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is that although the company have had the means of satis- “SIR-In a pamphlet recently published, entitled “De. fying themselves, from medical examinations, reports, and fects of Life Assurance," and extensively circulated by one other documents, and any other inquiry they may have cho. Company, it is stated that many Companies are in the sen to make, ibat the life is insurable ; and parties have for habit of frequently disputing the payment of Policies when years regularly paid the premiums; the question, whether they fall due; that many such cases are compromised by there is an assurance or not, still remains open as against the persons who claim payment of the policy; that the the assured; whose policy may at any future time be ques- slightest error in the statements made by the applicant for tioned, upon the general ground that the life was not insur- Insurance, or even by his referee, is sometimes made & able at the time of effecting the assurance; or that the ground of dispute ; and that Life Insurance, as at present disclosure of the circumstances then made was not complete; conducted, forms a very uncertain provision. or that some fact, perhaps quite immaterial, contained in “I have been accustomed to advocate Life Insurance, on one or other of the several series of questions, had turned the ground that it formed a certain provision for families. I ont, on further inquiry, to be different from that warranted.” believe that several persons who have sought information Mr. Sergeant Marshall, in his work on Life In- from me on the subject have been induced to take the same
view of its utility as a family provision. surance, stated, “ That a misrepresentation, in a “ My own life is insured in several offices; but I never material point, equally vitiates the contract, whether knew, and I was in no way responsible for, the answers it be the misrepresentation of the insured himself, I given to the
inquiries made from these offices by the friends
to whom I referred them. or of his agents; and whether it proceed froin fraud, “I would be obliged by your answers to the annoxed mistake, or negligence."
questions, which I intend to use in May. The writer of the pamphlet acknowledges that convenient, state the per centage of litigated and compro.
“In answering the three first questions, you can, if most some companies have provided against the conse- mised Policies to the number that have been paid by your quences of this legal doctrine, by special announce
“I trust that the importance of the subject, and the inments of their intention only to dispute policies where
terest taken in the promotion of Life Insurance, may exan evident fraud has been committed; but he deems cuse my application." the provisions inadequate :
The queries referred to we also copy, with the view 1. It is proper to state, that some companies, to whose of referring the various replies to them, and saving policies all the preceding objections are applicable, have lately advertised that they will limit their objections to
thus space and time: policies, to grounds of fraud. The promise shows, that they
“1st. The number of Policies hitherto settled in full by your are aware of their power to litigate successfully with a
Office ? claimant, without alleging fraud ; but how far these good intentions of the present directors of a company may be a
“ 2d. The number litigated ? protection to a party claiming on a Policy, which, in gremio,
“3d. The number compromised without litigation; and an or in its indorsements, contains its own death warrant; or, idea of the extent of the deductions ? Whether tbat promise would only arm him with the means “4th. Whether it be your practice to render an error in the of casting dishonour on a future Board, who may decline to answer of a referee a reason for invalidating a Policy on which give effect to the promises of their predecessors, at variance with their more formal acts, may be matter of speculation : || you have received payment of Premiums ? but, at all events, the question of validity or non-validity of
“5th. Whether you would consider any error of an apparently the policy is siill left open, and the party most likely to know accidental character in the proposals made to you a ground for the circumstances which occurred at the time of granting it, disputing a Policy on which you had received Premiums ?” being dead before the question comes to be tried, the party interested in supporting the claim must look for grounds of We copy all the answers which we have received :defence in such information as the office alone possesses, and may choose to communicate." The writer quotes a number of cases in support || funds of this office out of 620 policies on foot.
"lst. One; being the only claim which has arisen against the of his opinion, that the usual form of policies is
“2d. None. dangerous to the assured ; and asserts that the in
“3d. None. Attention is invited to the following clanse set convenience to their relatives is not to be estimated forth in our prospectus :—No policy will be disputed, excepting by the number of law-suits, but by the far greater under circumstances of fraud, and then only when the same shall number of compromises, known only to the directors have been so previously declared by referees of undoubted character.' of these institutions.
4th. Certainly not.
“ 5th. Certainly not. A change in these respects may be necessary,
“E. F. Leeks, Secretary." and may be practicable at once by the consent of the societies themselves. Mutual associations can “1st. 28 Policies, assuring £21,489. experience no difficulty in the case. The insured 2d. None. in them can satisfy themselves ; and proprietary
“ 3d. None. societies, against which we feel none of the repug
« 4th. No.
«5th, No. Dance exhibited by this pamphleteer and other par
“J. W. Browne, Secretary." ties, will consult their own interest by making such alterations in their constitution as may satisfy the
STAR LIFE ASSURANCE OFFICE, LONDON, public, whenever the latter take a sufficient interest
“ 1st. Fifty-two.
“2d. None. -The office has notice of action for payment
of a claim in Ireland on the life of a person whom the direcWith the view of ascertaining the statistics of tors are certified was a notorious drunkard, and wbo died
from the effects of intemperance. disputes, and their character, in the history of life "3d. One.-The reduction was 25 per cent. jusarance societies--with the hope, also, of showing “ 4th. An unintentional error would not be considered a that they bore a small proportion to the number of sufficient reason for invalilating a policy. policies--we issued a circular to the various so
“5th. Misrepresentation with a view to fraud is the only cieties, of which we subjoin a copy.
reason why any respectable office would refuse to pay the We believe
sum insured." that the circular was not sent to all the Scotch
ARCHITECTS' ASSURANCE OFFICE, LONDON. offices
, and that from many answers will yet be * 1st. None. returned. Any company may refuse the informa- “ 2d. None. tion ;' but we presume that, for their own interest,
" 3d. None.
" 4th. No. it will be generally afforded :-
" 5th, No."
CITY OF LONDON ASSURANCE COMPANY.
WESTMINSTER AND GENERAL LIFE ASSOCIATION.
in the matter.
TEMPERANCE AND GENERAL PROVIDENT
To this reply the following explanation is ap- 1 of parties combining to defraud the office, I do not see how pended :
any respectable office, having a due regard to the interest of
the policy holders, could say such a police should be indis. “ The Manager of the Architects', Builders', and General | putable. It would be holding out a premium to crime. I Insurance Company has complied with Mr. Troup's request | have requested Mr. Thomson to enclose you a note on this by answering the annexed questions, but the replies can be subject.--Your obedient Servant, of little use, the company having been established little
“ Thos, MUSGRAVE, Seo." more than one year. “69, Lombard Street,
We also copy Mr. Thomson's note referred to in London, April 15, 1849."
the preceding -
OFYICE. “1st. Fifty-one.
" London, 17th April, 1849. “ 2d. None. One Irish claim refused, and never attempted
" Sir,-I have your favour of Ilth, and have had your to be recovered, the fraud being too palpable.
return filled up. With refereuce to the defects, &c., I be
lieve the course of law furnishes a very meagre array of dis“3d. None. We should never refuse a claim unless we were satisfied of fraud, and then it would be refused abso- puted policies considering the amount of business done. lutely.
The number of cases compromised are, I should think, very "Ath. Certainly not, unless the "error" were a palpable few, as they are too bad for compromising before they will fraud.
be disputed. Judging from the number of cases that bare " 5th. Certainly not."
come within my own knowledge, where the offices have
paid, and there could be no moral doubt of fraud, I would THE LONDON INDISPUTABLE LIFE POLICY COMPANY.
say that there is more need to apply a check againe “London, 19th March, 1849. fraud, than openly to avow defending it. Assurance ought " Sir, --In answer to the five queries annexed to your cir
to be an honest and fair contract for the society and the incular of 13th instant, I beg to state that this company is dividual ; and a fraud committed by one contracting party prohibited by their deed of constitution from disputing a
must be at the expense of the other. It is quite absurd to policy upon any ground whatever.
state that you have an opportunity, and may satisfy your “ Permit me to suggest, in case you shall not get the in-1 self as to all representations of health, do. There are many formation you require in answer to your queries from the latent diseases which could not be discovered by the ordi several offices, that the real nature of the contract subsisting | nary examination, and of which the party might be fully betwixt the various life companies and their respective as
cognisant, and intentionally and fraudulently suppress. sured may be learned from an inspection of the schedules | Now, I know of no rule of law or equity whereby an interof proposal, and the policies adopted by the offices. The
tional deliberate fraud committed by one party is afowed proposal, policy, and its indorsements always containing the
and sanctioned as correct by the other. It is one thing for terms of the contract.-I am, &c.,
the society not to dispute a policy, unless they are fully
"ALEX. ROBERTSON." satisfied of direct fraud, and to pay where they have no moral We are acquainted with the facts mentioned by || doubt that fraud has been committed; but it is quite another the writer, but we had no means of ascertaining the thing to withdrawall obligations to honesty and to sanction the proportion of litigated and compromised cases except appears to be adopted by some offices, solely because harily those already adopted.
any of the frauds committed are so clearly made out as to ROYAL INSURANCE OFFICE, ROYAL INSURANCE BUILDINGS.
induce the offices to dispute them. I shall probably refer
to this and some other subjects, which I think equally ob
, April “I received from you a printed letter, a few days since, | jectionable, when I have more leisure. In baste, yours, de
“ Geo. Thomson." containing a few questions, to which you request my re
The difficulty in proving that an insurer was alplies.
" It would give me pleasure to answer those questions in quainted with the existence of disease, when he the order you bave put them, for the purpose of aiding the effected his policy, must be considerable. We sub object you profess to have in view, viz., to enlighten the public on the subject of life assurance. It so happens, join the answers :-however, that this company has been so short a time in “ 1st. Two. existence as to admit only of a general reply to your in- “2d. None. quiries.
“3d. None. "I beg therefore to inform you that the company has, “4th. Only in case of Fraud. singularly, had but one loss since its commencement, four " 5th. No. years since, although it has insured about 360 lives. The
“ Taos. MUSGRAVE, Secretary." claim under the policy referred to was promptly paid, THE GENERAL LIFE AND FIRE ASSURANCE OFFICE. without waiting for the usual three months from the proof
“ 14th April, 1849. of death, and without any deduction of discount. There “ Enclosed I return your replies with such answers & bas been, consequently, no litigation.
our experience supplies, and shall be happy, on all secs. “And, finally, with respect to your 4th and 5th questions, sions, to furnish any evidence which we may possess. Those I can only express my entire conviction that, while the who are acquainted with the practices of offices of any re company would judge of every individual case by its own spectability, cannot but smile at the gross misrepresecta merits, it would be guided by the most liberal prin-| lion to which you refer. Facts are stubborn things, asd ciples in its conclusions, and would assuredly never take they will ultimately tell their tale. advantage of any accidental error in the proposal or in the "I send a copy of our last report, and remain, yours, &c. replies of the referecs.
"T. PRICE, Secretary." " At the same time it would reserve to itself the right to
“Ist. 94 Policies, assuring £37,437, investigate strictly any claim manifestly founded in fraud.
“2d. One Policy, concerning which enquiries were di“ The directors have, indeed, determined to adopt, both
rected to be made, in conjunction with three other offices. its fire and life departments, the most honourable and en
The circumstances were very suspicious; but, as the resuk larged views, so as to give entire security to the public. of the inquiries, we paid the money. "* Indeed, an assurance company, directed by any other than
“ 3d. One for £999, on which we paid £250. principles such as these, could not long sustain itself, in an " 4th. No, certainly. age when the advantages of insurance in a secure and re
“5th. No, certainly." spectable office are, by the aid of enlightened writers on the subject beginning to be almost universally felt and acknow
"London, April 21, 1819. ledged.
“SIR,-) yesterday, for the first time, saw the pamphlet “Agreeably with your request, I send the last reports of entitled “Defects of Life Assurance,' and can only suppos the company.-I am, &c.,
that the author wishes to raise up some ofüce of his ows, “Percy M. Dove, Manager.”
by traducing the characters of others. MERCHANT'S AND TRADESMAN'S MUTUAL LIFE ASSURANCE
Although I am not authorised to reply officially to the OFFICE.
questions in your circular of the 11th inst., I will not hes"London, April 17th, 1849. tate to say that the litigated cases in this office do not amount “Sir-I enclose my replies to your questions, and I beg to one-half per cent. of all the claims made upon it, excepu to observe that this office would never think of disputing a ing three quarters of a million sterling; that none have eres policy from any accidental misdescription; but in the eyent been compromised, and that it is not the practice of the
IMPERIAL LIFE OFFICE.
company to render an error in the answer of a referee, or words of the deed of constitution, the directors would have any error of an accidental character, reasons for invalidating governed themselves in practice. But according to a prina policy.
ciple already indicated, they hold the sound course to be "I have been upwards of 28 years connected with this that the security of the assured should be derived, not from company, and believe that its honourable practice is fol. tbeir discretion, but from his right under the deed of constilowed by most others, notwithstanding what anonymous tution. This is the full length to which the principle of indepamphleteering slanderers may state to the contrary.-I am feasibility can safely be carried, for the docirine maintained
"SAM. INGALL." by some that the policy ought to be indefeasible, even if BRITISH COYNERCIAL LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY. fraud did exist, appears to be wholly untenable, for rea“Cornbill, London, 16th April, 1849.
sons which are too clear to require detail. The sound and " The questions you have sent me l'have the pleasure to just reasons for defeasibility through fraud ought not to be return you, fully answered on the other side ; feeling that,
disregarded, on the ground tbat the instances in which as e public body, we owe it to the public to give full infor
frauds would be perpetrated would probably be rare. The mation on matters of sucb great and general interest as those
forfeiture resulting from an untrue averment as to age enquired about by you.- I am, &c.,
has, however, been retained, because on that point accurate “EBEN. FERNIE, Managing Director.
information can be procured with ordinary care, and no en
couragement should be given to inattention to so important "Ist. 965.
a part of the basis of the contract. But the power of allow"28. Eight; under circumstances that rendered litigation ing the correction of innocent error as to age is given to the mbaroidable, and in the course of twenty-eight years.
directors by the amended rules.' "3d. Sixteen; caused by errors in stateinent of age, and
EDINBURGH LIFE ASSURANCE OFFICE. other circumstances requiring explanation; and which were
“ SIR, -A copy of your circular of the 13th instant, as to followed by such deductions, under mutual agreement, as
Life Assurance, with relative queries annexed, has been the facts, when ascertained, rendered needful. Amount of
banded me. elaimas, about £16,000; deductions, under £4,000.
“Whilst thinking it unnecessary for your objects to enter " 4th. No; not unless supposed to be a wilful mis-state
specific auswers to those queries, I bave much satisfaction ment, with a fraudulent intent, and then it would form sub
in informing you that, since the establishment of this Com. ject of enquiry:
pany, upwards of a quarter of a century ago, there has been " 5th. Certainly not; but if it were of such a nature as to
but one instance in which the claim on a policy, on the render rectification absolutely needful, such rectification
death of a party, has been even disputed by this company, might be required."
and that on the ground of misrepresentation, and deliberate THE COMMERCIAL AND GENERAL ASSURANCE ASSOCIATION, concealment of faets, known only to the assured himself ; LONDON.
and that the Company, having obtained a verdict in their "Ist. [The first query is not filled up. ]
favour, thereafter paid the modified amount of the claim "2d. None. All claims have been paid without litiga- to the party suing, on the ground that, as an assignee, he tion.
was ignorant of the fraud practised on the Company-all "3d. None. All paid in full.
that was desired being to vindicate the right of the Company " 4th. No such case has occurred, but a slight discre- to refuse payment on fraudulent concealment. paney in one instance, which the office did not take any au- “ I am satisfied that the Directors of this Company would vantage of.
never take any advantage of trifling errors, either of the "5th. Not unless a clear case of fraud was established, referees, or of the parties assuring, wherever there was a or gross omission.”
perfect bona fide apparent in the transaction, whilst they
would vindicate to the last the Company's right to protect SCOTTISH PROVIDENT INSTITUTION.
itself against deliberate attempts at fraud, either by con“ Edinburgh, 24th April, 1849.
cealment or otherwise. "Mr. Watson begs to acknowledge receipt of a circular
I am, &c. letter, in reference to the insecurity of Life Assurance Poli
«W». Dickson, Secretary." cies, as alleged in a recent publication.
CHURCI OF ENGLAND ASSURANCE INSTITUTION. "Mr. Watson now begs to enclose a copy of the recently
“ London, April 18, 1849. published report of this institution; the information con- “ I am in receipt of your circular of the 11th instant, in tained in which, will substantially, and, as he trusts, satis- answer to which I beg to refer you to the enclosed Prospecfactorily answer the queries annexed to the circular."
tus, by page 9 of which you will perceive that fraud only can At pages 10 and 11 we find a very satisfactory
vitiate a policy issued by this institution .- Fraud only to
vitiate a policy. Death by suicide, duelling, or the hands answer to the statements regarding the form of of justice, to render the assurance null and void, except the policies, already referred to:
policy be duly assigned to another party for a bona fide con
sideration. Claims will be paid within three months after Such feelings of insecurity have of late become especi- satisfactory proofs of death.'-I am, Sir, your very obedient ally prevalent, from the construction which, in some cases,
servant, has been given to the warranty or condition, that there
“ W. EMMENS, Secretary. shall be a forfeiture if the proposal and declaration made at Life Association or SCOTLAND, ESTABLISHEED 1839. admission, as the basis of the contract, shall contain any "Ist. The Society have not bitherto published the precise tbtrue averment. This rule has hitherto formed part of details of their claims; but it may be stated that they have the articles of assurance companies, and it has been so in- been considerably less than what were calculated upon. terpreted as to subvert all reasonable confidence in the vali- “2d. None litigated. dity of the contract. For it has been held that, although “3d, None compromised, or even objected to. there be no fraud, or concealment, or misrepresentation, " 4th. During the ten years the Life Association of Sootand although both the applicant and his referees acted with land has existed, the point in the 4th query has never been perfect good faith in making the averment, yet if it should brought up for practice or even consideration; and as to be eventually found to be untrue,' the policy was for- the point in the 5th query, the society has always allowed feited. The most obvious, as well as most common, illus- the Assured to amend any accidental error, and if it has tration of the effect of this interpretation is to be found in been regarding age, the premium has always been reduced the assured having, at the date of the application, the germ or increased, as the case required. of a malady wbich ultimately proved fatal, but of which he
* John Fraser, Manager. was entirely ignorant at the date of his declaration, and the “ Edinburgh, 220 March, 1819." existence of which was ascertained only by a post mortem
UNITED KINGDOM LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY. examination. Here the object of the assurance would be
“ Glasgow Office, April 19, 1849. absolutely defeated, and the company might profit largely, “ 1st. This must be answered by the Manager of the Head while the assured was acting with entire good faith. The Office. All that have fallen here have been setcled in full. actual state of the law on this subject is very unsatisfactory
“ 2d. Not one. for the assured, and it is not surprising that there should
“ 3d. Not one. be a demand for a change in the rules of assurance compa
" 4th. No such circumstance has ever occurred. One Dies.
proposer made a false statement, which was discovered at "Your directors, in this state of the law, have thought it his death; but even this policy we paid in full without any of the highest importance to adopt the rule that, with the dispute. exception of the averment as to age, there shall be no for- - 5th. Certainly not.-I may mention one, (I could state feiture unless the averments be fraudulent as well as untrue. several where mistakes in age have occurred, and not disThis appears to be the just and reasonable construction of covered till death). The party referred to 'made a misthe contract
, and that by which, notwithstanding the former || statement of three years in his age. At his death the mis
take was discovered by certificate from the session-clerk, || gating information on the subject, we wish that proving him to be three years older at the time of insurance than stated.
some of them had been more specific. " The Directors were satisfied, from the insurer's well
The statistics of Life Assurance are still un. known respectability, that it was an unintentional mistake, known. The number of policies is not even stated, and at once paid the full amount of the policy (£1,000), simply charging the difference of the rate of premium be" || and, if it were, as several policies are current on tween 49 and 51, the last being his actual age on filling up
one life, we should not have the means of ascer. his proposal.--Yours,
taining the number of individuals insured. "ALEX. B. Seaton."
We will probably receive more answers to the
circular, which we shall publish in the June Nom“ London, April 18, 1819. « The cbairman authorises me to say that we have never ber, but those already given confirm the idea that litigated any ove policy, and that we have never compro- disputed policies rarely occur. mised any claim. - I am, &c., “Rob. STEVEN, Secy."
The theory might, however, with much comfort,
and perfect security, be conformed to the practice; The replies given in the preceding pages are after the course adopted by the Scottish Provident generally satisfactory. With the view of promul-“and other companies.
HAND IN HAND.
American Scenes and Christian Slavery. By Ebenezer ip and the diabolical trader—not moved with pity, but only fearing Davies, London : John Snow.
he should lose her-placed her for the remainder of the way in This is the last volume on American slavery. The a waggon. Arriving at Natchez, they were all offered for sale. anthor is a minister of New Amsterdam, Berbice. Sick- | Mary, being still sick, begged she might be sold to a kind ma.
ter. Sometimes she made this request in the hearing of parness induced him to visit the Southern States of Americ a
chasers, but she was always insulted for it, and afterwards punished and he travelled over them for 4,000 miles.
by her cruel master for her presumption. On one occasion be Mr. Davies is a Welshman, but the former circum-tied her up by the hands, so that she could barely touch the stances of his own flock gave him a peculiar interest in
floor with her toes. He kept her thus suspended for a whole the condition of the American slaves, and he reveals the human beast would have been tried for the greatest crime, short
day, whipping her at intervals. In any other country this inexistence of a lamentable state of society.
of murder, that man can commit against woman, and transported' The picture has been drawn so often, and is so pain- || for life. Poor Mary Brown was at length sold, at 450 dolar, ful, that those who have no national antipathy to the
as a house-servant to a wealthy man of Vicksburgh, who comAmericans would gladly draw a thick veil over the en- pelled her to cohabit with him, and had children by her—most tire business, if that were not in itself abetting the crime probably filling up the measure of his iniquity by selling his one and aiding the criminals.
Mary Brown's owner, who very probably may sell his Nothing can be more decidedly horrible than the children, is susceptible of the highest hononrs in the state, transactions narrated in the following extract :
and not to be regarded as a remarkably loose man. Selling “ Mary Brown, a coloured girl, was the daughter of free pa- | children is a common mode of making money amongst rents in Washington city-the capital of the freest nation under
some of these southern gentlemen, who would, probably
, heaven! She lived with her parents until the death of her mother. One day, when she was near the Potomac Bridge, the upbraid the Circassian system of disposing of young fe Sheriff overtook her, and told her that she must go with him. males for the Turkish harems. But the latter are She inquired what for? He made no reply, but told her to better than the Vicksburgh harems. come along, and took her immediately to a slave auction. Mary After Mary Brown's tale, the following story is comtold him she was free; but he contradicted her, and the sale || paratively moral, in fact, nothing more than a peculiar proceeded. The auctioneer soon sold her for 350 dollars, to a Mississippi trader. She was first taken to jail; and, after a few prejudice, which chooses to forget some Bible texts ;hours, was handcuffed, chained to a man-slave, and started, in a · Subsequently, on the same day, I had conversation with s drove of about furty, for New Orleans. Her handcuffs made her young man, whom I had that afternoon seen sitting down at wrists swell so much that they were obliged to take them off, || the Lord's Table in the Baptist Church. He told me that there and put fetters round her ancles. In the morning the handcuffs were in New Orleans two Baptist churches of coloured people, were again put on. Thus they travelled for two weeks, wading | presided over by faithful and devoted pastors of their own colour
. rivers, whipped up all day, and beaten at night if they had not ‘And does yonr pastor,' I inquired, . recognise them, and have performed the prescribed distance. She frequently waded rivers | fellowship with them 'Oh! yes, he has often preached to in her chains, with water up to her waist. The month was them. He feels very anxious, I can assure you, for the converOctober, and the air cold and frosty. After she had travelled sion of the slaves.' "And do those coloured preachers eter thus twelve or fifteen days, her arms and ancles had become so occupy your pulpit?' 'Oh, dear me, no!' with evident alarmi. swollen that she felt as if she could go no further. They had Why not? You say they are good men, and sound in docno beds, usually sleeping in barns--sometimes out on the naked trineOh! they would not be tolerated. Besides, they are ground; and such were her misery and pain, that she could only accustomed to speak in broken English, and in very familiar lie and cry all night. Still she was driven on for another week; || language; otherwise the slaves could not understand them. The and every time the trader caught her crying he beat her, utter-slaves, you know, cannot read, and are not allowed to learn. ing fearful curses. If he caught her praying, he said he would | This he said in a tone of voice which indicated an entire acqui'give her hell! Mary was a member of the Methodist Church escence in that state of things, as if he thought the arrangement **in Washington. There were several pious people in the com- perfectly right. But what iniquity! To come between the
pany; and at night, when the driver found them melancholy, Word of God and his rational creature! To interpose letreen and disposed to pray, he had a fiddle brought, and made them the light of Heaven and the soul of man! To withhold the dance in their chains, whipping them till they complied. Mary lamp of life from one-sixth of the entire population! Of all the at length became so weak that she really could travel on foot no damning features of American slavery, this is the most danuning! further. Her feeble frame was exhausted, and sank beneath "'I suppose,' continued I, ‘if any of the black people conue to accumulated sufferings. She was seized with a burning fever;ll your churches, they have to sit by themselves ?'
* Young Man._'Of course; I have never seen it otherwise.' “ This number of places of Worship, at an average of 600 per.
"Myself.— And I have never before seen it so. With us in sons to each, would afford accommodation for nearly two-thirds of British Guiana, blacks and white mingle together indiscrimi- what the entire population was at that time; and surely two. nately in the worship of our common Father.'
thirds of any community is quite as large a proportion as can: " Young Man (with amazement.)—There must be a great under the most favourable circumstances, be expected to attend change here before it comes to that. It must appear very places of worship at any given time. Behold, then, the strength strange.'
and the efficiency of the voluntary principle! This young city, " Myself.–Very much like heaven, where they shall come with all its wants, is far better furnished with places of worship together from the east and from the west, from the north and than the generality of commercial and manufacturing towns in from the south, &c. Why, we have black deacons who, at the England. celebration of the Lord's Supper, carry the bread and wine, and “Dr Reed visited Cincinnati in 1834. He gives the populagive them even to the white people.'
tion at that time at 30,000, and the places of worship as follows. " Young Man (with more astonishinent than ever, and in a I insert them that you may see at a glance what the voluntary tone of offended dignity)—'I don't think I could stand that_I principle did in the 11 years that followed :don't! A great change must take place in my feelings before I
6 could. I don't like to mingle Ham and Japhet together for my
Campbellite Baptists, 1 Methodists,
1 part-I don't.'
2 " Myself.—– Why, they were mingled together in the ark.'
Total in 1834, 21 " Young Man.—Yes; but old Noah quarrelled with Ham
“ in 1845, 67 soon after he came out, and cursed him.'
1 " Myself.-'Granted; but you and your pastor profess to be
Roman Catholic, anxious for the slaves' conversion to God, and thereby to roll
Increase, 48" Swedes,
1 sway the curse. Here the dialogue ended.
The slave trade is not the only black spot in American The statement only proves the rapid rise of Cincinnati, life. The people have an unaccountable love to war-to and the prosperity of its population. People in prosperous the acquisition of glory, and other people's land. circumstances are generally willing to build churches, and
The ministers in their pulpits appeared all to deem | afterwards often neglect them. suecess for the Mexican expedition a proper subject of The voluntary principle will prosper wherever it is prayer ; and that was one of the darkest raids in which wrought with energy. The members of churches in the the States ever engaged.
poorest lands may support the ministrations of religion, if Some of these ministers were men of great acquire- || they will only try. ments and eloquence, who, except for their bending be
The Americans have a great advantage over us in a neath the slave and war spirit, would have stood high in
free the traveller's regards :
press. The press is unstamped, and the results of an "In the evening I was desirous of hearing Dr. Hawkes, an
unstamped press astonish persons accustomed to the red Episcopalian minister, of whose talents and popularity I had stamp on newspapers. The sale of periodicals in heard much in New Orleans ; but finding that he did not preach Cincinnati is very great. in the evening, I went again to hear Dr. Scott at the Presby. terian Church. Having stood a considerable time at the door
“ There are sixteen daily papers! Of these, thirteen issue inside, and receiving no encouragement to advance, I ventured, also a weekly number. Besides these there are seventeen weekly along with my wife, to enter the pew next to the door. This
papers unconnected with daily issues. But Cincinnati is liberal proved a most unfortunate position. There was not light enough
in her patronage of eastern publications. During the year 1845, to take any notes ; while the incessant opening and shutting of depot in the city, and through which the great body of the
one house, that of Robertson and Jones, the principal periodical the door, with its rusty hinges, made it extremely difficult to bear
. The discourse, however, which was again addressed to people are supplied with this sort of literature, sold of young men in great cities, was characterised by all the power Magazines and Periodicals, 29,822 numbers, and piety which distinguished the one of the previous Sabbath. Newspapers,
25,390* I retired deeply impressed with the value of such a ministry, Serial Publications,
30,826 in such a place. Dr. Scott was one of the American delegates Works of Fiction,
48,961 to the Conference for the formation of the Evangelical Alliance in 1846. He is a southern man, born and bred amidst the wilds But not greater than the general sale in the United of Tennessee, whose early educational advantages were very || States :small. He is, in a great measure, a self-made man. Brought up in the midst of slavery, he is (I rejoice to hear) a cordial hater
“It is estimated that the people of the United States, at the of the system. As a minister, he is "thoroughly furnished-a present time, support 1,200 newspapers. There being no stampworkman that needeth not be ashamed.' His knowledge of the duty, no duty on paper, and none on advertisements, the yearly world, as well as of the Word of God and of the human heart
, cost of a daily paper, such as the New York Tribune, for in. is extensive, and is turned to the best account in his ministra- stance, is only 5 dollars, or one guinea. The price of a single tion. In leaving New Orleans, I felt no regret but that I had copy of such papers is only two cents
, or one penny, and many not called upon this good man.”
papers are only one cent., or a halfpenny per copy.' The Voluntary principle, according to Mr. Davis, works
And the reason is explained by the small price paid for admirably in the States, and he quotes the case of church
papers :building in Cincinnati to support his opinion :"By the close of the year 1845, the voluntary principle, with
“At Pittsburg I bought three good-sized newspapers for five out any governmental or municipal aid whatever, had provided ing Post-was a large sheet, measuring three feet by two, and
cents, or twopence-halfpenny. One of them— The Daily Morn. the following places of worship: 12 New Jerusalem,
well filled on both sides with close letterpress, for two cents, or
1 Methodist Episcopal, 12 Universalist,
one halfpenny. The absence of duty on paper, and of newspaper
stamps, is, no doubt, one great cause of the advanced intelligence
of the mass of the American people. What an absurd policy is 5 Mormons,
that of the British Government, first to impose taxes upon know5 Friends,
1 Protestant Episcopal, 4 Congregational,
ledge, and then to use the money in promoting education." Restorationists,
We wish that Mr. Davies were in Sir Charles Wood's United Brethren, 1
place for a month.
* Besides an immense quantity sent direct per mail!