon their interior organization, it is exceedingly cu- he could. In the October following, a second attempt, rious to observe what a network of fraud and duplicity with the same result, was made by Captain Popham, most treaties are. Nothing in them is what it seems. in the Hero, which, like the Hope, sailed under Dutch In the first place, the friendly princes in whose names colours. He was, morcover, informed that, had his they are concluded, often cordially detest each other; colours been English, the duty charged might have and secondly, the countries represented by the diplo- | been fifty instead of twenty-five per cent. matists would some time rejoice at nothing so much as When news of these first infractions of the treaty at the downfall of the rival whom they are compelled arrived in England, complaints were immediately adto treat ostensibly as a friend.

dressed to Ministers; and, in the month of February, Consequently, the history of treaties is too frequently || 1825, Mr. Canning, in a very mild and temperate the history of the most flagrant delusions and insultsnote, represented the injustice of the proceeding to Mr. which mankind have ever put upon each other. We all Falck, then Dutch ambassador in London. The reknow that among the worst imperfections of languageply of this gentleman, likewise intended to be polite is its inadequacy to paint ideas so as to guard against and conciliatory, is highly characteristic of the manner involuntary misconceptions ; but in diplomacy language of Dutch diplomatists. It treats the formal convention usually lies less open to blame than the deceitfulness entered into as a mere nullity, and supposes the two with which it is employed. Nevertheless, the greatest Governments to be still invested with the power of insource of evil is the perverse ingenuity of men who, dependent action. The affectation of manliness likehaving entered into an agreement, immediately exercise wise betrays the writer into a tone highly unbecoming, their utmost ingenuity to invent interpretations by || and which would be considered insolent, but that it which they may twist the meaning of the instrument appears to proceed from an infirmity inherent in the to their own advantage.

statesmen of the Netherlands. At least it pervades No remarkable ability was required to discover flaws all their communications in the correspondence on the in the treaty of 1824. Though submitted in all its affairs of the Indian Archipelago, while the amenity details to Canning, if not virtually drawn up by him, it and moderation of power breathe through the English contains several articles so doubtfully expressed, that, notes. Our statesmen are evidently possessed by exwithout understanding more than is set down, and treme solicitude not to wound the susceptibility of a putting a liberal construction on the context, it is im- friendly Government, sufficiently powerful to command possible to ascertain what the meaning of the document respect, but too weak to awaken jealousy. On the really is. With regard, however, to the amount of other hand, the Dutch diplomatists, apprehensive that duties to be respectively levied in the colonial posses-extreme suavity might be misinterpreted, are spirited sions of each country—which constituted the first at the expense of decorum, especially as often as the subject of dispute—the words of the treaty seem to us task devolved on them of defending proceedings which scarcely susceptible of two interpretations. To enable it would be impossible to characterize without emthe reader to judge for himself we introduce article 1:-|| ploying strong language.

“ The subjects and vessels of one nation shall not pay, upon From various causes, the complaints of our traders importation or exportation at the ports of the other in the eastern were neglected for several years, and the Netherlands seas, any duty at a rate beyond the double of that at which the authorities in Java, imagining that our Government subjects of the nation to which the port belongs are charged. “No duties paid as exports or imports at a British port, on

acquiesced in the propriety of their exactions, conthe continent of India, or in Ceylon, as the Dutch bottoms, shalltinued rigidly to enforce, and even increased them. Our be arranged so as in no case to be charged at more than double | trade appeared, therefore, in that part of the world, to the amount of the duties paid by British subjects, and as British | be wholly without protection. English merchants and bottoms.

residents were subjected to the most iniquitous re“In regard to any article upon which no duty is imposed, when imported or exported by the subjects, or on the vessel of gulations, and the action of their capital, by which inthe nation to which the port belongs, the duty charged upon the ternal prosperity had been created in Java, was systemasubjects or vessels of the other shall in no case exceed six per tically paralyzed. The persistence of the Dutch in cent."

levying the iniquitous duties, is thus described in a The treaty containing this article, the language of memorandum forwarded to Lord Palmerston by the which, as we have said, is clear and definite, was con- || Board of Trade :cluded on the 17th March, ,1824; and the mercantile “Nothing short of exclusion would afford their own manufac. classes of this country persuaded themselves that an turers a chance, and they aimed the last blow at this object in a end would now be put to all the vexations to which proclamation, dated Batavia, 14th of February, 1824. It was they had, for more than nine years, been subjected in resolved that all cotton and woollen goods manufactured in fo

reign countries to the westward of the Cape of Good Hope, the Indian Archipelago. It soon appeared, however, || whether imported in foreign or Netherlands bottoms, shall, after that Holland had no intention to act in conformity with || date of this publication, pay an ad valorem duty of twenty-five the stipulations of the convention; for when Captain per cent. when imported, and direct from any place situated to Swete arrived in the Hope, at Batavia, with the treaty | the westward of the Cape of Good Hope, and ten per cent. more, in his hands, and a cargo expressly assorted for the settlements to the eastward of the Cape. This regulation to apply Java market, the authorities refused to recognize the equally to such of the above-mentioned goods as may now be ?cts of their own Government, or to make any abate- Il lying in entrepót, and of which the holder may hereafter desire the importation. The British woollen and cotton goods, which || ignorance of these proceedings, by omitting, contrary had been imported under the fiat of the old scale of duties were

to the article above cited, to communicate to us copics at once subjected to twenty-five per cent. instead of sixteen per cent, without the slightest notice or warning, as the proclamation of the agreements into which they had entered ; and even included all goods already lodged in entrepôt. It must not

when they ultimately made a show of yielding to our be supposed that this increase of duty to twenty-five per cent. representations, only laid before us a copy of their was confined to and levied on the amount of invoice at prime treaty with the Sultan of Jamba, with the remark that cost; but on an ad valorem duty or tariff rate corresponding with all the others were based on that. the market price of the day, and which makes the duties on Bri. tish cottons and woollens, according to circumstances, from thirty-|| bcen withheld eight years from the knowledge of the

In the treaty with the Sultan of Jamba, which had fre to forty-two per cent."

It would answer no useful purpose to enter into mi- | British Government, the Dutch inserted three articles nute details on this part of the subject. The complaints || in direct contravention of the treaty of 1824; and as of our merchants in the Foreign Oflice were incessantly all their agreements with native princes were, according repeated, representations through our envoy at the to their own showing, but a repetition of this, they Hague were almost as frequently made to the Nether- obviously, every one of them, intended to strike a heavy lands Government; but the battle of diplomacy had

blow at British commerce. The inhabitants of that to be fought obstinately for ten years before anything part of Asia, though not destitute of natural shrewdlike a settlement could be arrived at. Even then, || ness, are unequal to contend with the artifices of however, it was far from being satisfactory; for in-| European diplomacy. With them a treaty of comstead of leaving British cotton and woollen goods in merce means a treaty of commerce, and nothing more. the category in which they had hitherto stood, and But the agents of the Netherlands Government, poscharging them according to treaty with a duty of sessing a greater reach of thought, and animated by an six per cent., a duty of twelve-and-a-hall per cent. was I undying spirit of rivalry, not to say of hatred towards imposed on similar articles, the produce of Holland England, have contrived, under the veil of encouragethus fixing permanently upon our manufacturers the ment for trade, to mask at once designs of territorial almost prohibitive duty of which we had complained. | aggrandizement, and the mischievous exclusion of comThere was good reason, moreover, to believe that through mercial competitors. The princes of the Archipelago, a system of premiums or drawbacks, the Dutch Go- | looking solely to their own profit, and that of their vernment would make up to the native manufacturer subjects, readily enter into arrangements which, accordand merchant for the duty of twelve-and-a-half pering to their views, merely ensure to their visitors from cent., and thus leave our countrymen exposed to all the West a free entrance into their ports. It never the disadvantages from which the efforts of the Foreign

occurs to them to imagine that, by granting the foreignOffice seemed to have relieved them. This, however,

ers this privilege, they are taking upon themselves the is a point not yet cleared up, though there appears tó | yoke of their authority. Yet experience shows the be good ground for suspecting that the apprehensions Dutch always reckon the conclusion of a commercial of our merchants were not without foundation. treaty as a conquest, and set down as their subject

The infraction of Article III. by the Netherlands I every prince who has once consented to trade with authorities in the Archipelago, constituted the next them. No one has yet been at the pains to examine ground of dispute between the two Governments. The | the Malay translations of the Dutch treaties; but whentext of this article is as follows:

ever that necessary task shall be undertaken, we strongly " The high contracting parties engage, that no treaty hereafter covered between the European and the Oriental versions.

suspect that very considerable discrepancies will be dismade by either with any native powers in the Eastern seas, shall contain any article tending, either expressly or by the imposition

But, whether the case be so or not, no doubt can of unequal duties, to exclude the trade of the other party from be entertained that every written agreement entered the ports of such native power: and that if in any treaty now exist-|| into by the Dutch with native princes, contains a flaing on either part, any article to that effect has been admitted, I grant infraction of the treaty of 1824. Lord Palmersuch article shall be abrogated upon the conclusion of the present treaty

. It is understood that before the conclusion of the present ston, in his instructions to Sir E. Disbrowe, distinctly treaty, communication has been made by each of the contracting makes this statement:parties to the other of all treaties or engagements subsisting between each of them respectively, and any native power in the

“With respect," he says, to the treaty concluded between

the Netherlands and the Sultan of Jamba, which Baron Vustolk Eastern seas, and that the like communication shall be made of all such treaties concluded by them respectively hereafter.”

de Læler communicated in his note of the 16th ultimo, as the

model on which all other treaties with native princes have been Here

, though the attempt at extreme precision pro- | framed, you will express to Baron Vustolk the great regret duces some confusion of language, the real meaning of her Majesty's Government that the provisions of that treaty the treaty may certainly be ascertained by any who jects of the proceedings of the Dutch authorities in the Eastern sincerely desire to possess themselves of it. But in seas; and you will inform Baron Custolk that her Majesty's Goconcluding treaties with native authorities, as in levy- || vernment considers Articles VI., VIII., and IX., as being directly ing duties, the Dutch have acted with as much inde- at variance with the 3rd Article of the treaty of 1824, inasmuch as pendence as though they had never entered into any | Sultan of Jamba the obligation to levy within his ports the un

by those articles the Netherlands Government imposes on the stipulations at all with us. The only object which equal duties as regards British and Dutch commerce respectively, occupies their thoughts is how to extend their own which are established by the Netherlands tariff, instead of the power and trade, and how to exclude ours. They equal dutics formerly levied in Jamba on the trade of both have entered into numerous stipulations with native | nations; and thereby manifest injury is occasioned to British princes, and into every one of these have introduced trade.” articles hostile to the English, and in direct contra- It is to be feared that in this country sufficient imvention of the treaty of 1824. For a considerable portance will scarcely be attached to the exclusion of time, moreover, they have endeavoured to keep us in our shipping from ports and places the names of which

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are little known. But all are familiar with the great | quainted with its true meaning. To comprehend the Island of Sumatra, the principal products of which, iniquitous spirit of this regulation, it would be necespepper, camphor, coffee, and benzoin, were formerly || sary to consider a map of the Archipelago—not that transported to our Straits settlements through Ba- | defective map which accompanies Mr. Crawfurd's Hisroos, Tapoos, Sinkel, Immon, and Siak. With the tory, itself more defective and confused—but a map Sultan of this last place Great Britain concluded a on which places are set down with some reference to treaty in 1818—that is, six years prior to our famous their true positions. From this examination, it will convention with the Netherlands. But this circum- appear that a vessel proceeding to Penang with cottons stance the Dutch Government overlook, affecting to or woollens for one of the pepper ports, on the northern believe that by our engagement entered into with it part of Sumatra, will have to perform a voyage of nearly in 1924, we abandoned the Sultan of Siak to his fate. twothousand miles to reach a place within comparatively It accordingly set at once about reducing him under few hours' sail. It is almost as if a vessel bound from its power. But Lord Palmerston interposed; and, hav-|| Southampton to Havre were, by the laws of France, ing interpreted to it the law of nations, which says that compelled to proceed first to Toulon or Marseilles. In no engagement entered into by two States can be abro- | other words, it is a prohibition of all trade between gated by a treaty afterwards concluded with a third our Straits settlements and all the ports of Banca, power, preserved the independence of Siak, and at the Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes. It is true that, within same time our trade with that part of Sumatra. As the last few years, Macassar has been made a free an illustration of the spirit by which the Dutch officersport, in the Dutch acceptation of the term. But this in Sumatra were actuated, we ought, perhaps, to men- is a very questionable advantage to the British trader; tion the summary manner in which a native trader for, while he is permitted to enter Macassar with all from Penang was treated at Pannah on the east coast. | such articles as are not prohibited, he is at the same A vessel, commanded and manned entirely by natives, time excluded from every other port in Celebes which arriving at the above port, the nakodah, or captain, was previously open to him. But the commercial ensuspecting no evil, went on shore, where he soon found | franchisement of Macassar was not owing to a volungood reason to repent of his temerity; for, being seized tary departure from the principle of monopoly on the by the Dutch commandant, he was immediately hung, part of Holland, but of jealousy of the movements of without even the semblance of a trial, or ceremony of Great Britain in that part of the world. This, apany kind; upon learning which, the crew fled during || parent from many circumstances, is placed beyond doubt the night to Batn-Bunah, and afterwards returning to from the fact that small Dutch vessels of war have been Penang, made their deposition before the magistrates sent northward to intercept the native prahus on their of that settlement. When complaints of this act of way to Singapore, and compel them by force to enter barbarity were made by the English, the Dutch con- Macassar. This we state on authority which we contented themselves with throwing out suspicions of sider superior to any that could be opposed to it-Mr. piracy against the nakodah. The object, of course, || Bonham, formerly Governor of the Straits settlements, was to strike terror into the native merchants, and and now of Hong Kong, a man remarkable for his exthus, as far as possible, to deter them from the attemptperience and reserve, found himself compelled to reto keep alive the trade between Sumatra and our mark, in a communication to Government, that unless settlement in the Straits. This was rendered still some efficacious measures were taken to counteract the more manifest by their treatment of other natives of || policy of Holland, she would go on multiplying her setthe East. Chinese merchants, for example, sailing in tlements throughout the Archipelago, and thus deprive junks of their own from Penang, Malacca, or Singapore, the British of all participation in the trade of this but with English colours, are subjected to the high pro- quarter of the globe, which, perhaps, at present affords tective duties levied upon foreigners in Dutch ports. 1 a brighter and larger field than any other for the disBut, if the same merchants pass over to Siam, and sail to || posal of British goods. Sumatra under Siamese colours, they are placed on the It was the united force of the facts above stated same level with the Dutch themselves; which is a fresh which led the British Government to form the recent infraction of the treaty of which ensures to settlement in buan. In 1824, Holland distinctly Great Britain the privileges of the most favoured na. relinquished all claim to supremacy in the Archipelago; tion. The object of this measure is twofold—first, but, by the course of its proceedings from that date to induce the natives of all the neighbouring countries forward, it proved that its relinquishment was meant to resort directly to Dutch ports; secondly, to ensure to be merely verbal, and that its policy not only aimed to the Dutch equivalent privileges in the ports of || at supremacy, but at the absolute exclusion of all other Siam. From what has been said, it will be obvious || powers. Its activity knew no bounds. Under prethat we by no means put a harsh construction on the tence of putting down the padries, it had obtained a proceedings of Holland, when we say that she aims permanent influence in Sumatra, which it used undirectly at the destruction of our commerce with the sparingly for the destruction of British trade. Java Archipelago. Look at the number of her settlements was entirely its own; in Borneo it had insinuated itself in that part of the world—in Sumatra, Banca, Borneo, into the important provinces of Sambas, Pontiana, and and Celebes—and then consider the effect of a regula- Banjermassin; over Celebes it exercised the most tion made in 1834, stringently excluding British | mischievous influence; it had attempted to seize upon cottons and woollens from every port in the Dutch | Bali, and, in a word, wherever, throughout the islands, possessions, with the exception of Batavia, Samarang, lit saw an opening, there it publicly obtruded its inand Sambaya. This, it will be observed, was ten | fluence, one of the first effects of which was to oppose years after the conclusion of the treaty, by which time a check to British trade. But as out of evil good frethe authorities may be supposed to have become ac- quently proceeds, so out of this headlong attempt at monopoly and exclusion arose the policy which will | justly; and if we have not now claimed enough of our effectually neutralize it. Finding that fair play was neighbours' property, we will carefully do so when it not to be expected from the Netherlands authorities suits our convenience. in any part of insular Asia, and accident having re- We take no exception, however, to the claims alvived our relations with Borneo, our Cabinet reluctantly | ready advanced, for the simplest and best of all reasons, consented to take possession of Labuan, ceded to us namely, that we are insuficiently acquainted with the by the Sultan of Borneo. To what result this step | geography of the interior of Borneo, and, indeed, are may lead, it would at present be premature to con- almost as ignorant as the claimants themselves ; the jecture ; but among its consequences must be the only certain fact being that the foot of European has establishment of our influence not only over Borneo never trodden a large portion of the line which is asProper, but over such other portions of the island as serted to be the boundary of the Netherlands territory. may desire or need our protection.

One example will suffice. Somewhere between the head From certain recent measures of the Netherlands of the Batang Lupar river on the one hand, and the Government, many had been induced to hope that a course of the Pontiana river on the other; thence benew and more enlightened policy was about to between the interior of Sadang and the territory of Lagan adopted throughout the Eastern Archipelago, and somewhere, we repeat, northward of these forests lies that, simultaneously with the abolition of petty the boundary between the Sultanate of Borneo Proper strictions, the petty jealousies of the two great nations and the territories of the small and more recent native would be buried in oblivion. Without reiterating the States which are included in the Dutch system of assertion that these liberal measures have been forced | amalgamation, as subject to the Government of Batavia ; by imperative circumstances upon a reluctant Govern- and we assert, with the utmost confidence, that this ment, we may observe that, had they been carried out boundary line has not been laid down except on paper, in a truly liberal spirit, they would have rendered and that, for some time to come, no European will Netherlands India one of the most valuable colonial venture personally to survey the limits of the rival possessions on the globe, and exhibited its administra- | empires. tion not only as a pattern to less experienced nations, Somewhere between the sands of the north-west but a burning and shining light to guide the footsteps coast, and the course of the Pontiana, lies this unknown of the English East India Company in its internal rule boundary; but nothing can be more improbable than of the Indian continent.

that the boundary should run in straight lines, in deOur readers will not suspect us of a desire unneces. fiance of the natural features of the country, the sarily to censure any of the proceedings of a friendly various extent of the streams of the north-west coast, State; and, if we recur to the claims advanced by the and the tortuous channels of the Pontiana. We dwell no Netherlands Government to a large portion of the longer on this point, but may briefly state that the island of Borneo, it is merely to point out how lightly only authority for the geography of the Netherlands this claim has been made, the ground upon which it territory in Kalamantan, is a map constructed by the must ultimately rest, and, above all, to show that such officers of that nation for the information and edificaa claim never has and never can confer a right, but tion of the European powers, wherein the boundary must be regarded solely as the ipse dixit of an inte-claimed is distinctly laid down in divers colours; and,

if we may judge the correctness of this map from the Having but lately become aware of the importance known part of the island, we shall not be surprised at of their possessions in Borneo, and urged, probably, || its deficiencies in the regions little known, or not known by some vague feeling of jealousy that other nations at all. The position on the map of Tanjoug Datu is might encroach upon its right, the Government of nearly eighty miles from its true position; and we may Netherlands India not long since appointed a Gover- || be allowed to ask whether the geography of the interior nor of Netherlands Borneo, and there issued what may be as correct as the geography of the coast? We will be termed a manifesto laying down the limits of terri- not enter more minutely into this subject; and the tory in that island.

Netherlands claims on the one hand are advanced, and This territorial claim defines an exact boundary ; ||our objections on the other hand would be urged, in the line is carried from river to river; it crosses the total ignorance of the main points on which this quesdry land ; it jumps from mountain to mountain; ittion rests; but from faulty geography, from no geointersects the primeval forest; and, where landmarks graphy, from the manifest absurdity of carrying an are wanting, it includes every point of the compass. unknown boundary in straight lines, and the doubtful In one place this territory, situated in the continuous | right of forming a connected whole out of varying and solitudes of this vast and little-known island, runs incongruous parts, we must conclude that the claim set north to a given latitude; elsewhere it extends cast- || forth is entirely premature, and indubitably useless. ward; and having, by one means or another, en- The boundaries of States are not to be settled by one closed all the territories of Sambas, of Landak, of of the interested parties; it is a question to be discussed Banjar, and nobody knows how many States formerly | by both parties interested, which, after a full knowindependent, it concludes with the remarkable decla- || ledge of the localities, can be arranged only by mutual ration, that the claim now advanced is not to prejudice concessions and mutual agreement; and, unless an act any of the claims which may be advanced at any future of spoliation be contemplated upon this ground, and on time; and thus, out of separate territories, held upon this ground alone, must a boundary question, whether various terms, is formed a definite whole of the Nether. || in Borneo or America be decided, in spite of all onelands possessions, which may be too extended as well sided claims and one-sided declamations. In the case as too contracted. What, however, of that? What || under consideration, so far as we are aware, the soluwe claim, says the manifesto, is ours, justly or un- tion of the boundary of the Netherlands possessions in

rested party.

Borneo is readily to be arrived at, always taking for|| with the example of Sarawak before them, are the granted that the Dutch claims are just to the terri-|| Dyaks of Jamba and Pontiana bound in an iron chain tories of the numerous native States included in the of slavery? Why are they left, to the tender mercies kingdom of Jamba and Pontiana, &c.

of the native princes, bondsmen and serfs, the cattle Every tribe of Dyak knows upon what territory it is of the soil, oppressed and degraded? Why are these located. The influential Malays are acquainted with innocent and unhappy people charged eight hundred the boundary within a short distance, and both Malay || or a thousand per cent. for that great necessary of life, and Dyak will point to the flow of the waters as mark- salt, when they can more readily get the same article ing general divisions between separate States. Credi- || in Sarawak at one tenth the price? Why is it a crime ble witnesses, prescriptive right, and ancient proceed- || to trade with, or even visit Sarawak? In the name of ings, are not wanting whenever the question shall be humanity we ask, are these docile and submissive abobrought before a just tribunal. In the meantime the rigines a free people, or are they, their wives, their Netherlands Government need labour under no appre- children, the slaves of the Hollanders and the Malays? hension of any encroachments on the part of Great We assert that they are treated as slaves; but predict Britain. Never was external influence less called for. with confidence that they cannot continue to be so The question is not difficult of solution; and that the treated. The Dyaks of the Dutch territory look with mere manifesto can establish no right, is so evident, envy on the Dyaks of Sarawak; and every enlightened that we shall dismiss it in a very few words. Did the and humane man in Europe will hail with pleasure the claims of Great Britain settle the Canadian boundary ? || day when the Government, which makes such bold Did the declaration of the United States decide the claims on the territory, shall attend to the happiness Oregon question ? or, did the thousand and one pro- and prosperity of the poor Dyaks—when it shall declare tests issued by the Hague fix the limits of the Nether-them to be what they are, a free race, and release them lands territory on the Belgian frontier ? No such from the tyranny of their Malay rulers, to whom they claim advanced by one party can decide a boundary now abandon them. line between two nations. It can neither prejudice nor If the rcader recognize the justice of the above obestablish a right. It is to be considered only as the servations, he will, in all likelihood, be prepared to notice of action before the trial of a cause. In any other accompany us in what we are about to say. Finding point of view, the manifesto issued by the Netherlands | the Netherlands Government turn a deaf ear to the Government must be considered so much waste paper; || appeals made by us on behalf of our merchants, her and the boundaries of the different states throughout Majesty's Ministers at length resolved to form a settlethe Archipelago yet remains to be settled on fair in- ment at Labuan; and, if the experiment prove successquiry and equitable grounds. How paltry do such || ful, as there is every reason to expect, similar settlequestions, claims, discussions appear to the proper ments will probably be formed in other parts of the Government, in Borneo and elsewhere, which Providence | Archipelago. Relying on notions acquired forty or has placed under the sway of the Netherlands! What fifty years ago, a writer who finds himself by mistake is a handful of miles in a boundary line in the interior among the men of the present generation, contends of Borneo, compared with the advancement and the that there is no longer in the Archipelago place for any happiness of its people ? This is the first, the great further settlements, because all the islands south of the duty of all States, and of the Dutch in the Archipelago; Equator belong to the Dutch, whilst the Spaniards and upon its due discharge will that nation be judged possess all, and more than all, to the north of it. By by their fellow men, and by God. It is a moral con- this figure of speech, borrowed from our Milesian sideration, before which every other duty ought to neighbours, an antediluvian politician would persuade give way, to which every other duty ought to be auxil- the world that the whole Archipelago is already occuiary. Has the Government of Netherlands India | pied. We can take upon ourselves to assure him that performed this duty ? Has it done its best to advance the members of the British Government are not of his the happiness of the native population? Has it relieved way of thinking; and Mons. Temminck, speaking for them from the worst oppression of native rule? Has the statesmen of Holland, points out a vast field which, it governed in the East the territory it so boldly claims according to his conceptions, yet remains open to in the West ? Has it permitted wars to be carried on British enterprize. We, therefore, invite our political by one portion of its subjects upon other portions, by Rip Van Winkel to reflect more maturely upon what tribe against tribe, by Malay against Chinese, by Chinese has been accomplished during his protracted slumbers, against Dyak? These and other questions ought to be before he again ventures upon an affair with which he asked; and solemnly let the rulers of these countries is so ill acquainted.

We may allude to some slight defects in the Without, however, enlarging on what we may do Netherlands Government, but in no hostile spirit; and hereafter, or exposing the antiquated fallacies of pernone would rejoice more than ourselves to see the sons on this side of the Channel, we shall make two or abuses corrected, to witness a beneficent rule estab- || three remarks in reply to M. Temminck, the semilished, to behold the natives happy and content, and to official organ of the Dutch Government. On the occulook forward with hope to their advance in civilization pation of Labuan he is at once poetical and polite. He and the arts.

thinks, and not, perhaps, without reason, that the step We must point out, in no hostile spirit, the evil acts taken by the British Government ought to awaken the of the Dutch in Borneo. Why, with the example of inquietude of the Dutch, since its consequences may Sarawak before them, are the Dyaks allowed to war be incalculable, both to England and to those whom he tribe against tribe for the purpose of taking heads? | terms the masters of the Archipelago. That he exThis hostility, tending to the destruction of their peace- presses in these words the sentiments of the Dutch ful neighbours, is not checked. Is it permitted? Wby, l Government we will not affirm, because its entertain.

answer,

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