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nation, into cannibals. On board the dahabies them. We now approach that rocky barrier in the white selves, strange scenes were often enacted, displaying stream beyond which Selim Capitan and Suliman kathe fierce, irregular passions by which the natives of shef either could not or would not ascend. Werne, the East are chietly, perhaps, distinguished. Sometimes with illiberality too common among Frauks, imputes to we found Suliman Kashef, watching like a tiger the cowardice what was rather the suggestion of prudence, fair Georgian slave, whom he kept so close a prisoner | Indeed, he assigns reasons for their returu sufficiently in his cabin that she was only once seen during the strong to satisfy any reasonable person. Foremost whole expedition. Then Abd el Abiad comes be among these was the shortness of their provisions, fore us flogging a negress almost to death. After- which, independently of any other, would have been wards, these displays of jealousy and cruelty are ex- | quite enough. But when we add to this that the water changed for uproarious mirth, occasioned by the rude was rapidly sinking in the river, and that, had they witticisms of those jesters whom the Turks delight to ascended the Rocky Pass, they would not possibly have carry everywhere about with them. Meanwhile, the forced their way back again, we must rather applaud few Europeans who accompany these semi-barbarians the wisdom of Selim and Suliman, than join in the amused themselves as best they could, in their own way; | unjust sarcasm of the traveller. It is easy to display but, generally, their merriest moments were damped || bravery at home, when the danger is over; but still by the recollection of far happier days at home, it being Werne has not been able to conceal that he was him. seldom that a Frank can enter heartily into the plea- self quite as much alarmed as any of his companions sures of the Orientals. This may be inferred from the by the warlike demonstrations of the natives : way in which Werne speaks of the celebration of New

“ The war-dance which the blacks performed yesterday has conYear's Eve :

tributed, certainly, to the final determination to return. Even " It occurred to me that it was Sylvester's day, and brought I thought, yesterday, that I heard and saw in the fearful battlebefore my wretched view the different Sylvester nights--how I song a declaration of war, and a challenge to the contest. It was had sometimes passed them joyfully, sometimes melancholy or impossible to persuade oneself that it was merely a mark of honquietly, ever according to the circumstances and situations in onr. The natives marched up and down the island in columns, which I was placed at the time. I shouted to Thibaut, who was brandishing their lances in the air, sang their war-songs with just passing by me, that it was Sylvester's day, that we ought to threatening countenances and dreadful gestures, then fell into still keep the anniversary of our honest patron as a festival, and in- greater ecstasy, ran up and down, and roared their martial chant." vited him to my vessel. He was afraid, however, of Jedzulle, who reclined upon his carpet on deck, resting from his tailoring, and had He professes to have altered his opinion afterwards, one jinjani (small cup) of date brandy after another handed to him, but the menacing manner of these wild people, taken as if he wanted to solemnise Sylvester's evening in his own way. || in conjunction with the difficulties to which we have al. I went down, therefore, to Thibaut. We drank Marasching and ready alluded, may be allowed completely to justify the grog, having a coal dish between us over the fire, on which we laid green brushwood, to protect us in some measure from the

Turkish commanders :impudent gnats. We related anecdotes of our previous journeys in Greece, and how we, being then young, looked at the world with

"It was the middle of the day, about two o'clock, when Selim perfectly different eyes, and had now become old fellows, whose | Capitan, in order to take his lenve and to employ the dreaded highest destiny would be to get an old maid or widow for a wife people at the moment of our departure, and keep them far from on our return to our native country: and how we had lost the so

us, threw ten cups of beads on shore, and the cannons on all the called happiness when it was thrown in our way.

vessels were discharged, to bid solemn farewell with twenty-one " It was 8 o'clock when I summoned my dahabie to come close;

shots to the beautiful country, which must contain so many more but, as if the devil had seized the helm, it went the very same mo

interesting materials.” ment bang against the vessel in which the Frenchmen were. fearful row and mutual abuse then took place, especially as all

Thus we see the sources of the White Nile still remain the vessels were thrown together by the wind and the current

as much a mystery as ever; though it was ascertained into the corner where the river makes a sudden bend from south by this expedition that the Mountains of the Moon to soutli-west. It was only with much trouble that we worked have a real existence, and are not fabulous as some ourselves loosc with oars, poles, and sails, to stop about north-geographers are inclined to suppose. But in what west, with the north-east wind.

At sunset we cast anchor degree of latitude, north or south, the White Stream Welcome, new year! Oh ye beautiful past times! Dance, and the girls; wine, and friends! I could not sleep; the sentinels sang,

takes its rise, must be left to be determined by future and told stories of spirits, snakes, and unbelievers, accompanied by travellers. Mahomed Ali will probably make no more abuse of the gnats. I thought of my brother in Taka, who, at expeditions, and it is probable that no future Egyptian the present moment, did not even know it was Sylvester's even- Pasha will display greater enterprise. Probably, ing, for there we had lost the computation of time, both having therefore, the world will have to wait till some single different dates in our journals. This was also the case with the Italian physician, Dr. Bellath, who took the greatest delight, individual like Bruce arises with courage and capacity however, in the new moon, because the arrears of his salary in-sufficient to subdue the opposition of the aborigines, creased with it. It occurred to me that my brother and I, when and the obstacles interposed by nature. In his descent we had nearly lost our memory after a severe illness, had even

of the river, Werne adds considerably to the informacontended about the date of the year. Midnight had long passed, and I was just on the point of falling asleep, when Thibaut, who|tion he acquired in ascending; but for this we must had continued his libations in honour of St. Sylvester, shouted refer the reader to the work itself, which, upon the out, 'A happy new year to you!""

whole, is lively and amusing.

A

BOTANICAL SCIENCE.*

The love of plants and flowers having been es-1 refreshed, amidst the treasures which Flora strews tablished by the universal consent of novelists as a upon his path—why, then-he may be led to crytest of amiability in beroes and heroines, and all

“Blessed be God, for flowers ! such interesting persons, there is no denying that

For the bright, gentle, holy thoughts “a little scientific knowledge” of these objects of

That breathe

From out their odorous beauty, many a gentle passion, might be superadded with

Like a wreath out the danger implied in the hackneyed line of

Of sunshine on life's hours." the satirical bard of Twickenham. To botanical || Professor Balfour, whose engagement on a Botaniscience, indeed, we are indebted for by far the larger cal Manual was noticed in a recent number of this half of the true beauties of plants—an accurate journal, with the prediction that he would produce comprehension of their external forms, their struc

ono calculated to take rank as the text-book of tho ture, functions, relations, and uses; so true is it, || science, has reasoned the cause, moreover, very that "many a flower is born to blush unseen.

cogently, in the work in which he has amply veriInvisible to the eye of the ordinary observer are all fied this prediction. Ile has said :those marvellous configurations in which, in obedience to uniform laws, the lilies of the field array

“ The botanist, in accomplishing the ends he has in view, takes

an cnlarged and comprehensive view of the vegetation with themselves, when decked in a glory superior to the

which the carth is clothed. He considers the varied aspects under magnificence of Solomon, with all his splendour. | wlich plants appear in the various quarters of the globe, from the It is the microscopic research of scientific examina- lichen on the Alpine summits, or on the coral reef, to the majestic tion that develops the still more secret structural palms, the bananas and boababs of tropical climes—from the beauty and order of the plant, and the harmony minute aquaties of our northern pools to the gigantic Victoria of and proportion of its connections. Philosophising | Visible by the aid of the microscope, to the enormous parasite

the South American waters---from the parasite fungus, only on these discoveries and observations, beauties discovered by Raflles in the Indian Archipelago. more intellectual still become developed, as function " It is interesting to trace the relation which these plants bear as well as structure becomes clearly understood. I to each other, and thic mode in which they are adapted to difAnd thus utility, in the end, steps in to appropriate ferent climates and situations. The lichens are propagated by

spores (sceds) so ininute as to appear like thin dust, and to be the labours of the botanist, and to apply to the use

so easily carried by the wind that we can scarcely conceive any ful purposes of man those truths which he has eli | place which they cannot reach. They are the first occupants of cited from research.

the sterile rock and the coral-formed island, being fitted to derive The minute and apparently crepuscular studies the greater part of their pourislıment from the atmosphere and to which botany directs us may influence minds the noisture suspended in it. By degrees they act on the rocks impatient of detail, and accustomed to a wider their decay a portion of vegetable mould is formed, and in pro

to which they are attached, and cause their disintegration. By range of speculation, to repudiate the value and at

cess of time a suflicient quantity of soil is produced to serve for tractions of the science. But a botanical excursion the germination of the serds of higher plants. In this way the would set the most resolute opponent of this entic- coral island is in the course of years covered with a forest of ing study all right. Let lim join a party of from

cocon-nut trees. Thus it is that the most despiseil weeds lay the 60 to 150--such being the muster of the Edinburgh | foundation for the denizens of the wood; and thus, in the pro

gress of time, the sterile rock presents all the varieties of meadow, botanical class- and follow the professor, in his ex

thicket, and forest. positions through the woods of Arniston, or the “ The Creator has distributed his floral gifts over every part Hermitage of Braid. The riches of the tin case, of the world from the poles to the equator. Every clime has its which he throws from his aching shoulders at even

peculiar vegetation, and the surface of the carth may be divided ing, properly appreciated, would beggar a day's The same thing takes place on the lofty mountains of warın cli

into regions characterised by certain predominating tribes of plants, diggings on the San Joacquin or Sacramento. If

inates, which may be said to present an epitome of the horizontal his conscience do not priek him, for having, with distribution of plants. Again, if we descend into the bowels of his ruthless trowel, utterly exterminated some rare the earth, we find the traces of vegetation--a vegetation, howplant in its habitat, he will resign himself to his ever, which flourished at distant epochs of the earth's history,

and the traces of which are seen in the coal, and in the fossil pillow for a sound sleep, purchased by pure fatigue | plants which are inet with in ditferent strata. By the labours of and pure enjoyment, with a zest which, since the Brongniart in particular these fossil remains have been rendered racy days of boyhood, the happiest of men had available for the purposes of science. Many points have been coveted and not enjoyed. Or suppose that, strong determined relative to their structure as well as in regard to the in athletic manhood, and caught by a passing fit of climate and soil in which they grew, and much aid has been botanical enthusiasm, he sallies forth, like George

afforded to the geologist in his investigations.

“The bearings which botany has on zoology are seen when we Don, the Forfar watchmaker's apprentice, alone, consider the lowest tribe of plants, such as Diatomacex. These with his knapsack, amidst the innermost recesses bear a striking resemblance to the lowest animal, and have been of his native Grampians—that, in the pursuit of figured as such by Ehrenberg and others. The observations of natural objects, he is oblivious alike of fatigue and Thwaites on Conjugation have confirmed the view of the vegetable

nature of many of these bodies. There appear, however, to be privation-frequently, or for weeks together, bivouacking, when the night falls, under shelter of between the animal and vegetable kingdom, and for the time being

many productions which occupy a sort of intermediate territory the nearost rock, and, rising with the sun, to revelll the botanist and zoologist must consent to joint occupancy.

ܪ

* A Manual of Botany ; being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By Jolin Hatton Balfour, M.D., &c., Professor of Medicine and Botany in the University of Edinburgh. Griflin and Co., London and Glasgow. 1849,

“ The application of botanical science to agriculture and horti- || to Highland botany, as to throw a comparative shade over the culture has of late attracted much attention, and the chemistry | vegetation of the plains." of plants has been carefully examined by Liebig, Mulder, and

Such are the claims, attractions, and pleasures Johnston. The consideration of the phenomena connected with germination, and the nutrition of plants, lius led to inportant of botany, as set forth by one of its most zealous conclusions as to sowing, draining, ploughing, the rotation of advocates-the hero of the battle of Glentiltcrops, and the use of manures.

whose spirit, we rejoice to think, is still bent on exa * The relation which botany bears to medicine has often been || ploring the mountains, in despite of ducal resistmisunderstood. The medical student is apt to suppose that all he is to acquire by his botanical pursuits is a knowledge of the

ance and all the gillies in the tail of the chief of naines and orders of medical plants. The object of the connee- || Athol, when or wherever the said chief may choose tion between scientific and mere professional studies is here lost to clap on the appendage in question. His present sight of. It ought ever to be borne in mind by the medical man work is an illustration at large of the admonition that the use of the collateral sciences, as they are termed, is not

he has more especially addressed to the medical only to give him a great amount of general information, which will be of value to him in his after career, but to train his mind | student, not to limit the pursuit of botany to a to that kind of research which is essential to the student of knowledge of names and orders. Although termed medicine, and to impart to it a tone and a vigour which will be on its bastard title, “ An Introduction to the study of the highest moment in all his future investigations. What of the structure, physiology, and classification of can be more necessary for a medical man than the power of || plants,” it carries the system onwards to those making accurate observations and diagnoses ? These are the

ultimate results which would render any one, who qualities which are brought into constant exercise in the prosecution of the botanical investigations to which the student ought should make himself master of its contents, no to turn his attention as preliminary to the study of practical mean adept in this delightful science. We chiefly medicine. In the prosecution of his physiological researches, it refer, however, to the first part of the work, devoted is of the highest importance that the medical man should be

to an elaborate summary of Vegetable Anatomy, conversant with the phenomena exhibited by plants; for no one can be reckoned a scientific physiologist who does not embrace Organography, and Physiology, as characteristic of within the range of his inquiries all classes of animated beings; the point of perfection to which botanic knowledge and the more extended his views, the more certain and compre- || has attained. The second, and less remarkable hensive will be his generalisation.

part of this admirable compendium, is an elaborate “To those who proscente science for amusement, botany || but condensed synopsis of Systematic Botany, Tarpresents many points of interest and attraction. Though relating to living and organised beings, the prosecution of it calls onomy, or the classification of plants—freed from for no painful experiments, no forbidding dissections. It adds all the confusing coxcombry of Lindley, in varying pleasure to every walk, and affords an endless source of gratifica- | the accepted nomenclature, and thus confusing the tion, which can be rendered available alike in the closet and in study of plants. The manual of Professor Balfont the field. The prosecution of it combines healthful and spirit-lis modelled on the celebrated works of Jussieu and stirring recreation with scientific study, and its votaries are united by associations of no ordinary kind.' Ile who has visited the Henfrey, adopting the system of De Candolle, but Scottish Highlands with a botanical party knows well the feelings following Walker Arnott in the arrangement and of delight connected with such a ramble--feelings by no means

definition of the natural orders. The most novel of an evanescent nature, but lasting during life, and at once re- and agreeable portion of its contents is the constant called by the sight of the specimens which were collected. These | notice which has been introduced of the medical apparently insignificant remnants of vegetation recall many a

and economical properties of plants, on the onimtale of adventure, and are associated with the delightful recollection of many a friend. It is not, indeed, a matter of surprise peachable authority of Christison, Royle, Burnett, that those who have lived and walked for weeks together in a

and Lindley. And when we add that nearly 1,000 Jlighıland ramble, who have met in sunshine and in tempest, who of the most beautiful woodcuts of “Jussieu's Conrs have climbed together the misty summits, and have slept in the Elementaire,” “Bendant's Geology," and the works miserable shieling, should have such scenes indelibly impressed on their memory. There is, moreover, something peculiarly attractive

of Raspail, St. Hilaire, Schleiden, Amici, and Main the collecting of Alpine plants. Their comparative rarity, out are employed in the illustration of the text, we the localities in which they grow, and frequently their beautiful believe that we certify to the unwonted value of the hues, conspire in shedding around them a halo of interest for information contained in this epitome. exceeding that connected with Lowland productions. The Alpine It would be no easy, however agreeable, task folveronica, displaying its lovely blue corolla on the verge of dissolving snows; the forget-me-not of the mountain susamit, whose liuts farlowing the learned author through that portion of excel those of its namesake of the brooks ; the woodsia, with its the work which we have already more especially tufted fronds, adorning the clefts of the rocks ; the snowy gentian, 1 commended as unfolding the minute wonders of concealing its eye of blue in the lodges of the steep crags; the vegetable structure, and illustrating the extent of Alpine astragalus, enlivening the turf with its purple clusters; the modern attainments in the science. But the litelychnis, choosing the stony and dry kvoll for the evolution of rary journalist would hardly keep pace with the its pink petals; the sonchus, raising its stately stalk and azure hend in spots, which try the enthusiasm of the adventurous col- lage did he hesitate to gather flowers, and anatolector; the pale-flowered osytropis, confining itself to a single mise them, too, upon occasion, with the botanist. British clif'; the azalen, forming a carpet of the richest crimson; | Our readers may not just expect us, however, to the saxifrages, with their white, yellow, and pink blossoms, cloth- I dive forth with into all the details of cellular and ing the sides of the streams; the saussurea and erigeron, crowning vascular tissues, elucidating, as we proceed, the the rocks with their purple and pink capitula; the peudant cinque form, the arrangement, and the contents of the foil, blending its yellow flower with the white of the Alpine cerastiums and the bright blue of the stony veronica; the stemless cells, and expounding the membranes, developsilene, giving a pink and velvety covering to the decomposing gra- | ments, and functions of the vessels. Still more nite; the yellow hieracia, whose varied transition forms have been remote from our grasp are the epidermis, stomata, such a fertile cause of dispute amongst botanists; the slender and appendages, glands, hairs, &c., of the compound delicate grasses, the chickweed, the carices, and the rushes which

But adspring up on the moist Alpine summits; the graceful ferns; the organs of nutrition and reproduction. tiny mosses, with their urn-like thecæ; the crustaceous dry lichens,vancing onwards from these elementary matters, with their spore-bearing apothecia; all these add such a churm scattered facts of striking interest arrest attention

at every pause. Thus, curious stories might be|| tem ; and, indeed, the leaf-forms are the alphabet of told by the time we get to the stem, and no triling botanical observation, or at least the first syllables of alleged. For instance :

the science with which the tyro should become faini. " From the mode in which the woody layers are formed, it is liar. We shall only add to the above exemplification obvious that each vascular zone is moulded upon that which of the forms of leaves, that the curled leaves of greens, precedes it; and as in ordinary cases each woody circle is completed in the course of one year, it follows that by counting the whereby the cellular tissue is often much increased,

savoys, cresses, lettuce, are the result of cultivation, consecutive circles, the age of a tree may be ascertained. This computation can only be made in trees having marked se

horticultural operations for the purpose being expressly parations between the circles. There are, however, many sources devised. The petiole, or leaf-stalk, which is usually of fallacy. In some instances, by interruption to growth, se- shorter than the blade, is in some palms 15 or 20 feet cond circles may be formed in one year, and thus lead to an er- long, and used for poles or walking-sticks. In geneToneous estimate. Care must be taken to have a complete section from the bark to the pith ; for the circles sometimes vary in | ral, this part is more or less rounded, and its upper diameter at different parts of their course, and a great error might surface flattened or grooved; but in the case of the as. occur fron taking only a few rings or circles, and then estinut-pen, the trembling of the leaves of the tree is attributed ing for the whole diameter of the tree. When by the action of se- to its being conpressed laterally. The leaf-stalk of vere frost, and other causes, injury has been done to the tender | aquatic plants is sometimes distended with air, so as cells from which the young wood is developed, while at the same time the tree continues to live , so as to forin perfect woody layers the curious pitcher plant, the orange, lemon, &c. The

to float the leaf. At other times it is winged, as in in subsequent years, the date of the injury may be ascertained by counting the number of layers which intervene between the onion has leaves altogether fistular, or hollow. Such imperfectly formed circle and the bark. In 1800 a juniper was are a few examples of the striking and various contricut down in the forest of Fontainbleau, exhibiting near its centre vances that arrest the attention in a cursory glance at a layer which had been affected by frost, and which was covered the mechanism of nature. The botanist follows up by ninety-one woody layers, showing that this had taken place in the winter of 1709. Inscriptions made in the wood become these facts with system; and, ex pede Ilerculem, from covered, and may be detected in after years when a tree is cut the minutest fragment of its structure, tells the characdown; so also wires or wails driven into the wood. As the ter of the plant, though fossilated for ages, and extinct sare development of woody layers takes place in the branches as

amongst the things of earth. in the stem of an exogenous tree, the time when a branch was first given off may be computed by counting the circles in the

It may still be interesting to contemplate the imstem and branch respectively: If there are fifty circles, for in- portant functions which the leaves given to plants, in stance, in the trank, thirty in one branch, and teu in another, I such apparent superabundance, perform. They expose then the tree must have been twenty years old when it produced its fluids to the influence of air and light, by their the first, and forty when it formed the other."

effective spinal arrangement, and elaborate the various We defy anybody, after these plain and practi- vegetable secretions that occasion the formation of cal directions, to miscount the age of a tree.

wood, and absorption of fluid and gaseous matters. In The leaves, too—that multitudinous mystery of the short

, there is no more certain method of destroying a green world---perform, perhaps, as important functionsplant than constantly depriving it of its leaves --a as any portion of the vegetable economy. All the means by which the most inveterate weeds may be exparts of a plant, in fact, resolve themselves into leaves. tirpated. A sunflower, three feet high, gives off twenty These lateral appendages of the stem are in reality ex- ounces of watery fluid daily. A cabbage, with 2,736 pansions of the bark, symmetrically developed. Leaves square inches of surface, transpires, at an average, 19 are generally placed horizontally, their upper page to- ounces; a vine of 1,820, from 5 to 6. This is the proards the heavens, their under page towards the cess which causes a dillerence betwixt the air of the earth. But some Australian acacias, eucalypti

, &c, have wooded country and that of a country destitute of their leaves placed vertically. Altstroemeria bas the trees. The woods impart moisture to the atmosphere. leaf twisted in its course. The orange leaf has the tiat The watering-place of the Bridge of Allan is thus found expanded portion articulated with the leaf stalk. In to be extremely humid and relaxing. Lilac, the primary veins given off from the mid rib of the The leaves of most of the trees in this country are leaf end in a curvature within the margin ; in oak and deciduous. After performing their functions, therefore, chesnut, they go directly to the edge of the leaf. Sy- they wither and die, and, in withering and dying, frecamore and cinnamon leaves, instead of one, have seve- quently change their colours, producing the beautiful ral central ribs. In grasses and fan palms, the veins and varicd tints of our autumnal foliage. The leaves run rearly parallel to the mid rib, from the base to the of the walnut and horse-chesnut, which are articulated apex of the leaf. The plantain and banana are parallel. | with the stem, fall and leave a scar, whilst those of veined. The leaf of the barbarea is called lyrate, from the beach, which are continuous with it, remain atits resemblance to the ancient lyre; that of rumex tached for some time after they have lost their vitality. pulcher takes its name (panduriforni) from a fiddle, || Evergreens, such as pines and evergreen oaks, are albecause there is a concavity on each side of the leaf, ways deprived of a certain number of leaves at intermaking it resemble a violin. The passion-flower, and vals, sufficient being lest, however, to preserve their rheum palmatum, are veined like the palm of the hand.grecn appearance. The leaf of hydrocotyle is orbicular, or circular, for the In adducing a few facts illustrative rather of the stalk is joined to its centre; that of the castor-oil plant curiosities of botanical science than explanatory of the is peltate, or buckler-wise, the stalk not joining at the science itself

, it behoves us not to enter on the history centre. The veins in the leaves of pines or firs do not and mystery of organic and inorganic constituents, spread out, but are linear ; those of chick-weed, ovate, || food of plants, and circulation of the sap; although or egg-shaped ; saxifraga, wedge-shaped, and so forth in it might have astonished Harvey, had he lived to see endless variety; which, however, botanical nomencla- | Schultz assert principles of circulation in the plant, ture, as may be seen, has pretty well reduced to sys- l) forming no bad analogy with those that regulate the

VOL. XVI,NO. CLXXIVII,

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blood in man, aud to find a plant as silently and sig- | mama sugar, exported under the name of flake manaa, niticantly exclaiming as Shylock, with all his “ bated from Sicily and Calabria, and found also in the juices breath and whispering humbleness,"'-

of mushroom, in celery, and in sea-weeds, is different “My pnlse, as yours, doth temperately keep time,

from the others--- not being fermentescible. There is, And makes as healthful music."

moreover, the grape-sugar ; that which gives sweetness

to gooseberries, currants, apples, pears, plums, apricots, We might thus go on to make up a miscellany, not

and most other fruits. We pass over the other prothe least interesting part of which would be, the coli

ducts to get amongst the reproductive orgaus of plants ditions of vegetable existence, so remarkably tested by

--the flowers and their appendages. Mr. Ward, of Wellclose Square, London, inventor of the celebrated Wardian cases, in which plants will thrive Balfour to the leaf as a type. Goëthe was propounder

All the parts of a flower are referred by Professor for years, without any fresh supply of moisture, or any

of the doctrine that all the parts of the flower are, direct exposure to the air, and may therefore be trans

indeed, but altered leaves. The discussion of the esmitted safely from the antipodes, when even their seeds sential organs belouging to the flower, constitutes, it would not retain vitality during the voyage. And vege- is well known, the fundamental and distinctive portion table products--a vast agglomeration of starch, gim, of botanical science. This is not, therefore, the place sugar, woody matter, and nitrogenous compounds--

to inflict so didactic a lucubration. In connection with would inevitably arrest attention. But time and space, towers there are, however, some enticing natural facts, as well as patience, have limits; and we already feel the

which may not pass annoticed. The honey-like matter pressure of their bounds. As for starch, however, we cannot leave it to be supposed that there is none' but stored up at the base of the petals in little pits, or

nectaries, is considered as aiding in the dispersion and in the potato, arrow-root, and wheat. It exists in seeds, it exists in roots (especially those that are fleshy), in collecting the saccharine matter

, also scatter the

rupture of the pollen grains. Bees, and other insects, in stens, in the receptacles of flowers, and in pulpy fruits; the seed-lobes of the bean and pea, and other pollen, as if to provide for an act which the plant itselí leguminous plants, have it; the roots, and underground definite period in a plant's existence. Annual plants

cannot fully accomplish. Flowering takes place at a stem of the arrow-root (maranta arundinacea), and

are so exhausted by the effort as to die; but by niptous-les-mois (canna coccinea), the stem of the

, palm, &c., the receptacle of the artichoke, the pulp of ping off the flower-buds, the stems, from being herbathe apple. But whilst potato-starch grains are large, tree mignonette may be made to live and flower for

ceous, become shrubby. This is the way in which the pearly, or sparkling, those of arrow-root are dull,

several white, and small — tous-le-mois being of a glistening ap. | deal-box and an open window very well knows. Plants

years instead of one, as everybody who owns a pearance, like potato-stareh, only larger. Starch is

whose juices are important, either for food or medicine, associated with poisonous juices in jatropha manihot, which yields cassava and tapioca, and in arum macula | ought, in general, to be collected, therefore, immetum, the underground stem of which furnishes Portland | rots and turnips become fibrous and unlit for food

diately before flowering. The succulent roots of carsago. Then there is the lichenin of the Iceland moss

when the plants are allowed to run to seed; the recep. (cetraria islandica), a substance analogous to starch, || tacle of the artichoke, so succulent before expansion of and pretty well known at the nursery table. Gum is one of the forms through which organic matter passes Some species open their flowers at given hours of the

the flowers, becomes dry as the flowering proceeds

. during the growth of plants. Gum-arabic

, soluble in day; and thus Linnaeus constructed his celebrated cold water, is the produce of various species of acacia, Moral clock, composed of a succession of Howers that in Arabia, Egypt, Nubia, and Senegambia. It exudes from the bark in a thick juice, and afterwards concretes till eight at night; although Professor Balfour, in gir

:

expanded hour after hour from three in the morning into tears—and, singular enough, it is old stunted

ing the list, adus, that with us, the periods do not trees in hot and dry seasons that yield the most gum. Sugar exists in many plants, chiedy in the sugar cane, Upsal. Stimulation of flowering also occurs at difier

seem to be always so regular as he remarked them at beetroot, and sugar-maple. It is conjectured that ent periods of the year, according to the nature of the the calainus, or sweet cane, mentioned in Scripture, || climate, and floral calendars may be formed as well as may be the sugar-cane. 4,139,99€ cut. of sugar was

floral clocks, by observing the mode of flowering of the entered for consumption in the United Kingdoin in 1944, and the whole quantity grown in the world in trasting these periods in different countries, nothing

same species of plants in successive years; and by cor1839 was estimated as follows:

could obviously afford a truer comparison of climates. British Sugar Colonies,.

3,571,378 cwt. The closing of many flowers during cloudy or rainy British India,....

519,120

weather, whence they are called meteorie flowers, prDanish West Indies,..

450,000

tects their pollen from the injurious effects of moisture, Dutch West Indies,..

260,000 French Sugar Colonies,

9,100,000

and hence anagallis arrensis, the popular little scarlet United States of America,

900,000

pimpernel, enjoys the soubriquet of "the poor man's Brazil,.......

..2,400,000

weather-glass. We are sorry to think, however, that Java,

4,451,312 Professor Balfour does not contirm every one of our The maple sugar, so much used in America, is pro-popular floral superstitions as he contirins this. It enred by making perforations in the stem, and allow- was a darling theme, for instance, of our hovhood, and ing the sweet sap to flow out. Beet sugar is exten- as well as boyhood could observe, a substantiated, for sively manufactured at many places in Europe; 142,318 it was an accredited fact, that the sun-dower, Persian acres were planted in France with beetroot, for sugar, | like, inclined his head towards the quarter of the in 1841; and 31,621,923 cwt. produced. Mannite, or || heaveus where shone the luminary of day. "Perhaps

99

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