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Prince Rupert was busy even during the short period || fore the age in which he lived, and died for the present, when others rested. He entered the rich vale of and for ages yet to come. He is one of the noblest exAylesbury, seized the town, and intercepted the com-|| amples of the good hearts, the sound heads, and the munications of Essex with the metropolis. A brigade strong arms, that England even still combines in many of Parliamentarians were sent to attack him, under of her yeomen. Educated in a better school than his Balfour and Charles Pym. Rupert waited not their as- || antagonist, and actuated more unremittingly by high sault, but became the assailant. The brook over which and purer principles than the Prince, Hampden lived his men had to charge was swollen, and the ford was and died without the errors that undoubtedly were comnarrow. His cavalry may have been slightly disordered | mitted by Rupert. The Buckingham Squire knew in the passage, and truth requires the historian to say more of these things than the young Palatine; and few that Rupert and his men were defeated, but a latent men in England have ever more thoroughly acted out prejudice for his hero compels him to write it, "forced || in life the theory of Puritan principles than Hampden; back across the ford,” and with their little garrison of || but we believe that their public principles approached Aylesbury, retired upon Thame. The Prince marched each other closely. Prince Rupert would not willingly to Maidenhead, and from that to Windsor. He seized || have lent his arm and his skill in war to subdue a nation's the town, and attempted to take the castle, but was freedom. He wanted to promote the liberty of the subnot successful. He then marched to Kingston, and ject and the security of the crown; and so, doubtless, did fought with the trainbands there, but did not beat | Hampden most sincerely,until the Kingabandoned constithem. He entered the small town of Colebrook, with-tutional measures, and sought to rule England and Scot out opposition, and continuing to urge the King on to land as an arbitrary monarch. Prince Rupert was a zeaLondon, the Royal army, on the 3d November, left lous Protestant, inclining to the Calvinistic views of his Oxford, and on the 4th occupied Reading. Long ne- || father, and his noble mother, Queen Margaret; and gociations occurred for a peace at this time, which had so he inust have sought the promotion of religious freewell nigh come to a favourable conclusion, when the dom, which John Hampden died to vindicate. RelaRoyalist army, gradually approaching London, Princetionship blinded Prince Rupert to the insincerity of Rupert made a dash at Brentford, and after a severe his uncle, and in part, probably, to the crimes of his struggle, in which the defenders cast up temporary cousins; but we have admitted that Hampden was barricades for their protection, he drove them out, and the wiser and more prudent man hile asserting cersecured that town for the King. The Parliamentary | tain wonderfully close points of resemblance in the army and the London train-bands were then drawn upcharacter of these opposite leaders. on Turnham Green, to resist the entrance of the Royal Two hundred years have passed away; but even at army, but the King or his officers considered the enemy | the period of whiclı we write both parties appealed to too strong, and retired, abandoning Brentford. The the press-—both fought with types. The King could King retreated by Hounslow, Hampton Court, to Oat. || write well, and liked the exercise. His partisans lands, and thence to Reading, where he remained for numbered men of considerable ability, who sustained some time, before proceeding to his winter quarters in the war of pamphlets; and on the 1st Jannuary, 1613, Oxford. So the campaign, with the exception of a the first number of the Court Mercury was published few skirmishes, was ended. We regret that Mr. War- in Oxford by Dr. Heylin. burton is obliged to make a bad account of the doings The most decisive actions of January occurred in of the poet warriors on either side. The sons of the West of England, where the Royalist leaders were genius seem to have fought badly. He says :- completely successful. Early in February the Mar

“ Fainham Castle was taken by Sir William Waller, after an quis of Hertford and Prince Rupert took Cirencester, indifferent defence by Sir John Denham ; Colonel Fane, a son of after a sharp fight, and many prisoners, amounting to the Earlof Westmoreland, being almost the only person slain. Den- between eleven and twelve hundred, with a quantity of ham was a poet and a wit, but, to confess the truth, the poets || artillery, were captured. did not appear to advantage in this war, even in a Tyrtaan point of view. Edmund Waller proved both a trimmer and a coward ;

At this juncture, the citizens of London again enSir John Suckling a poltroon ; Denham no better ; Will Dave- || deavoured to obtain peace, and even petitioned the nant was dissipated and negligent; and the great Milton conde- King to return to his capital; but in their petition scended to write the most rancorous and unworthy lampoons." they embodied the request for the dismemberment of

The payment of a large army feli heavy on the ex- || his army. We do not think Mr. Warburton accurate hausted finances of the King, but Prince Rupert contrived or happy in his estimate of what might have been the so that the forage of his cavalry should be paid for by the result of the King's concession to this petition. He enemy. In this respect he was a consunimate leader, and says :-greatly feared in the Republican counties, from whom

“If Charles, with the spirit of his ancient race, could hate le levied the materials of war, and kept them in a state then appeared before the people, protected but by their instincof perpetual insecurity by his rapid rails. The winter cive reverence and loyalty, and exclaimed, 'My people

, I will be passed in a succession of skirmishes, in which the name

your leader !' he would, doubtless, liave been received with enof Rupert, dreaded by the Republicans, as in those days the meshes of parliamentary power would have entangled

thusiasm; but, before night, his brief power would have vanished; that of Hampden was by the Royalists,occurs frequently. I him with inextricable folds; and oue by one he would have These two great enemies on the field exhibit, in seen all that was dear to him, all that he could depend on, led different circumstances, a remarkable resemblance. to the block, that still reeked with Strafford's lawless slaughter." They carried themselves through this difficult period If the King had gone to London without an armed with the same dauntless chivalry. Of the two, the force, had thrown himself upon the people in the first commoner Hampden was, doubtless, the more prudent instance, and then had acted insincerely, the result man. He stands out in our English history a patriot might have been as the author supposes; but if Charles without reproach, stain, or suspicion. He thought be. had been frank with his people, and had acted the part of a constitutional king, from that time forward, he || in that case, doubtless, the “sailor" Batten would have might have died on the throne of England. It was sent a party of his men to seize the Queen without firnot the King's nature to be frank and sincere with his ing on her; but the Duke of Newcastle had sent a people. His father implanted arbitrary principles in thousand cavaliers to guard her, and to cover the landhis mind; his friends fostered them; his Queen urged | ing of military stores, arms, and money, so that the their growth; his religious adviser, Laud, added the Vice-Admiral, in firing on the party, merely pursued the sanction of faith to the errors of the mind; and so tactics of an uncourteous civil war. Charles was habitually insincere—aProtestani-- Jesuit, The Queen marched to York. Sad events now and a king. Prince Rupert, like other warriors of the marked the progress of the war on either side: Lichtime, deemed it necessary to issue a defence of his field surrendered to Lord Brook, “whose fanatical conduct through the press; and it is one of the most spirit,” says Warburton, spirited documents in the collection of letters brought “Was strongly moved at the sight of the noble cathedral; and, together in these volumes. We believe his declaration with all the prelatie associations and sacerdotal attributes that it was true. “I think there is none that take me for a conjured up, his forces marched to the assault, singing the

149th Psalmcoward, for sure I fear not the face of any man alive; yet

To execute on them the doomi I shall repute it the greatest victory in the world to

That written was before,' &c. see his Majesty enter London in peace, without shed- Their gans thundered a refrain, and the town-gates burst open ding one drop of blood.” In this document Prince to the psalm-singers.” Rupert asks, regarding the King, "what a gracious sup- The cathedral was, however, defended by Lord porter hath he been in particular to the Queen of Bo-Chesterfield and a number of gentlemen; and of the hemia, (my virtuous royal mother!)” And the answer | position and the defence, this author says :to his statement, and to this question particularly, shows “ Nature and art had made the position strong, and sentiment, the progress that the Puritan writers had then made more powerful than either, might have rendered it impregnable. in asserting the people's rights, and the source from The defenders fought in the presence of their countrywomen, aa

der the very shadow of their ancient church. They had nof which the money of kings was derived:

even the poor excuse of want to enervate their courage : herds « The people's goodness alone made them give to the Queen of cattle, and provisions of all sorts, had been accumulated there of Bohemia so many great and free contributions, and now you for safety. But Lord Chesterfield was not capable of turning have not only taken away their wills but their means, of ever either his moral or physical resources to account: the place was doing the like; having brought us to so wretched a condition that almost tamely yielded, on the craven conditions of mere quarter. we shall never hereafter have leisure to pity her, but rather con- * Thereby,' says Lord Clarendon, sarcastically, 'many persons besider her as the mother of our calamities."

came prisoners, of too good quality to have their names rememThe voyage of the Queen from Holland was unpro- bered. ” sperous. A terrible storm arose in the channel; and Lichfield cathedral was dearly purchased, for it is * the little fleet was beaten back,” but her Majesty | immediately added :comforted the seamen by assuring them that the “ This siege is memorable for the death of Lord Brook, one "Queens of England were never drowned ;' and she of the few heroic leaders the Parliamentary party had produced. was amused by the confessions of her officers, who He was a man without vices, but his errors were so vehement as shouted aloud their most secret sins into the pre-occu

to be crimes-nevertheless, he was a high-spirited, gallant man ;

faithful to the cause in which he faithfully believed the truth to pied ears of the sea-sick priests; proclaiming more

rest. On the morning of his death he had prayed with and gossip secrets in a few minutes of despair than would preached to his troops, as was his custom: he intended an assault naturally have transpired in as many years;" but the upon the temple of popery and superstition, which, in his imapeople of England could not be blamed for suspecting

gination, stood there before him, and 'he sought a sign from the Protestantism of a king whose queen was sur

heaven in approbation of his intent.' He stood by one of his

guns, and raised the visor of his helmet to examine the point of rounded with so many Roman Catholics, and the old

attack; at that moment 'dumb Dyot's ' bullet pierced his brain, gentlemen of England who professed that faith were and he fell dead.” equally blameless in anticipating some advantage to

The death of Lord Brook, followed immediately aftertheir principles, from these circumstances, which served

wards by that of Lord Northampton, in the fight of to strengthen the Royal cause in Ireland. The Queen

Strafford, affords another instance of Mr. Warburton's at last made good the passage, and landed in Burling

partiality. Both were equally brave, and probably ton Bay, on the 20th of February, where she was joined

equally sincere in their principles ; but as a man Lord by a large body of the Northern cavaliers, and by the Marquis of Montrose, who was now fairly committed

Brook stood higher than Lord Northampton; for en

thusiasm is better than vice :to the Royalist cause, and had abandoned covenanting. Mr. Warburton omits not a fling at the Parliamentary

“The Roundhead horse was utterly broken by the first charge; leaders when it can be conveniently obtained with the Earl hastily re-formed his tine, and charged again ; carried out damaging his character for impartiality. And he || in struggling over the broken ground, the Earl's horse fell

, and says :

his furious men swept on, unconscious of their leader's Deed; “Van Tromp watched over his charge, but at a distance, on before he could rise, the enemy gathered round him; their colonel account of the size of the ship ; while the Parliamentary Vice- fell by the Earl's hand : at the same time the butt-end of a mus. Admiral ran close in shore on the night of the 22d, and at day. | ket knocked off his own helmet, and left him exposed to a score light on the following morning, he opened fire on the house where of buugry weapons ; yet he was offered quarter, as he still bravely the Queen was sleeping. She retired, with some risk, ont of the and hopelessly fought on. I scorn your quarter,' he exelaimed, Roundheads' range, and Van Tromp soon obliged the only sailor, 1)" base rogues and rebels as ye are!' At the same moment he perhaps, who ever fired at a woman, to retire."

was strack down from behind, and fell dead, but unconquerech Mr. Warburton must surely see that more than the amongst lvis enemies : they liad scarcely time to carry off his

body before his victorious horse returned to seek their leader. woman was in the house. The woman was not alone, It was a mournful battle they had won: the gallant voice that and was uot even in company of her ordinary suite; for had so lovg led them on to victory was now silent; bis son,


Under any

Lord Compton, had been wounded and carriell off the field, and || father-in-law's house, at Pyrton. There he had in youth married Byron was also hors de combat. The Cavaliers buried their dead, the first wife of his love, and thither he would have gone to die.' collected their trophies, guns, ammunition, and personal spoil, But Rupert's fierce squadrons were now scattered over the plain, and retired, as if defeated, into Strafford. A 'trumpet' was sent doing fearful execution on the fugitives, and the wounded patriot to ask for their leader’s body; but Sir John Gell refused to take was forced to turn back towards Thame. At length he reached less in exchange for it than all the spoil and prisoners that had the house of one Ezekiel Browne, where his wounds were dressed, been captured. The young Lord Northampton then besonght and some hopes of life were held out to him. He knew better, leave for his surgeon to embalm the body, that he might give it He felt life's task was done, and he passed his remaining hours burial among his ancestors in better times: but this, too, was in 'writing to Parliament the counsels he could no longer speak. refused.

After six days of cruel suffering, he died, having received the “No braver, truer, or more chivalrous nobleman followed the sacrament from a minister of the Church of England. His last King's standard than he who was lost this day. He was one words were, O Lord ! save my country! O Lord! be merciful whom trial had ennobled and redeemed 'from the luxury and

-!' His utterance failed; he fell back, and died. license of the time, which was then thought necessary to great He was followed to his grave amongst his native hills and woods fortunes. But, from the beginning of the war, as if he had been of the Chiltern by all the troops that could be gathered for that awakened out of a lethargy,' he became self-denying, patient of sad duty; and so he was committed to the dust as beseemed a hardship, prodigal of his wealth, ease, and life. With him fell gallant soldier." Captains Middleton, Bagot, Biddulph, and Spencer Lucy, son and heir to Sir Thomas Lncy, of Shakespearean memory.”

Hampden's death was deemed a royalist triumph at An impartial historian would find no reason for the hour. It became the bitterest sorrow that the praising Lord Northampton and blaming Lord Brook || King had known, for it opened up the path of his for their respective parts in this war.

Both were

kinsman, Cromwell, to power; and it may have chafed

that great leader's heart, and rendered more in. honest defenders of their principles—honest enthusiasts, or fanatics , if Mr. Warburton likes that word || circumstances, had Hampden lived, Cromwell would

tense his animosity at the Cavaliers. best ; but the fanaticism of Northampton led him along | not have enjoyed the power that he possessed, and the with his friends, while that of Brook induced him to King would not have perished on the scaffold

. abandon the majority of his aristocratic acquaintances - to take his stand with the common people, and on

The Queen joined the King on the battle-field of the grounds of civil freedom and religious liberty and || Edgehill in July, and Warburton holds that this meettruth. Why, therefore

, should the fanaticism of Brook | ing was worse for the Royalist cause than the previous be deemed a crime, and that of Northampton a virtue ? | meeting on the same ground between Charles and The winter closed rather favourably for the Royalist | 26th of July, after great loss of men and officers, he

Essex. Prince Rupert was never idle ; and on the forces, and at the end of March, 1643, Prince Rupert set out from Oxford to York, in order to captured Bristol

. The King's cause was everywhere

victorious. Fairfax had been defeated at Adderton bring back the queen. He attacked, stormed, and entered Birmingham, after a smart fight on the Moor

, and Bristol was taken ; but Cromwell appeared way. Upon being joined at Strafford by Hastings and as an independent leader, and defeated a Cavalier

|| August to Lord Northampton he attacked Lichfield, and after losing a number of men, and many precious days, re

September was lost to the King's army, in the captured the cathedral; and fron that he was recalled / west, by bis determination to capture Gloucester, to Oxford, which Essex threatened. Rupert arrived for a number of days, the king gained a good

in which he was not successful. After maneuvering too late to save Reading, which had surrendered to || position between Essex and London, where even the Parliamentary army under Essex, The commander, Fielding, was sentenced to death by the Royalists ; and Rupert counselled “ passive resistance," but the wilful Esses, with his usual caution, declined to accept Hamp:|| battle of Newbury, from which the Parliamentary horse

monarch followed his own counsel, and fought the first den's advice, and march on Oxford—which at that made an early escape, while the London train bands time he might have taken, and thus crushed the King's || virtually defeated the King. The evening of the day party entirely. We need not follow Prince Rupert's career through || best of his nobles lay” round the King, “dead, upon

was sadder yet than that of Edgehill. the ceaseless skirmishes in which he was engaged. that fruitless field, with many a brave follower of lesser He was incessantly at work, and a better partisau chief

note." Falkland and the young Earl of Sunderland and cavalry leader never drew sword in any cause.

were dead on the field. The Earl of Carnarvon was We may, however, pause for a great event at “ Chal

run through the body,” and wounded mortally. He grove's celebrated fight.” Colonel Urry had deserted from the Parliamentary army to the King's forces; and; || and he answered, “ No; in an hour like this I have no

was asked if he had any request to prefer to the King; like any other traitor, he desired to commend himself to his new masters, by planning the discomfiture of|prayer, but to the king of Heaven.” his old friends. He endeavoured to surprise the Par.

The year 16t3 closed, and 1644 began darkly for liamentary army under Essex in their quarters, and he the Royal cause. The Scots entered England to aid succeeded. After narrating the circumstances of the Parliament on the 19th January of the latter year, Prince Rupert's attack on the Parliamentary cavalry, and they turned the balance of parties in the North. Mr. Warburton relates the great event of the day :

Rupert was despatched to oppose them. On the 21st " At the same time, O'Neale and Percy charged on either of the same month, the King's Parliament of sixty fank, and the Roundheads' route became general. Hampden peers and one hundred commoners met at Oxford. now came up from the enclosures about Wapsgrove House, and Overtures for peace passed between Essex and the endeavoured to check the Cavaliers, and give time to his com- | King, but now they were couched in colder terms than rades to rally; but he received his death-wound in his first charge; || before. On the 26th, the King's forces were beaten tro carbine balls struck him in the shouliler, broke the buric, and haried themselves in his body. His course was ran.

le at Nantwich by Fairfax and his army of Northerns. feebly turned his horse, and rode from the mclec towards his In February, the Scots army was before Newcastle.

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Twice Prince Rupert endeavoured to march to the “The Scots, after some demur, had marched into the interior, north, with fighting, skirmishes, and battles, wherever | Carlisle having been surrendered to them on honourable terms

by Sir Thomas Glenham. They had lately taken a strong castle he went, but he was always recalled to Oxford.

near Worcester by assault, putting every living thing within the Again, on his northern route, ou the 28th May, he

walls to the sword. Goring had been disgracefully beaten at stormed and took Bolton with great slaughter, after Lamport. Bridgewater was soon afterwards surrendered, and having relieved Latham House. He then marched on Hereford was besieged by the Scots." Liverpool—from thence to the relief of York and

Mr. Warburton's inconsistencies on this topic are Marston Moor. The Scots were on Marston Moor, || not very intelligible. He says, in one of his foot-notes, and the King had commanded Prince Rupert to crush || page 301, vol. III., in reference to Charles's surrender them effectually and especially. Mr. Warburton says, || by the Scots :that Prince Rupert neglected Cromwell and the Ironsides, because “his great object of enmity was the

“It is to be remembered, to the everlasting shame of these Scots. Them he had sworn to crush, and he kept his traitors, that Charles had ever shown the greatest indulgence to word.” With a numerically larger, far larger and he was sold.”

their nation, especially to those through whose instrumentality better appointed force, it was possible to keep his word, but he crushed his own cause most effectually.

How affairs of this kind can be remembered by those Warburton gives these same Scots barely justice in his who recollect the instructions from Charles to Rupert account of this battle. The object of Rupert's bio- | before Marston Moor, Mr. Warburton should explain

. grapher, like that of Rupert himself, is to crush them.

After Marston Moor, the Royal cause declined, until The following extract is not conceived in

it was annihilated next year at Naseby, where Prince

a generous spirit :

Rupert was again defeated. Thereafter he lost the

King's favour, by the surrender of Bristol, and left Rupert and his fiery chivalry were among the Covenanting the kingdom. Scots upon the left, bursting at once into the very heart of their fierce and solemn host, scattering them like spray before some

We take the following extracts respecting the close storm-driven ship, and plunging still onward to the front of their of the last and fatal fight of Naseby :reserve. One moment's pause-one more wild shout and charge

“All was over, except the slaughter. The enemy poured in --and his lifeguard are amongst them now. No pause—no

from every side ; all was abandoned to them; some regiments of mercy---scarcely resistance—is found among them there. The

infantry fought with desperate and hopeless valour to the last, but whole mass, pursuers and pursued, sweep by to yonder hill; the thundering hoofs, the ringing armour, the maddening shouts, | artillery, and even their women, behind them. The Paritans flew

the horse were already over the far hills, leaving their foot, their the quick, sharp, frequent shots, are scarcely heard.

upon these helpless victims with all the fury of fanaticism; three "Nor was Goring idle then ; it was at times like this that the

hundred were slain, and most of the others' had their fair faces dauntless villain half-redeemed his vices by his valour. The Scottish foot falter before his daring charge ; his desperadoes are

cut and slashed with the 'godly in their hideous glee.'

* The whole of the King's infantry, in short, were slain or made up to their very pikes and with them now. The ground is car

prisoners. The cavalry, for the most part, reached Leicester peted with bloody tartans, as the Cavaliers press on through

in most disgraceful rout, and many of them fled on to Newark, their tumultuous ranks, and hew down the fugitives by scores.

thirty miles from the field of battle. Among the slain on the They are gone, and with them their pursuers; and two-thirds of

King's side were Sir Thomas Dallison, Sir Richard Care (our the field is won.”

correspondent), Sir Peter Brown, Colonel Thomas, and about one

hundred and fifty other gentlemen. So there is an end of the Scots. Only Warburton

“ The pursuit was carried hotly on for fourteen miles, almost might have known that "the tartans of Scotland

the whole way to Leicester. Nearly half the royal army--fire fought for the Stewarts—and not against them. Let thousand men--were slain or taken prisoners.' us hear a little further :

“ The Roundheads had the most complete victory that they

could desire. Yet ‘nothing,' as the Parliament writers affirm, “But the battle rages still fiercely on the centre of the Royal | could equal the gallantry of the Cavaliers, except their want of line, now assailed by the left wing of the enemy; there Briton liscipline.' The Roundheads, dogged and stern, rallied slowly meets Briton, hand to hand and foot to foot; every pike is but firmly. After every defeat or triumph, the Cavaliers scarcely thrust home, and every musket levelled low, and the very aii ever could be brought to a second formation-scarcely even when seems all on fire; and the ear is deafened with the roaring of their King called upon them in accents of despair to make one united artillery ; and the shouts, and shrieks, and curses of conquering || effort for his dying cause. or dying men. Lesley now comes galloping up with his reserve “The royal standard was taken, the Queen’s white colours, the of horse, and falls upon the masses smitten by Cromwell's furious two Palatine princes', and the Duke of York's colours, all were horse. The Irish horse are slain, or prisoners to a man," &c. captured, together with the colours of every infantry regiment on

the field. All the bag and baggage, too, belonging to the Cara The Scots, we suppose, are not meant to be Britons, liers, with all their wealth, were seized. The heaviest loss of all and Warburton forgets that Lesley was the Scottish was the king's cabinet of letters, containing his private corresgeneral, and the force under his command were his pondence with the queen and others, who were but too much in

ais confidence. own countrymen. The carpet of bloody tartans was well avenged. “The Irish horse were slain, or pri- || heads, and commented upon before an assembly of citizens in

“These papers were immediately read in public by the Roundsoners to a man.” “The Marquis of Newcastle's Guildhall. The Parliament deduced from them that the King brave yeomen were cut dowu to thirty men.” Finally, I had never sincerely desired a treaty; that his insincerity was in"Prince Rupert, deserted by his regiment, still strove corrigible ; that it was vain to seek for peace with one whom no

Jaths could bind." to rally a few deserted followers, but in vain." He was defeated by an inferior force, in endeavouring to Prince Rupert's career was most romantic. He was obey the King's command “ to crush the Scots espell born in Prague, where his parents were the sovereigns cially and effectually."

of the new Protestant kingdom of Bavaria. When Such passages explain the antipathy of the Scots to be was only a few months old, they were driven from a king who hated, deceived, betrayed, and persecuted their capital and kingdom, and shut out of their herethem, and explain such a passage as that at page 115 || ditary dominions by the power of Austria. Dependent of the third volume,

partly on the bounty of Holland, he first drew his


sword in the Dutch service. In a struggle to regain || fleet, the last enemy who have entered in hostile array for his elder brother the Palatinate, he lost all but the noble Thames; and his last battles were on the honour, and was for years a prisoner in an Austrian sea with the Dutch, stiff and stubborn fights as fort. On his release, he joined the service of his uncle, the Dutch have always made. His last action was Charles I., in the civil war. His fortunes were fought with the Dutch upon the 11th August, 1673. varied; but his gallantry and impetuosity never failed. The navy then was no better managed than now,

and When he left England, froin the intrigues in the the Prince complained in terms equal to those used beaten Court, and his conviction that the cause yet by Sir Charles Napier. After this date he confined was hopeless, he entered the service of France, || himself to his duties as a member of the Board of and fought in its army for a time. On the exe-Trade, and Governor of the Hudson Bay Company. cution of Charles I., he fitted out a small fleet, His youngest sister, Sophia, married the Elector of nominally in the service of his cousin, Charles II., | Hanover, and from her the present royal family are whom he described as King of England, and acted as descended. Queen Victoria is thus a direct descendant a buccaneer. His naval voyages and exploits in the of “the Pearl of Britain,” the noble, beautiful, and southern seas, on the coast of Africa, and wherever he unfortunate Queen Margaret of Prague and Bohemia ; thought a spoil might be driven, occupy a large space and, in tlie same line, necessarily, of Queen Margaret's in Mr. Warburton's third volume. The Prince ap- 1 grandmother, Mary Queen of Scots. Prince Rupert's pears not to have been very particular regarding the children were illegitimate, for he was never married. enemies with whom he met, or the traders whose pro- His daughter, Rupertá, married General Howe; and perty he seized. Moors, Portuguese, Spaniards, and her descendant, Sir Robert Bronnley, of Stoke Park, especially the Parliamentary English, came all at times and his family, are thus related to her Majesty, though within the range of his commission. He was an ad- now scarcely in a degree that can be “counted.” venturous, and, we fear, rather an unscrupulous Paul Prince Rupert closed a stormy life on the 29th of Jones—a privateer on a great scale ; but from one | November, 1982, at his house, in Spring Gardens, in mishap and another, he saved little out of his adven his sixty-third year—having outlived nearly all his old tures, and that little appears chiefly to have been ab- companions, and opponents in arms, to die at last in sorbed by his volatile cousin, the King, whom War- | peace. burton has described as one of the most worthless Mr. Warburton's volumes display, by innumerable of men.” At the restoration, Prince Rupert returned || foot-notes, much research. The narrative is, we to England, and occupied himself chiefly with chemical think, overrun with these notes, and the attention pursuits. He had made considerable attainments in of the reader drawn from its current to topics and science, and the art of mezzotinto is, with apparent truth, || proofs, many of which might safely have been woven ascribed to him as its discoverer. Many other curious into the text. The style is often extremely beautiful, chemical and philosophical inquiries were prosecuted although we yet prefer the author's first work, “The by the Prince, who varied his command of the fleet Crescent and the Cross,” in that particular. Mr. Warwith exercises in his laboratory, and intrigues. Heburton, we believe, has endeavoured to be impartial, and was a painter, a mathematician, a chemist; he joined perhaps has set down all his statements with the smallest various mechanical speculations; he had been a general taint of prejudice that the tale admits, though the of cavalry, a commander of the forces, a buccaneer, and dark stain of the partizan's pen is drawn over many an an Admiral of England. He repelled the Dutch llotherwise fair page,


(Continued from page 382.)

We have now to prove that no system possessed of the || bility of finding it in them than in any of the polytheinfallible mark, indicated in our former article, has ever istic creeds; and, accordingly, to these, in the first place, been, and, from the principles of human nature, as made we addressed ourselves. The sacred writings of India, known in the history of our race, and by the testimony | the politico-religious treaties of China, the fragments of our own familiar experience, that no such system of Egyptian, Grecian, and Roman theology were next can ever be, fabricated by the unaided intelligence of canvassed, but in none of them did we encounter any

From the nature and effects of our principle, as thing like a clear unequivocal enunciation of our prinalready described, it will be observed that we are fur- | ciple; and in all of them, as well the leading dogmas nished with two ways of discovering it in a body of as the subordinate characters, there was no discernible religious truth. We may either study the system per trace of its influence. A few obscure hints, indeed, se, or simply examine its results. Both of these we were found here and there scattered throughout the have adopted. From the prominence given to the doctrine of divine unity in the montheistic systems of Zo-|| University of Glasgow. The work has become exceedingly scarce; roaster and Mohammed, as contained in the Zenda- only two copies, so far as we know, can be got in Scotland--one Vesta and the Koran,* there seemed a greater proba- || in St. Andrew's, and the other in Glasgow. In the library of the


latter there is an admirable translation in German. The whole * The edition of the Zenda-Vesta we have consulted is the work is at present being translated de novo by an eminent French French translation, executed by M. Anquetil du Perron, in the !| savant.

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