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rative, the history of his wonderful escape. can tell the future most truly. Come with me, and the captain and sole survivor of the unfortunate vessel || ask her about this voyage, which to me seems so ill-a pleasing, intelligent man, under thirty—a Nor-omened ; and if she says you are not to return, go I wegian, yet speaking pretty good English.

will with you yet, and share your

fate." When the ship went finally to pieces, he clung to a “As to your accompanying me, Carolina, that is out mast, by which be for a long time contrived to keep, || of the question ; but if it will please you, I will go

with althongh he was, along with it, repeatedly dashed on you to this wise woman”-a sailor's proverbial supershore, and washed off by the next wave, and also was stition, unconsciously, pe aps, lending weight to his often compelled to dive, that he might not be crushed desire to soothe his youthful and endeared companion. or entangled by the floating pieces of wood and tack- So the pair muffled themselves up closely, and proceeded ling. He must have maintained astonishing self-pos- hastily, and in silence, to a miserable cellar, in the most session and cool courage, of which two circumstances miserable part of the old town of Hamburg. Carcmay be examples. Finding his jacket and boots im- lina knocked softly at a door she appeared to kuow peded his exertions, he managed, while riding on the well-for, indeed, she had visited the old woman's mast, to throw them off, and this while death, in all its dwelling ere now. She had before asked concerning the horrors, surrounded him. The other was, that, observ- fate of her absent betrothed; and having been answered ing the height of each wave, as it broke on the rocky that he would soon return from a favourable voyage, shore (the third, as is firmly believed by seamen, being and be united to her, and this prediction having been always the highest), he allowed himself to be floated off duly fulfilled, Carolina now believed she should again by the lower seas without unnecessarily expending receive a truthful prophecy, and, at all events, know his strength, till the fortunate one should arrive; || the worst. We fear the era of fortune-telling has not which, as he calculated, threw him at length so far wholly departed, and that too many belonging to this onward that he had time to secure his hold ere more enlightened age and community indulge in this another equally powerful could reach him. Thus, at foolish and sinful superstition. . length, though much bruised and torn, he crept to a A pleasant-looking, but meanly-clad young woman crevice of the bank, where lie rested awhile, the thick | admitted the captain and his wife to a dismal passage; snow and sea-spray almost smothering him, though and this led them to a large, dark apartment, with bare, still collected and undaunted. When able, he crawled damp walls, and an earthen floor. A low fire burned on, hoping to find shelter, which, after some wan- on a miserable hearth, round which were placed three dering, he obtained in the cottage we have mentioned. | flat stones, the only furniture of the comfortless dwellTo his coolness and courage, under God, he owed hising. Having desired her visitors to seat themselves, life; and he averred that all the time he was confident the old, withered hag scanned them earnestly by the he should be saved. He had been at sea from early | dim firelight, to which her organs were doubtless acboyhood; this was his third shipwreck; and he was custoined, but which seemed to Hertz and his comquite sure he should never be drowned. On being panion only to render “darkness visible.”

After a asked his reason for this confident persuasion, after short silence, the ancient crone said, slowly, “And what becoming a little acquainted with a female relative question dost thou wish to put to me, young frau?of his host, he gave her the following account :: “My husband goes on a sea voyage; will he return He had been married for some months to a beautiful in safety ?” said the silvery voice of Carolina, which girl, to whom he was much attached. The ship was sounded like a Sabbath-bell in Pandemonium, if we laden, and cleared out, and only waited a favouring could imagine such a thing there—but it was the simile wind to set sail, which seemed at last to have arrived ; ||of a doting husband. The old woman, without replyand the captain and his wife were seated at breakfast. | ing, went to the farther corner of the apartment, where, The young woman, oppressed with the idea of the ap- by a rushlight, she turned over the leaves of a huge proaching parting, stole many a hurried glance at her ancient volume. In a few moments she delivered her husband, but dared not trust her eye to meet his, lest oracular response thus—“ The voyage of your husband her assumed composure should fail her. At length he will be a very disastrous one. Yet, be comforted; started up.

Well, Carolina, cheer up now; the wind || he will return safe and well; and, what is more, he will has really become favourable, and I shall have an im- never die by drowning.'' They left the wretched cell, mediate summons to go on board."

Carolina clinging more closely to her husband's arm, Carolina burst into tears. “ Well, Hertz, you will thankful for the equivocal, yet, to her, sufficient as. go; and I shall never see you more.”

surance of his safety; and in a few hours she parted “ Pooh, pooh! Carolina; is this your promised forti- from him with tolerable composure; and often, during tude ?”

the midnight storm, when startled from sleep by the “Nay, hear me, husband dear! I had such a dream sounds ever most fearful in the car of the sailor's wife, last night! and many such I shall have in your absence. she has composed herself to rest again, murmuring I am sure something will happen, and we shall never “lle will never die by drowning!” Alas for poor meet again,” she added, now weeping passionately. Hertz and his affectionate Carolina! on his next voyage,

“ Now, this is ever the way with you women," said in the following year, his vessel foundered at sea, and the husband, striving to be jocular, while his voice neither gallant courage nor superstitious contidenee faltered; “ you wonld try to unman the bravest heart could avail to save him-- he was heard of no more! with your fancies and your dreams. Let not my Caro- But to return to the scene of the shipwreck in lina be so sillv."

Shetland. The news of the wreck spread like wild“ Well, I will not, Hertz, though this dream does fire; and, notwithstanding the inclemency of the weahaunt me strangely, if you will only grant me one ther, most of the inhabitants of the comparatively favour. There is an old woman, not far from this, who || populous neighbourhood hurried to the spot. Just

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round the point where Hertz had been cast ashore, was only for the purpose of intimidation, as they were not a small open bay, with a low beach; and each wave, as charged. An express had been sent off to the customit rolled before the still-thundering gale, bore with it house the instant the weather moderated, also to bales and boxes of valuable property, linen and lace the coast-g'ard and Lloyd's agent; but these were forming a great part of the cargo, together with the sixty miles distant. In the meantime, the justice debris of the wreck. Wood is to a Shetlander the exerted himself to check the disgraceful scenes he witmost valued of all commodities. Now, it is merely a nessed. In vain did he urge that there was one man hopeless task to attempt to convince these islanders saved, to whom the property belonged, as representhat what is tossed at the mercy of the devouring | tative. waves can of right be the property of any but those Nae doot, sir-nae doot, honest man. Let him who are able to rescue it from certain destruction.come, an' tak a' he can; nane bere shall stop him.” Accordingly, on the occasion referred to, every person In vain they were told that, if they would save what present rushed into the dangerous surf, braving cold, they could for the owners or insurers, they would be and wet, and peril

, to secure for themselves the wealth liberally rewarded. they saw before them. Boxes of jewellery and tea, V'erra true, sir ; but then them that hardly lifts a wearing apparel, and every article so large a vessel hand would get as much as we that peril life in the would necessarily contain, were strewn in profusion on Na, na, sir; Gude has sent us a blessing, and the shore; and ever and anon, alas ! the bodies of the we'll just tak' what Ile gi'es, and be thankfu'." drowned would be mingled with the heaps. Increas- This was just one of those cases where “might makes ing crowds increased only the number of the plunderers.right.” The ignorant and lawless numbered thirty to Everything was carried off and appropriated that could one; yet the brave and powerful men appointed to be so removed. It was some little time ere the magis- / watch over what had been rescued, of the value of trate, apprised of what was going on, could obtain several hundred pounds, by firmness and forbearance, and swear-in a number of special constables; but their maintained their charge for another bitter night; and, presence was of little avail. They prevailed on a few ere a third set in, the custom-house oflicers and other men to join them in securing some of the most unwieldy | authorities arrived. A vigorous search of the neigh. bales, and largest pieces of wreck, which they collected bouring dwellings, and those of all persons who had on the beach, and over which they mounted guard; and been recognised among the depredators, now took this was the amount of the duty they could perform. || place. Only in a few instances, however, was it sucSome still more distressing features were added to the cessful. picture. There were casks of spirits among the other! In the thatch of the cottages, in the snow-wreaths things--of these the poor deluded crowd drank freely; on the hills, buried in their yards and fields, and even and had tliere not been more than enough of spoil for anchored in some snug creek in the bosom of the deep all who came that day, strife and violence must have sea, much valuable property was concealed and secured. ensued. Of those who spent the few dismal hours of Months afterwards, these ill-gotten goods were sold daylight in these unliallowed deeds, two paid a sudden for a trifle to travelling pedlers, or native shopkeepers. and fearful penalty. One man perished in the snow, | A few of the leading depredators were taken into clixlonely and far from help; another died from cold, tody, but a short imprisonment was all the punishmens fatigue, and intemperance, and was found next moru- inflicted. ing by his wife, lying within a few yards of his cottage But the inquiry may naturally arise-In what com door, laden with the spoil for which he paid so dearly. | dition are the Shetlanders now ? Are they not more Yet these warnings, solemn and affecting as they were, enlightened than they were twenty years ago. No did not deter others from engaging in similar scenes doubt the progress of improvement has reached them on the ensuing day. The wind sank during the to a certain extent; yet still they are isolated and nenight into an intense frost; and next morning the sun glected. The laws are very negligently enforced; rose unclouded on the brilliant snow and the still-labour-private grievances are with dificulty, or not at all, reing sea, rolling in, with each huge but rapidly lessen-dressed. Except in the town of Lerwick, there is not ing wave, the packages which floated on the surface a legal practitioner in the islands. Above all, the of the little bay. The inhabitants from the more re- means of education, and especially of religious instruction, mote districts of the island hastened for a share of the are most sparingly and grudgingly bestowed; so that the spoil; and as it was not so abundant as before, much people are, on many subjects commected with their own confusion took place—the fearful passions of envy and others' rights, quite as ignorant and inaceessidae and cupidity being aggravated by intemperance. The to advice as they ever were. This very season, some poor deluded people even attacked the hicap the con- scenes too much like the one we have endearoured sialles had saved, but with little success. The laird to sketch, have taken place. The causes are obvious. and a few friends now went to the scene of action; and would that a remedy could be applied! These causes a striking one it was. The most resistless of Nature's are mainly two-the absence of any police or constaclements seemed yet triumphing in the desolation it bulary force in any part of the islands, and the miserstre had made of the most majestie work of man, whose remmeration the people have ever received for savie umbridied pissions appeared as if mocking and defying wecked goods. Until some more eficient administra the very wrath of llcaven

tion of justice is introduced on the one hand, and some “ While the sun look’d, smiling bright,

more just system of allowance for salvage is adopted, On the wild and woful siglat."

we fear the Shetlanders will still be too ready to talk The magistrate's first act was to order the spirit- the blessing "from the deep-forgetfulof, or disregards cusks to be stayed; and then the constables were armed any other claims than those arising from cupidity and with such fowling pieces is could be procucd, though it sell-interest.



MANNERS, customs, feelings, and character are perhaps more thoroughly to be appreciated in the stories and legends of a land than even in its history. Though much has been written on the subject, yet people in general know little about Russia. Serious books of travels only obtain a partial learing, whiile fiction clainis å large and attentive audience. Nicolas Gogol, since the death of Pouclikine and Lermontoff, is the most popular of Russian writers. But forty years of

age, he has yet, probably, a wide career before him. His play of Revisur, and his novel Meurtria Douchi, we may introduce at a future time to our readers, but at present we purpose making them acquainted with one of his shorter tales.



Sclavonic race,

TARASS Boulla is a narrative illustrating the manners of the Zaporog Cossacks, and a few words of introduction will be necessary. We quote from Viardot:- “Come! turn round. Heavens! how funny! What “ We shall not seek to trace, with Mannert, if the Cossacks thus bedecked at your academy ? "

the deuce is this? The frock of a priest? Are ye all be the descendants of the ancient Scythians (Niebuhır has proved that the Scythians of Herodotus were the ancestors of the Mon

Such were the words with which old Boulba received gols), nor if the Cossacks (in Russian, Kasak) are to be found in the his two sons, who had returned from finishing their Karate of Constantine Porphyrogenetes, the Kassogues of studies at the seminary of Kiew. Nestor, or the horsemen and Russian corsairs, whom the Arabian

His sons had just alighted from their horses. They geographers place around the Black Sea. Like the origin of every nation, that of the Kasaks is obscure.

Schloetzer sup

were two robust young men, who had still that look froni poses them a collection of adventurers of all nations. They were, under their eyes which appertains to seminarists just it is true, recruited from Russians, Poles, Turks, and Tartars, and loose from school. Their faces, full of streugth and even Freuch and Italiaus; but the primitive Kasaks were a health, just began to be clothed with dowis, untouched dwelling on the Ukraine, whence they spread on

as yet by razor. The reception of their father had the borders of the Don, the Ural, and the Volga. It was a little army of eight hundred Kasaks which, under the orders of their disconcerted them; they remained motionless, their alaman Yeriaak, conquered Siberia in 1550.

eyes fixed on the ground. “Pe first hear of the Zaporogs, one of the most warlike of their “Wait! wait! let me cye you at my ense. Heavens! races, in Polish annals of the 16th century. This name was de- 1 what long rohes !” said lie, turning them round and rived from the Ritssian words ca, bevond (trans), and porog, ca

round. “Devils of robes! I am sure, never were the taract, because they dwell beyond the granite beds which check the course of the Dnieper. The country they inhabit is called like seen in the world. Come! let one of you try and Zaporojie. Masters of a great part of the fertile plains and ruu, then I shall see if he won't fall on his nose." steppes of the Ukraine--in their turn allies and enemies of the “Father! don't mock us,” said the elder. Russians, Poles, Tartars, and Turks—the Zaporogs were an emi

"See the fine gentleman !-And why shoud I not nently warlike race, organised in a military republic, with a

mock you?” coarse resemblance to the orders of chivalry. " Their principal head-quarters, called a setch, was usually in

“Because — though you are my father, I swear an island of the Dnieper. It was a collection of great woolen if you continue to laugh, I will thrash you." and earthen huts, surrounded by a glacis, and could as well 'be What! son of a dog, your father?” cried Tarass called a camp as a village. Each cabin (their number was never

Boulba, stepping back in astonishment. over foar hundred) miglit hold forty or fifty Cossacks. During

“Yes, even my father! When I am offended, I summer, while the labours of the field went on, few remained at the setch; but in winter it was guarded by four thousand men.

look to nothing, I care for no one." The rest dispersed themselves in the surrounding villages, or In what way will you fight witli me?-IIi! fists?" dug in the neighbourhood sunken dwellings, called simovniki "All ways are the same to me.” (from cima, winter). The setch was divided into thirty-four

Good !- for fists, then," said Tarass Boulba, tuckquarters or koirèny (from kourit, to smoke, the word korria

ing up his sleeres. " I shall see what sort of follow corresponding with our hearth). Each Kasak duelling in the seteh was bound to live in his kourèn; each hourèut, keown by a

con are at your lists." particular name, generally that of its chief, elected an atuatan And the father and son, instead of embracing, after (kurrennoi-atawan) whose power only lasted as long as the a long absence, commenced giving one another vigorKasaks were satisfied with his conduct. The moncy and goods

ous blows in the sides, in the back, in the breast. of the Kasaks of a kouren were deposited with their olanan, who let out the shops and boats (douby) of his kourin, and held the

See now, good people, the old man is mad; he has

quite lost his senses!" cried the poor mother, pale and common purse. All the Kasaks of a houren dined at one table.

“The collected koureny close a superior chief, the kochéroi- thin, standing on the threshold, where she waited ataman (from kosch, in Tartur, camp; or from kotchéral, Russian, to embrace her dear children. “ The children have to cainp). The rada, or national assembly, which always took

come home, after more than a year's absence; and God pince after dinner, occurred twice a-year, on the 24th June, day

knows what folly he begins with.” of the feast of St. John the Baptist, and on the 1st October, das of the presentation of the Virgin, patroness of the church of

“But he fights very well,” said Bonka, stopping. the setch.

" Yes! 'fore God, he fights well," he continued, shaking "The most distinctive mark of the selch was, that no women his clothes—“so well, that it had been better for ne were admitted within its precincts.”

if I had left him alone. He will be a good Kasak. With this introduction, we beg to introduce M. Good day, my son! Let us embrace."" Gogol's tale, which will afford a rare insight into early

And the father and son embraced. Russian manners.

“Good, son: thrash everybody as you thrashed me;


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give quarter to no one. But all this does not prevent || in old churches. One could only look out by raising your being a queer figure. What is that cord, son? And a little movable sash. The apertures of the doors and you, noodle, what do you there!” he exclaimed, ad. | windows were painted red. In the corner, on dressers, dressing the younger. Why, son of a dog, do you were jars of clay, bottles of dark glass, carved silver not thrash your father ? '

goblets, gilded cups of different manufacture—Venetian, "See what he invents!" said the poor mother, em- Florentine, Turkish,Circassian, which came in a variety bracing him. “Queer inventions, for a son to thrash his of ways to Boulba's hands, and were rather common in own father. And now is just the right moment! A poor those days of warlike forays. Wooden benches, covered child, after such a journey, who must be so tired” (the with brown bark of birch, went round the room. An poor child of twenty was above six feet high), “and immense table stood under the holy images, in one cormust want to rest and eat; and you want him to A large and lofty stove, divided into many com. tight!”

partments, and covered by varnished and variegated · Eh! eh! but you're a puppy, I think,” said Boul- || bricks, filled the other. All this was well known ba. "Son, don't listen to your mother; she's a woman, || to our two young men, who had been used to come and knows nothing. What do you want with pamper- || and spend their holidays at home-to come, and to ing? Your pamperings should be a wide plain and a come on foot, custom not allowing scholars to have horse. And this sword, this is your mother. All the || horses. They were still of an age when the long tuits stuff they put in your head is rubbish; and academies, on the top of their skull could with impunity be pulled and books, and A B C, and philosophers, I spit upon by an armed Kasak. It was only when they left the them!

seminary that Boulba sent them two horses. Boulba added a word which we decline to write. On the occasion of the return of his sons, Boulba

“I know something better, and that is, that next assembled the centenaries of his polk * who were not week you go to the Zaporojie. There science is found; absent; and when two of them came to his invitation, that is your school, and there you will learn wit.”' with the itsaoul, t Dmitri Tovkatch, his old comrade, he

“What! they only remain here a week?” said the presented his sons, saying — good old mother, in a tearful and plaintive voice. “The “See what fine fellows! I will send them to-morrow poor little dears will have no time to amuse themselves, to the setch.and to enjoy the paternal home; and I shall have no The visitors felicitated Boulba and the young men, time to look at them.”

assuring them that they would do well, and that “Be quiet howling, old woman! a Kasak is not there was no better school for youth than the Zemade to be moped up with women. You'd hide them porojie. both under your petticoats, wouldn't you, and hatch Come, lads and brothers,” said Boulba, “sit down, them like chickens? Come, march! Put on the table each where he pleases. And you, my boys, above all, what you have to eat. No honey-cakes, no little drink a glass of brandy. May Heaven bless you! To ragouts! Give us a whole sheep, or a goat ; bring us your health, my sons! To thine, Ostap! To thine, hydromel, forty years old ; and give us brandy, plenty Andry! Heaven grant you good chances of war, and of brandy-not brandy with all kinds of ingredients in that ye beat the Pagans and the Tartars, and—if the it, dry grapes and other adulterations, but pure | Poles begin anything against our holy religion—the brandy, sparkling and frothing like a mad woman. Poles also! Come, give in your glass. Is the brandy

Boulba led his two sons to his room, whence came good ? How do you call brandy in Latin? What out to meet them two fine serving-women, all covered || fopls the Latins were! They did not even know there with monistes.* Was it that they were afraid of the was such a thing as brandy in the world. How do arrival of their young lords, who spared no one, or was you call him who wrote Latin verses ? I am not rery it to keep up to the bashful habits of women? At the learned, I think. I forget his name. Was it not Horace?" sight, they ran away with great cries, and, for a long “Do you hear the sly fellow ? " said the elder son, time after, hid their faces in their sleeves. The cham- || Ostap, in a low tone ; " he knows everything, the old ber was furnished in the style of the time, the remem- || dog, and pretends to know nothing." brance of which is only preserved by the douma, † and 'I expect the archimandrite did not even let you the popular songs which old men formerly sang in smell brandy,” continued Boulba. “Own it, my sons; the Ukraine, accompanying themselves with the you were well whacked with birch broom on the back, bandoura, or guitar, amidst a crowd wliich made a the loins, and all that constitutes a Kasak-or percircle round them; in the style of that rude and haps, because you were big boys, they thrashed you with warlike day which saw the first struggle of the whips, not only on Saturdays, but on Wednesdays and Ukraine against the union. All was clean. The Thursdays.” floor and walls were covered by a coating of shining “One would not remember what is past, father," and painted clay. Swords, whips ( nagaikas ), bird and said Ostap; "what is over is over.” fishing nets, arquebuses, a horn curiously carved, to “Let them try now," said Andry; “let any one serve as a powder-flask, a bridle covered with spangles touch me with the end of his finger; let any Tartar of gold, with horse-shackles covered with silver nails, || fall under my land, he shall learn what a Kasak were hung round the room. The windows, very small, had || sword is.” little round and dull panes, such as now are only seen “Well! my son; well! By Heaven, well spoken! * Ducats of gold, pierced, and hung for ornaments.

Since it is so, I will go with you. What do I * Chronicles chanted, like the ancient Greek rhapsodies, and wait here for? To become a planter of black wheat, the Spanish romances. United Greek Church-a schism, recently extinct, of the

* Officers of his camp. Greek Churchi.

+ Lieutenant of the polbornik.


doinestic man, a keeper of sheep and pigs? To public places, and cry, mounted on a telega," "He ! be codled by my wife ? No; I am a Kasak. What he!


cease to brew beer and lied own by is it to me there is no war? I will go and enjoy the your stoves ; cease to nourish flies with the fat of your good time with you. Yes, by Heaven, I will go !” bodies. Go to the conquest of honour and chivalrous

And old Boulba, warming a little, ended by becom. Il glory! And you, men of the plough, planters of black ing quite red, rose from table, and stamped his foot in corn, keepers of sheep, amateurs of petticoats, cease to an imperious attitude.

trail at the tails of your oxen; cease to soil your yellow “We will go tomorrow !-why put off? What do | caftans in the dirt; cease to court your wives, and to let we wait for here? What is the good of this house? | lie fallow your virtue of knights. It is time to rise to What is the use of these pots ? What is the good of the conquest of Kasak glory." all this? "

These words were like sparks on dry wood. The Speaking thus, he began to break the plates and labourer abandoned his plough; the brewer broke his bottles. The poor woman, long used to such actions, || barrels and jars; the artisan left his loom; all broke looked sadly from a bench on her husband. She dared their household furniture, and leaped on horseback. say nothing, but the resolution cost her tears enough. In a word, the Russian character received a new form, She cast a furtive look on the children she was so soon large and powerful. to lose, and nothing could convey the suffering depicted Tarass Boulba was an old polkovnikt - made for the in her streaming eyes and compressed lips.

difficulties and dangers of war, he distinguished himself Boulba was furiously obstinate. His was one of by the straightforwardness of his character. The inthose characters only to be developed in a savage cor- lluence of Polish manners was beginning to tell on the ner of Europe, when all Northern Russia, abandoned little Russian nobility. Many gave themselves up to by its princes, was ravished by the irresistible incur- | luxury-had numerous domestics, falcons, parks for sions of the Moguls; when, after having lost his roof, hunting-and gave dinners. This was not after the man takes refuge in the courage of despair; when, on heart of Tarass; he liked the simple Cossack life, and the smoking ruins of his house, in the presence of near often quarrelled with those who imitated Warsaw, and implacable enemies, he dares to rebuild his home, calling them the slaves of the Polish pun. Always braving the danger, but daring to look it in the face ; || restless in movement, and bold, he looked on himself when, in fine, the pacific genius of Sclavonia was in- as one of the natural defenders of the Russian Church. flamed by warlike ardour, and gave birth to that dis- | He entered, without permission, into all the villages orderly outburst of Russian nature which was the where the oppression of the gatherers, or an increase Cossack (Kasa-Tchestvo). Then all the borders of the of taxes, was complained of. There, surrounded by his rivers, all the fords, all the defiles in the marshes were Kossacks, he judged complaints. His rule was to use covered by Cossacks, whom none could count; and their his sword in three cases; when the intendants showed bold envoy could say to the Sultan, who asked their no deference to their elders, and took not off their number, “Who knows ?-In every patch of a field, a caps; when any one mocked religion or old customs; Kasak.” It was an explosion of Russian strength and when he was in the presence of his enemies, caused by misfortune. Instead of the ancient oudely,* | Turks or Pagans, against whom he believed himself to instead of the little villages peopled by hunting vassals, || draw his sword for the glory of Christianity. He now which the petty princes quarrelled about and sold, there rejoiced at the pleasure of taking his sons to the setch, appeared fortified towns, koureni,t bound together by to say with pride, "See what chaps I bring you!” to a common sentiment of danger, and hatred of the Pagan present them to his old companions in arms, and to be invaders. History tells us how the struggle of the witness of their first exploits in the art of war, and that Kossacks saved Western Europe from the barbarous of drinking-one of the virtues of a knight.

Tarass at invasion of Asiatic hordes. The kings of Poland, who first meant to send them alone; but at sight of their became the quasi-masters of these vast steppes, felt handsome mien, of their lofty stature, of their masthe importance of these warlike nations. They laboured || culine beauty, his old warlike ardour was roused, and to develop them. The hetman elected by the Ka- he decided, with all the energy of an obstinate will, to saks themselves transformed the koureni into a regular go with them the next day. He made preparations, polk. I It was not a standing and permanent army; || gave his orders, chose the horses and the harness for but in case of war, or a general movement, all were

his twoyoung sons, selected the domestics to accompany collected in eight days at least. All answered the them, and delegated his commands to the iésaoul, Tovappeal with horse and arms, receiving no pay save one katch, ordering him to march at the head of the whole ducat a-head. In a fortnight, such an army was on polk, whenever the order came from the setch. Though foot as no recruiting ever collected. The war ended, not quite sobered, and though the fumes of brandy were each soldier returned to his fields on the borders of the still in bis brains, he forgot nothing, not even the order Dnieper, occupied himself with fishing, hunting, and to give the horses a drink and a ration of the best retail trade, brewed beer, and enjoyed liberty. There barley. was no trade which a Kasak could not accomplish ; distil Well, my children,” said he, entering the house, brandy, make a cart, manufacture powder, play the farrier “it is time to go to sleep; and to-morrow we shall do and blacksmith, and, above all, drink and enjoy himself as that which it shall please God. But let no beds be a Russian only can. Besides the registered Kasaks, I made-we will sleep in the court.” whose duty was to come, volunteers could always be Night had scarcely obscured the heavens; but had. The iísaoul had only to go into the markets and | Boulba was used to go to bed early. He threw him* Ancient feudal division of Russia.

* Cart. + Union of villages under an elective chief called ataman. + Head of a polk, now a colonel. Kind of regiment.


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