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of short Parliaments, as last year five was the ma- || secularities; while on that condition the Pope re. jority in favour of the ballot, per resolutions of the fuses to return. The intervention of the French House; but when a bill comes to be proposed, trien- || army was a substantial aid to the French Socialists nial Parliaments will be defeated, as the ballot has in the elections. been defeated by a large majority. Those who expect least from the present House of Commons will Our most serious intelligence is from Austria be the least disappointed, and the happiest men. and Hungary; but it is confused, and we can only
glean out of the details that several battles have As the Puujaub contains five millions of indivi- || been fought, generally to the advantage of the duals, we may spare five lines to record the fact of Hungarians, and with a great destruction of life ; its annexation to our empire in the East. The that the Russians have fully engaged in the camtopic is too large to handle amongst incidental paign, and are now in considerable numbers within notes ; but we are a strange nation, casting away the Austrian territory, and able to cover the colonies with one hand and greedily grasping new Austrian capital, Vienna. Therefore we have possessions with the other.
probably reached an hour long foreseen, when the
power of Russia will be tried on the fields of Ger. The French Constituent Assembly expired on many and the Italian plains. France must, in these the 26th ult., and the Legislative Assembly peace- circumstances, act with and for the Hungariansably entered upon its duties on the 28th. Two- | with and for the Poles against Russia, Austria, thirds of the new Assembly are moderate, and one probably Prussia, and the old sovereignties of Gerthird or nearly may be classified as red, of every many; but Germany itself is red with Socialisin, hue from crimson to brown. Speculators in the and a desire for Rpublicanism. Germany is in refunds became alarmed without much cause. They volt. were shocked at the violent speeches made before The complication of these events is increased by the elections, and sold out in forgetfulness that the Danish war, into which the Frankfort German the contrast of before and after an election in the Parliament has cast the convocation of nations minds and in the tone of representatives is often under the German name, and out of which they most remarkable,
never can come with honour; because, even if they
beat the Danes, it is a battle in the proportion of The small republic of Rome, headed by Mazzini fifteen to one-while, if they be thwarted, the disand his colleagues in the triumvirate, holds gallantly credit is aggravated by the weakness of the foe. ont against the Pope, Louis Napoleon, and General Oudinot. The Romans having defeated the French The Americans are out of the commotions of Euunder the walls, and even partially within the walls | rope, and so the people of New York have raised a of the old city, have now defeated the Neapolitans in most ridiculous quarrel regarding the merits, as the field, and may probably secure their object-|| actors, of Forrest, an American, and Mr. Macready. the separation of the spiritual from the temporal | The point disputed admits, we suppose, of no doubt management of business at Rome. They refuse to amongst the play-going public of this country, but take back the Pope on any terms except as a resi- it cost New York 20 to 30 lives, taken by the milident Bishop, who shall neither make nor mar their | tary in defence of a theatre on the 10th ultimo.
RAILWAY AND JOINT STOCK BUSINESS OF THE MONTII.
Tie pasi month has been one of more than usual interest and Since the issuing of the report of the Conimittee of Investigaimportance, on account of the Eastem Counties Railway investi- ||tion, the accused directors have put out a rejoinder. The £7,60 gaution, and the various proceedings in that and other companies which was believed at first to have been divided among members where the Hudson management has prevailed. In our resume of Parliament, it is now stated, was employed to bring about an of the Railway and Joint-Stock business of April, we stated the amalgamation between the Eastern Counties and the London and general impression prevailing in respect of the Eastern Counties | York Railways; in which Mr. Cash, one of the members of the line, though the committee's report had not been issued at the Committee of Investigation, took a leading part. The defence time we wrote. The report, since submitted to a special meeting of the directors, as far as their own conduct is concerned, is, that of the shareholders, is a most elaborate document, and enters into Mr. Hudson being thrust into the directory by the shareholders, a full history of the undertaking since Mr. Hudson took office. || in the hope that he would raise their property in the market, The main point to which public attention has been directed is they (the directors) durst not oppose him ; hence he was allowed that which establishes the fact of the accounts having been regn- to have all his own way. This, it must be admitted, is no justi. larly “cooked,” in oriler to increase the apparent sum of the tication for neglect of truat, for honourable and high-minded men, protits, and thereby raise the rate of dividend. Those, therefore, under such a state of things, ought to live resigned ; although who purchased Enstern Counties Railway shares, under the im- it proves the shareholders were as much a party to the vices of pression of their paying a bona fide dividend of 9s. per share, || the Iludsonian reign as the accused directors. The “ getting when they were not in reality earning 3s., are, as may be ex- up” of the half-yearly accounts to suit the dividends, not the pected, most indignant against the management which, for a dividends to suit the accounts, is not denied by the dinctors, considerable period of time, appears to have been altogether in thongh they show that various inaccuracies have been made by the hands of Mr. Hudson and Mr. Wiedlington. Another itein the Committee of Investigation, which, when correctri, reduce in the accounts which created considerable speculntion, and has the amount stated ns improperly charged against capital instead led to a debate in the House of Commons, was £7,609, which
of revenue. Mr. Waddington and Mr. Duncan declined to explain to the com- The special meeting of the Eastern Counties Railroy Com. mittee. For a time, it was surmised that this amount had been pany, to consider the committee's report, was held on Thursday, used to subsidise members of Parliament, until it was indignantly May 10, in the large room of the London Tavern, wlich was denied,
crowded to excess. The gathering, as may be believed, was of
the most turbulent character, and cheering and loissing alternated || “cooking" accounts, and issuing false statements of income and most vociferously during the whole sitting. Mr. Bludson did expenditure, to influence the market. not show face, and the chair was taken by Mr. Waddington, Having occupied more than usual space with this matter of whose appearance was the signal for the most uproarions oppo- the Eastern Counties Railway, influencing, as it has done, in so sition in the shape of shouts, groans, jeers, and liisses. Ile marked a degree share property of every kind, we shall present contented himself by simply opening the proceedings, and calling in a condensed forın, the other railway business of the month in on Mr. Cash, the chairman of the Committee of Investigation, the order of their dates. to address the meeting. The report having been printed and Waterford, Werford, Wicklow, and Dublin Railway.— The circulated among the shareholders, was taken as read. Mr. | adjourned half-yearly meeting of this company was held in LonCash's address was received with considerable applause. In the don on May 1st-Mr. Charles Nash in the chair. Resolutions course of his observations, he denied having ever received a were passed strongly disapproving of the past acts of the direcfarthing of the £7,600 voted to the Size Street Committee. The tors, and appointing a committee to investigate into the affairs principal item in that £7,000 was for “ losses on shares,” £3,400, of the company. The meeting then adjourned till June 2. and £1,539 9s. to Air. Phillips, solicitor to the committee. York, Newcastle, and Berwick Railuray.--An extraordinary These two last items were groaned most lustily. He submitted | meeting of this company was held in York, May 4, “ for the the propositions of the committee which were to amalgamate purpose of receiving and considering the report of the committee with the Norfolk Railway; to declare no dividend for the half-|| appointed at the last half-yearly meeting of the company, to inyear; to reduce the directors from 18 to 12 ; to close the capi- | vestigate the Great North of England Purchase account, and tal account; to appoint a lau-clerk at a fixed salary ; to observe also for the purpose of considering the propriety of appointing, great care in the appointment of auditors; to pursue still farther and, if thought right, to appoint, a committee of shareholders to an inquiry into the capital account; and to observe the most examine into, investigate, and report upon the management and stringent economy in the management of the company's affairs. I general affairs of the company, and to adopt such measures Mr. Meck followed, in a slashing speech against the directors, in or pass such resolutions, with reference to the matters aforewhich he reviewed their whole policy, with the view of showing | said, or either of them, as to such extraordinary meeting shall that they had brought the concern to the verge of bankruptry. seem fit.” Mr. Robert Davis, the deputy-chairman, presided. Mr. Waddington atteinpted to reply, amidst great interruptions. | Mr. Hudson did not make his appearance, but he sent in his The burden of his speech, which could scarcely be heard for resignation as chairman. The first business done was to rehisses, was, that Mr. Hudson, in the course he had pursued, had ceive and adopt the report of the committee on the Great North acted under the conviction that he was doing his best for the of England Purchase account, the heads of which we gave last ultimate interests of the company. He entered into a statement month. After a rather noisy discussion, the following Commit. with the olject of proving that the liabilities were much less tee of Inquiry was appointed :--Mr. Duncan M.Laren, manager than Mr. Meek and the Committee of Investigation had made of the Exchange Bank, Edinburgh ; Mr. Leichman, Glasgow; them, and maintained the company was able to pay a dividend Mr. Kipling, director of the Bank at Darlington ; Mr. Shields, for the byegone half-year. After a long and noisy discussion, the of Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Mr. IIoratio Love, Stock Exchange, Lonpropositions of the Committee of Investigation were agreed to. don; Mr. James Veek, Lord Mayor of York; and the gentleThe directors, through the chairman, then gave in their resigna- man named by the directors, Mr. Ralph Phillipson, of Newcastle. tion, which was received by the meeting with lond cheers.
Ulster Railr14.-The half-yearly meeting of this company The following resolution, which terminated the sitting, was was held at Belfast, on May 28-- Mr. James Coddard in the next put and carried: --“That a committee of 30 shareholders be chair. The report for the half-year showed the receipts to have appointed, 6 holding £10,000 and upwards, 6 from £5,000 to been £19,620 ls. ld., and the expenditure £12,456 17s. 3d., £10,000, 6 from £3,000 to £5,000, 6 from £2,000 to £3,000, leaving a balance of £7,133 3s. 10d. Out of this a dividend of from £1,000 to £2,000, to whom might be added the present 12s. per share was declared. The balance-sheet stated that the committee of 8, on whom (the eight) the selection of the 30 total capital expendled had been £723,829 15s. 70. proprietors might devolve; no proposition for directors to be Demerara Railway.--The annual general meeting of this entertained till 25 proprietors had consented to act on the com- company was held in London, on March 30-Mr. Henry Davidmittee, the sum to be paid to future directors to be referred to son in the chair. The report of the directors stated that the such committee, who should report to an adjourned meeting to be works were making rapid progress. There had been received held for the selection of the proposed directors."
altogether £156,810 8s. 10d., of which £139,030 Os. 3d. had Since the above, the matter has been raised in Parliament, by been expended. It was stated that a portiou of the Government the presentation of a petition from some Eastern Counties share- Loan of £500,000 to West Indian Railways would be conceded holders, praying that an inquiry be instituted into Ur. Hudson's to the company, and that, in all probability, the Colonial Governconduct, and that if the allegntion of fraudulent accounts were ment would guarantee 6 per cent. on the capital. proved, to expel him from the House of Commons. This rather Edinburgh and Bathgate Railway.--At a special meeting, held strong petition brought up Mr. lIudson, who latterly has been seen at Edinburgh, Vny 4th, Mr. Robertson was elected a director in very seldom in his place in the Commons. lle stated that he joined room of Mr. Bain; and the directors authorised to borrow on the Eastern Counties direction at the request of nine-tenths of debentures a sum not exceeding £83,000. the shareholders, at a time when lie had no interest in the con- Waterford and kilkenny Rail ray.--On Wednesday, May 9th, errn, not holding a share. Ile then ran over the receipts for the the half-yearly meeting of this company was held in London. various half years since he became chairman, and maintained that, || From the report it appeared that, up to May 25th, the sum of with the exception of 411,000, the dividend declared was right £275,000 had been expeuded, and that it would require other He further stated that when he joined the company, the capital £163,000 to construct a single line to Waterford. The traffic in the undertaking, and its aljuncts, was £5,300,000, to which, on the portion of the line already opened had been a losing affair. under his management, had been added £3,500,000 more, making The arrears on calls were £37,3:22 ; 805 shares were declared £10,800,000 in all. Against this, the income, when he took forfeited. office, was £238,000, while last year it had been raised to £500,000. Normorket Rail:cay.-The adjourned meetingof the proprietors He denied that any of the alterations in the accounts had been was held in London, on May 14th-Lord George Manners, M.1'., made by hiin, but by the board generally; neither lid he autho- || in the chair. The only business done was to receive the report rised the transfer of £115,000 from revenue to capital. IIe ac. of the Committee of Inquiry appointed at the last meeting, and cepted, with the directors, the joint responsibility of what had been to resolve to carry out its recommendations, subject to the disdone, but repudiated all individual responsibility. This defence cretion of the Board of Directors, when they are elected. does not amount to much, for whatever maladministration las Boston, Stamford, and Birmingham Railway.-- On Monday, taken place the directors are accountable, and whether Mr. Hud- || Vay 1-1th, a special meeting of this company was held in London, son did the mischief and the directors allowed him, or he did it at which it was agreed to accede to the terms offered by the jointly with them, says but little for the men either individually Great Northern Company, which are as follows:-—"That the or collectively; though at the same time we opine that many of line should be made by this company, and £250,000 to be called them who are playing the Pharasee in regard to this affair would up from the shareholders, and the remainder of the capital, if any be found, on investigation, to have erred quite as much were the more were required, to be found by the Great Northern Company. truth brought home to them. The Eastern Counties Company || There was also an agreement between the two companies that, is not the only scheme in which directors have been guilty of as soon as half of such £250,000 was called up and expeuded on the works, the line should be leased to the Great Northern Com- Fund and Assurance Society. The annual meeting was held on pany, that company guaranteeing 6 per cent. on the amount of Wednesday, May 9th, at the London Tavern— Mr. Laurie Marray capital. The new proposal was, that this company should take in the chair. The report submitted was of a very favourable 6 per cent. on £10 per share called up, instead of £20, such £10 character. It was stated that the year which had just closed, shares being exchanged at par for an equal capital of Royston in regard to the mortality among the subscribers, had been mech and Hitchin shares. The Great Northern Company proposed more favourable than its two predecessors. In the two years that on the further payment by this company of £5 per share, ending 1847 and 1818, the claims liquidated by the Society in two instalments of 50s. each, the Great Northern Company | amounted to £45,533. Of this sum the Society paid in the last should hand over to this company stock, which the former held year £26,670. The number of policies issued by the Society in in the Royston and lIitchin, of equal amount, which stood in 1848 was 516, while the number issued, from the 1st of January precisely the same position as to the guarantee of 6 per cent., to the 5th of May in the present year, was 405, covering a risk which would come into operation by the fulfilment of the con- of £157,899, and adding 24,246 to the annual income of the ditions on the part of the Royston and Hitchin Company, in the Society. The total amount assured under existing policies fall of the present year.”
amounted to the large sum of £1,613,412. The agency of the Stirling and Dunfermline Railway.--At a special general meet-|| Society had greatly extended witloin the past and present sear; ing of this company, held at Glasgow on May 7, it was agreed to and the transatlantic business of the Society progressed satisfac. make over to the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway Company the torily. The financial position of the company (the report contiportions of the line between Alloa Ferry and Dunfermline and pued), would enable the directors to divide among the polierAlloa Ferry and Tillicoultry; as the works to be leased by that holders entitled to this distribution a reversionary bonus varyiug company under this company's Act; of delaying or abandoning from 20 to 45 per cent. on the premiums; and to the proprietor that portion of the line between Stirling and the town of Alloa : a bonus of 24, per cent. for the past year, in addition to the regular and of resolving as to the working of certain portions of the 5 per cent. already recovered by them. The report, after an line while the works are in progress. Mr. J. Anstruthers in explanatory speech from the chairman, was received and adopted. the chair.
It was incidentally mentioned at the meeting, that the directors North British Railıray.-A special general meeting of this entertained the idea of adding a Fire department to the Society, company was held in Edinburgh on May 10th—Mr. Learmonth The following railway bills have been read a third time, and in the chair-at which the following committee to investigate passed in the House of Commons within the month :-Caledointo the affairs of the nndertaking was agreed to:- Mr. Shortridge, 1 nian (purchase or lease of Wishaw and Coltness), read third Soutlı Shields ; Mr. Jowett, Leeds ; Mr. Mark Sprot of Riddel; time; York, Newcastle, and Berwick, and Maryport and Carlisle Mr. Johnston, Ayrlyheads ; Mr. Laycock, Newcastle; Mr. Kinloch (lease and amalgamation), read third time and passed ; ditto of Kinloch ; Mr. Wilkinson, Hull; Mr. Chowne, London. (Newcastle and Carlisle lease and amalgamation), read third time
South Eastern Railway.--An adjourned general meeting of the and passed ; Shrewsbury and Chester (branches to the river Dee, proprietors of this line was held in London on May 17, to receive and joint station at Shrewsbury, &c.), read third time and passed; the report of the Committee of Inquiry appointed at the meeting | York and North Midland (deviation and abandonment of pari of the 8th March last--Mr. James M'Gregor in the chair. The of authorised lines), read third time and passed ; Edinburgh and report, which is a most voluminous document, completely exone- Glasgow, and Edinburgh and Glasgow Union Canal (amalgama. rates the directors, and especially the chairman, from the chargestion). made against them ; though it states that continned divisions at According to the Railway Commissioners' Report, 1,191 miles the board have seriously interfered with the efficient management of new railway have been opened in 1848. The account stands of the undertaking. It concludes with a series of recommendations thus :about having an active and harmonious direction, a proper auditing Open at the commencement of 1848,
3,816 miles. of accounts, the appointment of a law clerk at a fixed salary, and Since opened-England,
731 strict economy in the general management. The report, after an
289 animated discussion, and some opposition from the friends of the
151 minority on the direction, was received and adopted. Birkenhead, Lancashire, and Cheshire Junction Railrray.-A
5,007 special general meeting of the shareholders of the company was
Not less than 7,000 miles remained to be completed, according held on Saturday, May 19th, at Birkenhead-Mr. James Bancroft to the bills sanctioned in previous parliaments. in the chair. The object of the meeting was to sanction two In reference to accidents on the railways, the report states bills before Parliament; oue will authorising the company to that the whole number of passengers killed in 1847 was 30; is abandon a portion of their line, to form a new line to join with 1843 it was 21. Of persons employed upon railways, 194 were the London and North-Western Railway, to alter the mode of killed in 1847, and during the last year 138. Of persons who constructing a portion of their works, to alter their tolls, and were neither travelling nor employed upon railways, 43 were for other purposes ; the other bill was to enable the present killed during the last year, being 14 less than during the precompany to lease the undertaking to the London and North-ceding year. Western, the Chester and Holyhead, or the Chester and Shrews. With regard to railway investments, the report states that it bury Railway Companies. After some discussion, the meeting || is evident that a great change has taken place in public opinion adjourned till June 2d.
with respect to the value of railway investments. During 1845, Monmouthshire Railway.-On Wednesday, May 16th, the half- the price of the publie securities increased about 4 per cent yearly meeting of the proprietors in this scheine was held at while the average price of investments in four of the principal Newport, South Wales -- Mr. R. Blake, M.P., in the chair. The railway companies declined about 20 per cent. The follosing report submitted set forth the receipts for the half-year to have appear to have been the prices of £100 paid-up stock or shares been £21,000 and the expenditure £3,265. A dividend of £2 10s. in the following companies :per share was declared, and the directors were empowered to raise £112,000 by the creation of new shares.
TIednes. The foregoing constitutes the main railway business of the
Jan. 1, July 1, Dec. 30, Ap. on month, except that the shareholders of several other undertakings
July 3, 1818. 1848. 1818. 1849. are moving to effect “investigations," that being now the railway
1817. order of the day. The Great Western proprictors are becoming restive; and, since Lord Brougham's onslaught on the secretary Lon. & N. Ies. IS
150 120 124 139 and solicitor of the company in the Lords, they are, many of Lon. & S. West. 131 102 92 80 them, clamorous for a full inquiry. The London sharcholders Great Western 140 112 95 91 of the Caledonian Company are also moving in the same direction, Midland...
130 109 100 S3 for, at a meeting of them held at the London Tavern, on the 23d, it was decided to send a deputation armed with proxies to Edin- Average. 14.9) 1184 1011 95 burgh, to endeavour to obtain a searching investigation into all Consols.......
92 the undertakings, guarantees, and liabilities of the company.
The only Insurance Company which we have learned to have It appears from the report of the commissioners that 203 per held a meeting in the conrse of the month is the National Loan sons were killed and 219 injured on all the railways open fie
public traffic in Great Britain and Ireland, during the year 1848; of whom, 9 passengers were killed and 128 injured from causes beyond their own control; and that 12 passengers were killed and 7 injured owing to their own misconduct or want of caution. That 13 servants of companies or contractors were killed and 32 injared from causes beyond their own control, and that 1.25 passengers were killed and 4:2 injured owing to their own negligence or want of caution. That 41 trespassers and other persons, neither passengers nor servants, were killed, and 10 injured by improperly crossing or standing on the railway. Onc person was run over through the misconduct of an engine-driver, and there was one suicide. During the first lialf of 1848, 26,330,192 passengers were conveyed on 4,357 miles of railway, and during the second half-year, on 5,007 miles, 31,630,292 passengers ; total number of passengers conveyed in 1849, 57,960,781.
From a recent return, it appears that the number of persons employed on 72 railways open for traffic on the 1st May, 1843, was 5:2,688 ; length of railway, 4,252}; and the number of stations, 1,321. Of the 52,688 persons employed, 14,297 are labourers; 10,814 artificers ; 7,362 porters ; 4,391 platelayers ; 4,360 clerks ; 2,475 policemen ; 1,809 assistant enginemen and firemen ; 1,752 enginemen or drivers ; 1,46€ conductors or guards ; 1,058 switchmen; 1,011 foremen; 401 gatekeepers ; 343 superintendents; 197 messengers; 197 miscellaneous enployment; 142 wagoners; 125 store-keepers; 106 draughtsmen ; 95 engineers ; 81 secretaries; 70 accountants; 48 cashiers; 32 breaksmen ; 30 managers ; 29 treasurers.
There has been considerable fluctuation in the price of share and funded property within the month, arising from the unsettled state of the Continent, and the Hudson excitement. Prices, however, as will be seen by the annexed table, were nearly the same at the close of the month as they were at the beginning :
Price, Price, Paid. Name of Railway.
May 1. May 24. 50 Aberdeen ......
171 181 20 Birmingham & Oxford Junction.. 25
5 Boston, Stamford, & Birmingham 54 5} 90 Bristol & Exeter...
58. 60 164 Buckinghamshire..
144 15 50 Caledonian......
Price, Price, Paid, Name of Railway.
May1. May 2A.
28 28 50 Edinburgh & Glasgow.
413 421 20 Great Northern.....
102 103 100 Great North of England.. 230 227 100 Great Western...
90 78 50 Hull & Selby.
100 96 50 Lancaster & Carlisle...
52 50 86 Lancashire & Yorkshire..
63 60 50 Leeds & Bradford..
992 97 12London & Blackwall..
54 50 London & Brighton
38.) 37 100 London & North Western,
129 1.28 50 London & South I'estern. 351 36 100 Manchester, Sheffield, & Lincolnsh. 38 38 100 Midland.
67 681 25 North British.
131 134 100 Norfolk...
35 37 174 North Staffordshire
135 123 50 Oxford, Worcester, & Wolverham. 18
163 25 Scottish Central.
24 23 33) South Eastern
211 201 33 South Wales.......
14 25 York, Newcastle, and Berwick... 20
50 York and North Midland......... 34 The following gives the price of the Funds at the same dates:
May 1, May 24, Bank Stock......
192 193} 3 per Cents. Reduced Annuities... 903
89. 3 per Cent. Consols.........
92 902 New 34 per Cent. Annuities...... 913 903 India Stock....
24-1 Consols for Account. The unsettled state of France has occasioned the slight fall perceptible in the above within the last few days.
OBITUARY NOTICES FOR MAY.
of the band, through a feeling of gratitude for some kindness At Edgeworthstown, county of Lougford, Ireland, on the 21st which he had previously experienced from Mr. Edgeworth. Their May, Miss EDGEWORTH, the celebrated Irish novelist. She was return home, when the disturbances were at an end, as described the daughter of Richard Lovell Edgeworth, by his first wise, || by Miss Edgeworth, in her father's memoirs, shows the affection Miss Elers, a young lady of Oxford, to whom he was married at which subsisted between the landlord and his dependents. Gretna Green, having eloped with her when at the University, Miss Edgeworth commenced her career as an authoress about before he was twenty years of age. Mr. Edgeworth was born in 1800, and, numerous and valuable as her productions are, these 1744, and died in 1817. He married four wives, of whom the were not the only service which she rendered to literature. Sir fecond and third were sisters. In his latter years he devoted | Walter Scott has acknowledged that to her descriptions of Irish much of his time to mechanics and literature, and the improve- || character and manners we are indebted, in a great measure, for ment of his estate. In conjunction with his daughter, Maria, the “Waverley Novels." “The rich humour, pathetic tenderness, he wrote a treatise on Practical Education. He was also the and admirable tact” of her Irish delineations, he declared, led him anthor of one on Professional Education, published in 1803, as first to think that someiling might be attempted for his own well as some subsidiary works. The construction of railroads country of the same kind with that which Miss Edgeworth so carly formed the subject of his attention, and, as we mentioned || fortunately achieved for Ireland. Her works were also serviceable in the sketch of Mr. George Stephenson (Obituary Notices for to the cause of education and social morality. She had long August in last September number of Tait), he received, in 1798, || ceased to take an active part in life, or in that world of literature the gold medal of the Society of Arts for some railway inodels of which she was once so bright an ornament; her last years presented to them. In 1802, he published his “Essay on Rail- || being passed in tranquillity at the family seat at Edgeworthstown; roads." He also contributed some papers to the Philosophical and the announcement of her death at so very recent a date must Transactions, including an essay on Spring and Wheel Carriages, || have startled many who, from her retirement, must have believed and an account of a Telegraph which he invented, but never that that event took place some years ago. brought into use. His memoirs, partly written by himself, and In her early literary efforts she was greatly assisted by the partly by his daughter, were published in 1821. Pallasmore, the advice and sound practical suggestions of her father, to whom she birth-place of Oliver Goldsmith, is on the property of the Edge- was in the habit of submitting the first designs of her works. worths ; and the author of the “Vicar of Wakefield” received || The famous “ Essay on Irish Bulls,” the joint production of herpart of his education at the school of Edgeworthstown.
self and her father, was published in 1801. Its sabject was not Maria Edgeworth was born in Oxfordshire, and was twelve fat or lean cattle, of a particular breed, but the illustration of those years old before she was taken to Ireland. The family were | peculiar blunders of speech in which the natives of the Green Isle involved in the troubles of the Irish Rebellion of 1798, and were excel above all the nations of the earth. Her “Castle Rackrent" obliged to hurry from their house, it having been taken possession abounds in some of those admirable sketches of Irish life and of by a party of rebels; but it was spared from pillage by one manners, for which most of her tales and novels are so much dis
tinguislied. Her “Belinda," a novel of real life and ordinary In the summer of 1825, Sir Walter Scott, on his tour through characters, is also descriptive of some of the striking traits of the Ireland, returned Miss Edgeworth's visit, and was received by her Trish character. In 150# she published her “ Popular Tales,” in with great di-tinction and hospitality, at Edgeworthstown, where three volumes, and, two years afterwards, “Leonora,” a novel he and his party remained a week. She, and her sister Harriet, in two volumes. In 1809 she issued three volumes of “ Tales of and her brother William, then joined Sir Walter's party for the Fashionable Life," of a more powerful and varied cast than any rest of their Irish travels, or her facility in writing, Sir of her previous productions. Three other volumes of “ Fashion- Walter gives the following testimony, in a letter to Joanna ahle Tales” appeared in 1812, and fully sustained the high re- Baillie, dated from Abbotsford, October 12th, 1825 :-"I have putation which she had now attained. In 1511 her novel of not the pen," he says, “ of our friend Jiaria Edgeworth, who “Patronage,” in four volumes, was published. Its object is to writes all the while she laughs, talks, eats, and drinks-and I show the miseries resulting from a dependence on the great, and || believe, though I do not pretend to be so far in the secret, all she paints the manners and charuters of high life with her usual the time she sleeps too.
She has good lnck in having a pen vigour and fidelity. In 1817 appeared two tales named “ Ilar- | which walks at once so wweariedly and so well.” rington” and “Ormond;" the intention of the first of these be- Miss Edgeworth's last work of fiction, a novel entitled "Helen," ing the removal of the prejudices entertained by many against in three volumes, appeared in 183t. It is not inferior to any the Jews. The other is an Irish story.
of her other works. Besides those already mentioned, she also In 1829 Miss Edgeworth published a work of a different kind, wrote “ The Modern Griselda," “ Frank," “Garry Owen," “ * Lannamely, “Rosamond," a Sequel to Early Lessons,” which had rent le Paressens," "Little Plays for Yomg People," " Moral been previously published, being tales for the young. In 1825 | Tales," " Parent's Assistant,” “ Patrouage and Comic Dramas," she issued four volumes of similar tales, under the title of&c. For many years, indeed, literary composition formed the “Harriet and Lucy,” being a continuation of that course of mo- chief business of her life. Originality and fertility of invention, ral instruction for youthful readers on which she had so ably and and a power of depicting Irish manners, unequalled among modern so successfully entered, and in which she had so few predecessors authors, are her chief characteristics as a novelist. She especially or equals.
shone, however, in those delightful stories, written in so beautifully On the publication of " Waverley," in 1814, Sir Walter Scott | simple a style, in which the yonthsul mind is made first to condesired Mr. Jaines Ballantyne to send her an early copy, inscribed prehend its part in the great drama of social life. " from the Author.” Miss Edgeworth thanked the then unknown In private life, Miss Edgeworth was highly beloved and renovelist, through Mr. Ballantyne, for the gift. Mr. Ballantyne's spected by all who knew her; and in her intercourse with society, reply, written at Scott's request, has been preserved in Lockharts || she is described as having been most unaffected and agreeable. life of Sir Walter. It is dated 11th November, 1914; and, after She was born about the year 1766, and must, therefore, have expressing how very elevated was the admiration entertained by been about eighty-three years of age at the time of her death. the Author of "Waverley" for the genius of Miss Edgeworth, the following remark of Sir Walter is quoted, to show the in- LIEUT. GENERAL SIR JASPER NICOLLS, K.C.B. fluence which her writings bad on his miad:-"If I could but
At Goodrest Lodge, his seat near Reading, on the 4th May, hit,” he often remarked, “Miss Edgeworth's wonderful power of Lieut. General Sir Jaspar Nicolls, K.C.B. He eutered the vivifying all her persons, and making them live as beings in your
army as ensign in the 45th foot, in 1793. He commanded a mind, I should not be afraid.” Sir Walter himself frequently company ander Lord Lake in the Mahratta war, and was present corresponded with Miss Edgeworth. In a letter to her from him, || at the battle of Argaum, and at the siege and storming of Gawildated 24th April, 1822, he thus gives his opinion of one of herghur. In 1805, Major Nicolls joined Lord Cathcart's army in tales of fashionable life, which had excited some sensation at the
IIanover. In the following year, he proceeded with the expeditine of its publication:-“You have never got half the praise ||tion under General Crawford to South America, and distinguished
Vivian'ought to have procured you. The reason is, that the himself at the assault on Buenos Ayres, in July, 1807. In class from which the excellent portrait was drawn feel the resem
| 1808, he embarked for Spain, and for his services as lieutenantblance too painfully to thank the author for it; and I do not
colouel in command of the 20 battalion of the 14th Foot at the believe the common readers understand it in the least. I, who
battle of Corunna, in January, 1809, he received a medal. Soon (thank God) am neither great man nor politician, have lived after, he accompanied the expedition to Walcheren. Subsequently, enough among them to recognise the truth and nature of the he served many years in the East Indies, and during the Nepal painting, and am no way implicated in the satire.”
war he commanded the force which conquered the province of Ku. In 1923, Miss Edgeworth visited Edinburgh with two of her mawn in April, 1815. He afterwards commanded a brigade in sisters, llarriet and Sophia. After spending a few weeks in the the l'indarree war. At the siege of Blurtpore, in 1825, MajorScottish capital, and making a tour into the Highlands, they | General Nicolls commanded the 2 Infantry division, which diviproceeded to Abbotsford, on a visit to Sir Walter Scott, with sion carried the left breach, January 18, 1826. For this eminent whom they remained a fortnight. Mr. Lockhart says, “The service he was the same year nominated a Knight Commander of next month-August, 1823——was one of the happiest in Scott's the Bath. In 1833, he became colonel of the 93d foot. In life. Never did I see a brighter day at Abbotsford than that on 1810, he was removed to the coloneley of the 38th Foot, and in which Miss Edgeworth first arrived there ; never can I forget 1843, to that of the 5th Fusiliers. He was commander-in-chief her look and accent when she was received by him at his arch- in the East Indies from 1839 to 1843, and hold the local rank way, and exclaimed, 'Everything about you is exactly what one of general there. ought to have had wit enough to dream! The weather was beautisul, and the edifice, and its appurtenances, were all but complete ;
GENERAL SIR ROBERT WILSON. and day after day, so long as she could remain, her host had At London, on the 9th May, General Sir ROBERT THOMAS always some new plan of gaiety. One day there was fishing on Wilson, late Governor of Gibraltar, in his seventy-third year. the Cauldshields Loch, and a dinner on the heatlıy bauk. Another, || He was the son of Benjamin Wilson, Esq., an eminent painter, the whole party feasted by Thomas the Rhymer's Waterfall in and was born in 1777. He married the daughter of Colonel the glen ; and the stone on which Maria that day sat was ever Bedford. In the last war he distinguished himself by his ser. afterwards called Edgeworth's stone." The following is Sir Wal- vices. In 1794 he joined the army of the Duke of York in ter's description of her, in a letter to Joanna Baillie :-“We saw, Flanders, as a volunteer. Soon after he obtained a coronetey in you will readily suppose, a great deal of Miss Edgeworth, and the 15th Dragoons; and on the 24th April of the same year, he two very nice girls, her younger sisters. It is scarcely possible was one of the eight officers who, with a detachment of dragoons, to say more of this very remarkable person, than that she not only saved the Emperor of Germany from the French cavalry, for completely answered, but exceeded, the expectations which I had which he was created a Knight of the Order of Maria Theresa. formed. I am particularly pleased with the naïreté and good-In 1799 he served in Ilolland, and in 1801 in Egypt. He was humoured ardour of mind which she unites with such formidable at the capture of the Cape of Good Hope. In 1806, he accompowers of acute observation. In external appearance she is quite panied Lord Ilutchinson to the continent on a secret mission, the fairy of our nursery tale, “the Whippity Stowrie,' if you re- and was eminently distinguished at the battle of Barros. He member such a sprite, who came flying through the window to raised and organised the Lusitanian Legion, with which corps he work all sorts of marvels. I will never believe but what she rendered essential service to our army in the Peninsular war. Ho has a wand in her pocket, and pulls it out to conjure a little was subsequently the British Commissioner with the Russian before she begins to those very striking pictures of manners." army during Napoleon's campaign of 1812; and it was he who