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more petty nationalities, to destroy all harmony and (y and Murray's History of African Discoveries, ought to kindly feeling among them; So, however, it was. Not be perused or consulted by those who would extract having read the journals of the Frenchmen, we cannot useful information from the expedition up the White decide to what extent their minds were possessed by Nile. small jealousy; but Werne profusely supplics the mate- As we have already remarked, however, our object rials for his own condemnation, since the suspicions he is not only that information which is called uselul. experienced could never, by any possibility, have found What we chiefly look at is the amusing part of the their Way, into a generous breast.

affair, and if this happen at the same time to be useStill, we are far from wishing, by thcsc remarks, to ful, so much the better. We shall, according to the old excite a prejudice against our German traveller whose proverb, " kill two birds with one stone,” very much work is, in many parts, amusing, besides being re- to our honour, of course. The reader who accompanies plete with useful information. Mohamed Ali's French us must not suffer himself to be misled by the preface agents have generally belonged to an extremely equi- l written by Professor Ritter, which states, in so many Focal class of men, and, in all likelihood, Arnaud, Sa- words, that Werne discovered the sources of the White batie, and Thibaut, were no better, morally speaking, Nile. This was a grievous mistake. At the furthest than those wandering Jarist Surianares, whom we our- point reached by the expedition, the Nile was still a selves more than once encountered in Egypt. But large stream, flowing, indeed, among rocks, through a Werne himself ranges evidently in the same category, half-choked and dangerous channel, hut, nevertheless, with the exception of one fine trait-the love of his presenting the appearance of a river which had flowed brother. There is little in the published collection of through many degrees of latitude, and received the his sentiments to impress us with a high idea of his | contributions of many a tributary. But this is anticiethical or intellectual idiosyncracy. With useful or pating; let us return to Khartum, and inforın ourselves enlarged knowledge he is not overburdened--not even respecting the organization of the expedition, as well with that knowledge of antiquity which is so cheap in as the motives which led to it. The little fleet conGerman universities. His chief recommendation is his sisted of four dahabies from Kahura, vessels with two animal spirits, and the patience with which he studied | masts, and cabins, about one hundred fect long, and from the points of the compass throughout the whole con- twelve to fifteen feet broad, each with two cannon. tinuance of the expedition. During almost every hour Three dababies from Khartum, one of which had two of the day we are able to determine whether he sails cannon, then two kaiass (ships of burthen with one south-east or south-south-west, or made a return bend mast), and a sandal (skift), for communication. The northward. This minuteness is useful, as it enables us crews were composed of two hundred and fifty soldiers, to comprehend the course of the river ; but had it en-Negroes, Egyptians, and Syrians ; and one hundred and tered into the plan of the officers employed by the twenty sailors and mariners from Alexandria, Nubia, Pasha to have landed more frequently, distributed more and the land of Sudan. beads, and thus purchased liberty to make more excur- It must not be supposed, whaterer Mahomed Ali's şions, our acquaintance with that part of Africa would friends in Europe may pretend to the contrary, that he have been considerably more familiar than it is. was actuated on this occasion by any desire to further

Some of our readers will probably have waded through the cause of science. The impulse came from a very that strange old African traveller, Leo Africauus, who different quarter. He had beheld small quantities of penetrated from the southern shore of the Mediterra- | virgin gold brought down to Egypt in quills and horns nean to Timbuctoo, and then made his way to Egypt of the gazelle, just as it had been collected from the through those little-known countries lying to the north- || beds of the streams; and he persuaded himself that by est and north of the White Nile. During this pro- || taking possession of the countries where this precious tracted and perilous journey, he observed the manners metal was found, he should at once enrich his treasury, and customs of several tribes and nations, of which no and extend indefinitely the borders of his empire. He other writer has, perhaps, given any account. But the thought also, and in this instance wisely, that by opening plan of his work is imperfect, and his style of descrip-up commercial intercourse with the interior, he should tion so incomplete, that we can merely be said to awaken the industry of the blacks, and thus enrich his obtain indistinct glimpses of the people whom he un- own proper subjects, through whose hands a large dertakes to introduce to us. Yet it happens that he portion of the produce of Africa might be made to pass, speaks of many customs and peculiarities, traces of on its way to the markets of the civilized world. which are still found on the banks of the white stream. In making this statement, we have no desire to throw There, consequently, society may be supposed to be any unnecessary discredit on the old Pasha's policy, stationary ; so that, if we could obtain a correct pic- / which, after all, was quite as enlightened as that of ture of it five håndred years ago, it would still be as most European Governments, when they send out exaccurate as ever.

Leo's opportunities for observation | peditions of discovery. There is always a mixture of Were infinitely more numerous and favourable than the thirst of gain with the thirst of glory; and, consider. those of Werne, because he travelled as a Moslem | ing that the very object of their existence is to promote among Moslems, and at a time, too, when the Moham- | the prosperity of mankind, in which they are too often medan creed was regarded with far more reverence than | far from being successful, we need not convert their at present. In point of language, too, the advantages passion for wealth into a very serious charge against were all on his side, because, travelling with men en

them. Mohamed Ali's misfortune was, to be comgaged in commerce, he was sure to enjoy the aid of pelled to employ, in nearly all his undertakings, agents the best interpreters which the age could supply. This and instruments the most questionable. His own subold work, therefore, with M'Queen's volume on the jects were too ignorant to be able to carry out his geography of Africa, Heeran's Historical Researches, vicws, and his European coadjutors were, for the most

2 N

VOL. XVI.NO, CLXXXVII.

was,

com

part, too dishonest and too selfish, to think of anything “However, these gloomy impressions could not last long, the but their own immediate profit. This fact in some sort

scene around was too picturesque, too pecnliar, too exciting. On

the left the flat extended land of Sennaar was gently clothed constitutes the Pasha's apology, and certainly affords an ample explanation of the want of success which has // again with copsewood and trees

, and on its flooded borders rose

strong and vigorous mimosas out of the water, high above the attended nearly all his enterprises, whether for conquest | low bushes of trebeck and kitter. In the same manner the left or for the advancement of commerce and industry.

shore was wooded, from which we were at a tolerable distance, Every one who has resided in the East will admit

owing to the north east-wind. Behind its girdle of consewood

and trecs, reaching just as far as the waves of the majestic streare, that the greatest drawback on his happiness was the

in their annual overllow, give their fertilizing moistare to the consciousness of the extraordinary uncertainty of life. soil, the bare, stony desert extends upwards, as it shows itselí at Though devoted to the gratifications of their senses, || Omdurman

, in profound and silent tranquillity. So much the more and therefore, it may be inferred, desirous of prolong animated and cheerful was it on the river. ing their existence, the Orientals, generally, seem,

The decks of the vessels, with their crowd of manifold figures, nevertheless, to be indifferent about their own lives and faces, and coloured skins, from the Aralian reis who plies the the lives of others. The poniard and ihe yatagan are

oar, to the ram, which he thinks of eating as the Paschal Lamb

—the towering lateen sails, with the yard-arms on which the long always in operation, and poison circulates with fearful streamers

, adorned with the crescent and star, wave before the activity. Every street and every palace has there its swollen sails--the large crimson flags at the stern of the vesse), as Marchioness of Brinvilliers. Professors of the art flock they iluttered lightly and merrily over the ever-extending together from all parts of the world, so that power, ships cruising to and from the limit fixed for to-day-everything

waters—the singing, mutual hails and finding again the ships the property, and handsome women pass from master to

at least for the moment, a picture of cheerful spiritual life, master with something like the rapidity of theatrical with the bold consciousness, strengthened by the thought of many representations. Werne celebrates a Sicilian poisoner a danger happily overcome. I looked beyond the inevitable oowho, under the name of Suliman Effendi, obtained cele- currences of a threatening future, to a triumphant ro-union with brity in the Upper Nile, and, indeed, throughont the my brother.” whole of the Turkish dominions. He is said to have dis From this point upwards, nearly all the tribes, patched thirty-three soldiers in order to throw discredit whether Arabs or Negroes, will be new to most readers, on a French apothecary; and his skill in the art reco and indeed, like the small sections of population in mended him ultimately to Alimed Pasha, who stood in India, these tribes lave little beyond their names to constant need of a physician of bold practice. No chief distinguish them from their neiglıbours. On both whom it was desired to remove from the scene could sides of the stream, several eminences present them. long withstand the medicines of Suliman Effendi. Youth, selves to the eye, and are known by the names of strength, and courage melted at his touch, and as he Sheikhs, or Saints, who have been interred on their laughingly consigned to the grave one victim after an- | slopes or summits. One trait in the Arab character other, he grew daily fatter and more jovial, and better connected with these holy men deserves to be comreconciled to his profession. At Ahmed Pasha's bid- || memorated, we mean a profound reverence for the dead ding he would unhesitatingly have blotted out a whole | which everywhere throughout the world distinguishes army from the face of creation. Such men are dear to the these races, who have been marked out by Providence Turks, whosc delight it is to live in the midst of plots, for greatness in arts or arms. It is very often the me. poisonings, and assassinations,

mory of the dead that forms the best part of a nation's In the midst of such associates, Werne set out with inheritance. The base forget those they love-if, inthe oxpedition from Khartum in the month of Novem- | decd, they can be said to love at all-as soon as the ber, 1840. His own position in the country he never carth closes over their remains ; but there is no feel properly explains, nor through what influence he ob-|| ing more powerful than the affection with which the tained permission to sail on board the fleet. He had noble and generous regard the dead, with whom they a brother however, a plıysician, in the service of Ma- || always seek to hold communion, by perpetually ra. homed Ali, and it was possible, out of compliment to newing the recollection of them, and hallowing particu. him, that Werne was so far favoured. His own ac. lar spots by the imposition of their names. Everywhere count of the departure of the expedition is as follows:- in the valley of the Nile you see, in picturesque and

Joy and pleasure reigned on board the vessels, and the fresh || beautiful nooks, the tombs of saints which by degrees air failed not also to have its beneficent effect upon me, for con- extend their appellation to the nearest mountain or tinual motion and variety are the principal condition in the South,

gorges.

It is the same on the banks of the White on which depend the good humour and feelings of internal life

. I River, where the graves of holy men impart a sanctity Thus the present expedition promised me pleasure and strengthi, and to enable me to make any ideas and thoughts speak lovingly || to certain places, which at some future day may renfrom my breast, without losing myself in a dreamy state of re- der them the nuclei of towns or cities. In this way, clining inactivity, and to permit me to see, observe, and com- as in so many others, religion becomes the parent of civi. pare a strange world with its insipid surrounding scenery

, with-lization, converting the virtues of the dead into a blessing out delaying writing my journal till the next morning. “But the prospect of attaining our aim, viz., of seeking and

to the living finding the sources even beyond the equator, appeared to me at Nothing is more remarkable, in a general survey of the beginning, from the constitution and composition of our cs- the races inhabiting the carth's surface, than the perpedition, to be doubtful. The vessels were to follow one another in two lines, one led by Suliman Kashef

, the other by Selim petual recurrence of similar habits and practices among Capitan, but already, when sailing into the white stream, this

tribes and clans separated from each other by the whole order was no longer thought of. Every one saileıl as well as he diameter of the globe. The Dyaks of Katamantan, could, and there was no trace to be discovered of nautical skill

, the Balkas of Sumatra, the North American Indians, unity of movement, or of an energetic direction of the whole and the most sccluded Africans of the interior, strikllow will it be when the spirits now so fresh shall relax, throug! | ingly resemble each other in several points of manners thie fatigues of the journey ---when dangers, which must infalliLily occur, shall arrive, and which only are to be met by a bold and arts of peace and war. The explanation is, no doubt, will, directed to a determined point!

to be found in the circumstances in which they all

and themselves placed, and in the instincts com- secured their young, playing before our feet, behind the high mon to the whole human species. The readers of branches, and darted round the corner, until another malignant Fennimore Cooper's novels will imagine themselves to ball reached them from behind, whereupon they let their young be in the vicinity of the Rocky Mountains while read- old ones, by running, climbing, and springing under her belly.

fall from their arms; but the little creatures clung firmly to the ing the following brief sketch of the Shilluks, the They live together in families of several hundreds, and their teradvance guard of Pagan Africa, where it is first | ritory is very limited even in the forest, as I myself subsequently brought in contact with the Moslem world:--"I heard | ascertained. Although they fear the water very much, and do that the Shilluks who dwell in these parts on the branches hanging over the stream, and often fell in, whereupon

not swim voluntarily, yet they always fled for security to the high river islands, and on both shores, but further up on

they, in spite of imminent danger, carefully wiped their faces, and the left only, display uncommon skill in their maraud- | tried to get the water out of their ears, before they climbed up ing expeditions. The Arabs say they crawl upon all- | into the trees. Such a republic of apes is really a droll sightfours as swiftly as a snakc, and rarely use force to ac

wooing, caressing, and combing each other, plundering, fighting, complish their robberies, but effect their purpose with and tugging one another by the ears ; and during all these imincredible cunning, a circumstance which agrees but ill here, however, they satisfy themselves with a hurried draught,

portant conceras, lastening every moment down to the river, with our preconceived idea of the qualifications of a in order that they may not be devoured by the crocodiles conrobber.” In the east, however (we will not speak ge- stantly keeping watel there. The monkeys on board our vessels, nerally of the southern lands), and, indeed, among the an

not being fastened, turned restless at the sight of the jolly free cient Greeks, craft was considered equally worthy of a life

, and at the clainour of their brethren in the trees.” man as open combat, if it led to the point aimed at. The From this primitive type of Cabet's Icaria, Werne Shilluks are said also to be compelled to use artifice digresses a little into the account of a particular monin this anterior part of their territory—which has ex- key on board the fieet, together with certain superstitended, according to the expression of the Barabras, uptions of the Mahommedans connected with these singuto the mouth of the White River-because their num-lar animals. Iu itself, the Koran is an unartistic work, ber has become very small by the advance of the Arab which few can read with patience who have not already tribes, with their horsemen clad in armour, and they filled their minds with the ideas and associations of the could effect nothing by open violence.

Oriental. But when you have travelled amongst the Whoever has read the journals of Sir James Brooke, Moslems, studied the Thousand and One Nights, and Rajah of Sarawak, will remember his piteous account of followed the course of eastern history, you learn to at. the chase of the Maias Papaus, or wild man of the woods. tach an extraordinary value to the Koran, and find it We dare not include that creature within the circle of suggestive of wonderful thoughts and imaginations. humanity, though it were, perhaps, well if we could, Let the reader conceive, if he can, the feelings with since we might then prevent the perpetration of an im- which a believer in the Arabic Prophet travels among meuse deal of cruelty. It is, in fact, a sort of dumh man, apes and monkeys and probably resembles exactly what a son of Adam

“The First Lientenant, Hussein Agn, of Kurdistan, lay would be without the use of speech. In Borneo, they alongside us, and had endless pleasure in his little monkey. build houses in the trecs, and where the forest is thick, He shouted over to me, "Shief! el nauti taisbo" (look, the pass from house to house on visits, displaying frequently the mast and the yard as though he were mad, ran down the

clever suilor), meaning his little favourite, who jumped about much more civility and refinement than the Dyaks who

ropes, looked into the water from the side of the ship, and then lise at the foot of the trees. They never, for example, take strayed from his master, till all of a sndden he clung to the back each other's heads and smoke them for ornaments for of a sailor who was carrying through the water a package of dirty their ceilings; but, on the contrary, live together in a linen to the wash; and before the latter could lay hold of hin, sort of social fraternity, exceedingly edifying to their made a bold spring ashore, to greet his relations, for he also beurs neighbours, the Sakamaus and Sacebers. The female

the name of obeleuk, although of a much smaller species. Ile has Papaus, in their extreme fondness for their little ones, | nishnash and lapuchim. The long Kurd, just as he was, jumped

been frequently carried from Seunaar to Watura, where he is called set a good example for women in many parts of the overhoard with his gun, to shoot the deserter, in favour of whom world; for even when wounded, and dșing, they will I quickly called out, “ Amahu!” The little chuckling sailor must

, seldom quit their hold, but spring faintly from trce to however, from being a Turkisla slave, and on account of his dimi

nutive figure, have met with an unwelcome reception, for no sooner tree, with their babies at their breast, till their life

had Ilussein Aga stepped under the trees, than the monkey again and love are extinguished together. Very similar are jumped on his head. IIe came to visit me afterwards, and bronght the manners of the republican apes described by his nauti taib with him, who ought to thank himself that I interWerne in a passage, which a few additional details ! ceded for him. Hussein told me then what I hnd often heard, would have rendered far more interesting. We copy that monkeys were formerly men, who were cursed by God. It it, however, as it stands:

really is said in the Koran that God and the Prophet David trans

formed into monkeys the Jews who did not keep holy the Sabbath “ The vessels not being able to reach the dry land, owing to the day. On this account, a good Moslem will seldom injure or kill shrubs and trees, I had myself carried through the water to the a monkey. Our Turks, however, were an exception to that rule, shore, in order to take a survey of the country, and to make a when they could, by infringing it, gain a few base piastres. So shooting excursion. I could not, however, make up my mind to likewise was Emir Beyin Jezulle on another occasion. use my gun, the only animals in the neighbourhood I could shoot “ The latter was sitting at table with an Italian, and just putbeing white-grey long tailed apes, called abeleuk, similar to the ting into his mouthi a piece of roast meat, held between the fingers crcopithecus subeus, but more silver grey, and for larger. I had and thumb, when a monkey of the cynocephalus (-Arabic, khan) shot such a one on a former occasion ; and the mortally wounded family snatched it hastily from hin. The Bey very quietly oranimal had, by his similarity to a human being, and his piteous dered the hand of Abu Douin (so called from his reddish-yellow cogestures, excited my compassion so much that I determined never lour, similar to the fruit of the Doum palm) to be cut off, as that to kill another. Mr. Arnaud, on the contrary, took a peculiar of a robber; which was done on the spot. The poor monkey came pleasure in watching the wounded monkeys which fell by his shot, immediately afterwards to his cruel master, and showed him, with because in the agonies of death the roof of their mouthis became the doleful accent peculiar to him, the bleeding stump of his foro white like that of a dying man. It was affecting to see how the paw, whereupon the Bey ordered him to be killed. The execumother apes precipitated themselves down from the trees, and | tion, however, was prevented by the Italian, why begged him as

a gift, for the purpose of healing him. I soon afterwards || though the original instincts of human nature are there possessed this foolish beast, who contributed as much to the

--selfishness, pride, the love of poinp, power, and disamusement necessary to me on the return voyage to Egypt as the filial attention of my freed-man ilagar, from Mount Basa, whom tinction, which are frequently displayed in the most gromy brother had received as a present, and bequeathed to me. My tesque manner. In costume, however, there is no servants would not believe but that the monkey was a transformed variety, since all go stark naked, so that a man is born Gabio (caravan guide), because he always preceded us, and on the with his wedding suit on, and is indebted to nature right road, even in the desert ; and availed himself of every stone alone for his shroud. But the love of tinery is not on and rock, to look about him, whereupon the birds of prey fre

The tricks quently drove him under the camels, to complain to me with his this account extirpated from the heart. schin schin. This complaint he also uttered when he had been which our ancestors played with their skins and combeaten, in my absence, by the people whose inerissa he had helped plexions, when the Romans first visited our island, are to drink, till he could not move from the spot, and committed all still practised by the people on the borders of the white sorts of misdemeanours."

stream, who paint their bodies with ochre of various As may be inferred from the above passage, much colours, so as at a distance to suggest the idea of a of the entertainment of the work is derived from Werne’s lace coat and black breeches. Tattooing, also, is facompanions in adventure, who were, of course, always miliarly known among them. They produce large arwith him, exposed to study and observation.

tificial scars on the sides of their heads, and on various Of the natives, on the other hand, though we discern parts of their bodies, and are exceedingly proud of this sufficient to be well assured that they belonged to one wild disfigurement. But among their ornaments noof the most interesting varieties of the human species, thing is so much prized as beads, for which they will we do not see nearly so much as we could desire. The sell almost anything—a man his wife, and a woman very nature of the ground on the banks of the White her child. Of the latter, Werne at least met with one Nile often rendered much familiarity impossible. The example, though he does not commemorate any instance travellers ascended through a broad expanse of water, of a black lord offering to dispose of his better half bordered on either side—first, by a margin of recds and for a necklace. Flocks and herds, however, were rushes, then by long strings of swamps, and next by valued as dear in the balance compared with grains of lakes and ponds, which terminated at the foot of the blue glass, which seemed to operate like magic upon dry land, where, of course, the natives were chiefly to these unsophisticated children of the sun. be found. But what acted as a bar between the expe- One fact connected with the distribution of beads dition and the natives often tended to impart a peculiar | through Africa, Werne does not appear to have become interest to the voyage.

All persons in whom fancy acquainted with. There are several Europeans—Italiand imagination predominate love to be surrounded ans, Poles, and Germans-settled in Cairo, who import by waters of indeterminate extent, especially in new beads in vast quantities from the west, and vend them countries, where every advance of a hundred yards upon a very peculiar principle. An Arab, with little may be regarded as a new discovery. Sometimes or no capital, from some romantic notion, perhaps a the sun rose and set, as at sea, without disclosing desire to turn merchant, comes to one of the Frank to the enterprising adventurers anything but lakes dealers and lays his case before him. He declares that and submerged marshes, and the crimson glories he has no money, but is very honest, and that if the from the east or west flamed upward from the horizon | Christian will trust him he will take a certain amount in one interminable quivering wake. Onall sides, as far as of goods, put them in a bundle upon his back, and the eye could reach, were forests of gigantic rushes, and go far away into the interior among tribes of pagans, reeds in flower, waving and trembling in the wind, while with whose very names he is unacquainted, and there the surface of the Nile, and of all the lakes and ponds exchange them for gold or such other articles of by which it was bordered, was covered with colours of merchandise as he may consider suficiently portable. every shade and hue—blue, pink, white, varied and The Frank usually gives him credit. The Arab starts variegated to infinity.

from Cairo, and, after an absence which often extends Sometimes the solid ground jutted out towards the to one or two years, returns with a quantity of gold, river in large pit-like promontories, on which the na- | ivory, or ostrich feathers--borne sometimes by slaves, tives had established fishing villages, and where they whom he has likewise purchased for beads. At other had constructed weirs, and numerous other contri-| times, for strings of glass baubles, le brings back vances for entrapping fish. Here and there, where strings of camels ; but occasionally, also, it must be the banks were elevated and somewhat solid, the na- || admitted, he leaves his bones on the sands of the desert, tives had erected their ordinary dwellings close to the bleaching in the burning wind. This accounts, in part, stream, and there they pastured their flocks and herds for what Werne could not explain to himself, the pre-pursued the various processes of agriculture, and sence of Venetian beads among tribes which would raised all the grain, fruits, and vegetables which they seem never to have been visited by Europeans, or even thought necessary to their comfortable subsistence. Life by regular trading moslem. But the bold pedlars in such countries is easily supported. In the first of whom we have spoken set no limits to their wanplace, there is no bouse-rent, and, as a matter of course, derings, and would seem never to be ill-treated by the no taxes. No one dreads the approach of quarter-day, | natives, whose persons they help so materially to or of the appearance of the collector of poor-rates, || adorn. or water-rates, or income-tax; what people earn is Europeans would appear incapable of understanding their own, unless where, emerging from the primitive the passion of the Africans, and other uncivilized races, condition of the human race, people have begun to for beads, which they regard as a mere ebullition of commit the sin of chiefship, or kingship, which they childish vanity. But is the rage for gold, diamonds, speedily find to be its own punishment. Up to this and other precious stones, by which we are possessed, point the most Ut spiau equality and fraternity prevail, at all more rational or respectable? A diamond is but

a large hard bead, or a small hard bead, as the case ever, be called wars or battles. The animosity of may be; and gold bugles or bracelets are of no more these people to the Arabian hordes and marauding sysutility than rings of iron, such as the Shilluks, Keks, tem goes so far, for example, that when they take a Bandurials, and other wild tribes of Africans, wear upon Bakhara prisoner, they put him to death with cudgels; their arms and ancles. The happiness of life consists death by the harta (spear) being considered too honin the number of pleasurable emotions which we are ourable. On the contrary, they do not kill the Deukers, able to compress into it; and, therefore, it is possible whom they merely take captive, because they consider that a naked Kek, or Shilluk, with a string of beads them as aborigines and old neighbours. The Arabs, about his neck, and a few streaks of red ochre instead however, do not slay the Shilluks taken prisoners by of a pair of breeches, may be much happier than a them, not so much out of respect to the Koran as from London or Parisian exquisite, in all his effeminate finery. || their inherent selfishness. When the Bakharas come Nature reckons in these cases for very much. Where to the river to graze the cattle in the grass, which, the sun does instead of a great-coat, where the nightly after the reeds have been burnt away, contains nourish. heavens are your best canopy, where you need no fire ing fodder, there are continual petty wars between but to cook your dinner, boil your coffee, or light your||the Shilluks and Bakharas, in which the latter dispipe, where your wife is born in sables, and where the play considerable bravery, as Suliman Kashef himself more children you have the better, happiness becomes admits.” a cheap and accessible commodity-you obtain it without Spenser, in his “Faery Queen,” delights in describing any effort of civilisation or philosophy. Nature unasked sunrises and sunsets, which he varies with singular inpours out her plenty around you, and assumes every | vention and felicity. Neither he, however, nor any form of beauty for your amusement. Sky and earth || other poet, has ever imagined anything so truly grand contend with each other which shall contribute most || and glorious as sunrise within the tropics. We have to your enjoyment. The cloudless firmament filled with there beheld the sun rise and go down in a manner golden light—the earth covered with trees and flowers, || which seemed to make a heaven of earth. It is on herds and flocks, and birds innumerable, stretches around these occasions that the poverty of language appears. you in boundless luxuriance. You consequently make no Words, gorgeous and magnificent as they are, fail when progress in the arts of life, because to live requires no they attempt to compete with the prolitic grandeur of naarts. Among the inhabitants of those climes Pope'sture, which on such occasions gives rise to fancies and Indian philosophy is realised :

imaginings for which our most fertile vocabularies “ To be content's their natural desire;

contain no name. Werne has worked up in his way They ask no angel's wing, no seraph's fire.”

a very fine picture of sunrise, which reminds us of a On the contrary, they bask in the beauty of mother || passage in Mr. Bayle St. John's Adventures in the earth, and are contented. In these races you unques-Lybian Desert. tionably discover the germs of the old Egyptian philo

"I looked upon the rising sun with a blissful heart and sophy aiming at eternal ease and serenity, and impart- kindly humour that nature, in her majesty, calls forth with irreing to the countenance that expression of boundless sistible power. Dark brown clouds covered the place where he self-satisfaction which we so much admire in the colos- was to disclose himself in all his glory. The all-powerful light sal statues, bassi-relievi, and paintings of Upper Egypt. || of the ocean. "They become lighted up with an indescribable hue

of the world intlames this layer of clouds---rufiled like the billows We must not, however, lose sight of the fact, that

of blue-Tyrian purple—from which an internal living fire beam no tribes of men, however remote and secluded may be forth on every side. To S. E. by S., a vessel dips its masts and the land they inhabit, are beyond the reach of war, | sails into this flood of gold. Silvery rays and tlames of gold display which even here, on the banks of the white stream, themselves in the centre of that deep blue curtain, the borders of

which only are kindled with luminous edging, whilst the core makes its appearance from time to time in all its worst

of the sun itself, within the most confined limits, sparkles through features of savageness and barbarity. “The Deukers,” | the darkest part, like a star never to be looked upon. At last says Werne, “were seen at a distance jumping in the he rises, conquering all the atmospheric obstacles of the vaporous air, whilst they raised one arm and struck their shields earth, the latter, stained like clear flakes of gold, attending him This appeared to me rather a

on the right, whilst two strata of clouds, embedded in each other, challenge than an expression of joy, as I concluded | draw a long beautiful train to the north, ever spreading, and dis

I write, I try once more to embrace from the war dance, the representation of which I had the mightiest picture of ethereal life, but the ship has in the before witnessed. Their city is said to stretch far be- || meantime turned, and the sails cover the sun, so as to weaken yond this ridge, which the trees prevented us from re- the first impression. There are moments, truly, when one is, as marking. Long swampy islands, with reeds and other it were, a god ; but this god-like feeling lasts in its entire strength plants entwined one with the other, extend from their only as long as the external impression, which the inmost per

suasion rather weakens than strengthens." country to the middle of the stream. This is the case also, though on a reduced scale, on the left side--the The curious points in Werne's work are so extremely distance of the shores from one to another is more scattered, that it would require infinite pains to collect than an hour, (three miles.) The reeds form in this and arrange them, so as to form a connected picture manner a protection, which, even when the water is at of the countries and people on the Bahr El Abiad. the highest, is not to be overcome—and at low water, || Still, the facts are related, though without the slightthe Machadas form a complete defensive barrier. In the est regard to artistic treatment. In one place we same manner, the Shilluks on the left shore have a have a sketch of elephants, giraffes, and ostriches, movmarsh of reeds under water for protection. The Turksing like living mountains along the skirts of the forest; have managed, however, to come at these two nations elsewhere we behold vast herds of hippopotami, snorting, by land. Suliman Kashef bimself has twice defeated blowing, and splashing in the river; and anon, we find the Shilluks on the boundary of his district. These the Arabs looking forth from their vessels upon the dark sudden and crafty attacks of a Chusnee cannot, how- || natives, and transforming them, by the force of imagi,

with their spears.

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