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rate but powerful address. The motion, we have the supposition consists intimately with the character said, was not exactly of a practical character, and yet of the man, and the present interests of his throne. it answered the purposes of the mover. It impressed | The feudal system has always required the hand the House of Commons and the country in favour of of an energetic and self-willed monarch for its destrucpeace; and of arbitration, as a better means for the tion. The late Emperor of Austria was opposed to serfsettlement of disputes than war; and still it no more ship; but he wanted the necessary power and energy of admitted of legislation than a motion in favour of character openly to defy the aristocracy, and bend doing unto others as you would that they should do them to his will. Therefore he condescended to plot unto you. August coinmenced with the impressions against them in Gallicia, and probably also in Hunderived from these discussions floating on the popular gary, for the privileged classes are more numerous in mind ; but it had been preceded by a few pro- | Hungary and Trausylvania than in any other departMagyar meetings in London and some of the larger ment of the Austrian Empire. The present Emperor towns. During its curency these meetings have of Russia possesses great vigour and strength of chacovered the land; or they have, at least, taken | racter. Remarkable bodily and mental qualities com possession of all the towns. We scarcely could bine, in his case, the materials necessary for the formaname a town of any note in which Hungariantion of an arbitrary monarch. He is said to be, like meetings have not been held; and they have been, Saul, a head higher than the people. He has been without any exceptions that we know, crowded, accustomed to consider his will and the law as difenthusiastic, and zealous demonstrations in fa- | ferent words, with one meaning. And yet this man bas vour of the Hungarians ; up, even to the point been baffled in his wish to free the peasantry from of war, in their behalf. We hold that the spirit | serfdom. The nobles are too strong for him. They evinced at all these meetings was a war-spirit. are willing that fie should represent their tyranus, The Ministry of the day might have declared but they will not permit his interference with their war on the strength of these manifestations, with property, with the peasants, whom they buy and sell

, out being accused of acting against the popular whom they whip and work, whom they feed or slar, feeling. Some parties engaged in them may now, entirely for their own advantage, pleasure, and satisin cooler moments, cast doubts upon their belli- || faction. gerent tendency; yet records remain to prove, that This execrable system bas prevailed amongst many in calling them warlike meetings, we walk by || nations of Europe to the present year; and while

Negro slavery has been condemned and repudiated in Our purpose does not now embrace any further this country; while we have been urging the United inquiry than has been already made into the character States to emancipate their slaves ; while we have been of the Magyar cause, or the origin of the Hungarian blockading the African coast to interrupt the slave

The appearance of the Russians a stage farther trade; while we have been rapidly raining our own south than their allotted place in Europe, decided all tropical colonies to prevent the possibility of a Negro questions of that nature ; for we hold not, with Mr. immigration reverting into Negro slavery, we are Cobden, anno 1835, that the Russians may occupy never had speech, tract, or resolution against the Constantinople without any disadvantage to our in- grinding serfdom, which is slavery, beneath which terests, while we may even regard that change of nearly one-half of the people of Europe live wretchedis, masters at the Bosphorus as a step in civilization—and and die miserably, to this present lour, not with Mr. Cobden, anno 1849, that the Russians Russia is the great representative of feudal power might be rolled up, and turned back to their natural and arbitrary sway. Therefore, from the dat when wilds, by England, with the ease with which he could Russia crossed the Hungarian frontier to enforce the stamp a crumpled piece of paper beneath his boot; | cause and views of Austria, the war changed its asbut, with those who know them better, that the Rus- | pect, and became one against European freedom and sians form the most barbarons, enslaved, and power- enlightenment. It was midnight re-invading the dawn. ful nation of continental Europe—a nation to whom | The meetings held upon this topic in our towns were, civilization is yet almost unknown, and whose faitli as we have already said, thoroughly warlike. Some and politics join iu pledging them to implicit obedience of their promoters wanted pacific demonstrations under one man, or to the small faction who are his They wanted appeals made to the reason of Paskeadvisers. The good intentions of the Emperor, when witch or the humanity of Haynau. These gentlemen he has any, are circumscribed within a narrow range.cannot provoke any person's sarcasm. They are so He necessarily regards his subjects as inferior beings, || purely children in the world that they must be reto be employed through the agencies most conducive garded with more respect than compassion ;' and they to his power. He is thoroughly unacquainted with are very unfit subjects for contempt. They must not the restraints of either constitutional government, or suppose, however, that they can raise the whilwind, of a healthy public opinion. Within the empire, and shape it to their will. The people possess commou there be

a power superior even to that of the sense; and if they are told of a great wrong, they fall Czar. The power of the nobility may overtop the back at once upon the only known remedy that works throne. It has been even whispered in enlightened within a generation for great evils. Sympathy with Europe that some barrier of that nature existed between the Hungarians meant nothing unless it embraced the the sceptre and the spade--between the Czar and the means and material of war.

Intercession with the people; a barrier that intercepted alike the purposes tiger for the ox between his teeth would promise equally of the throne and the complaints of the hut. The well with intercession at St. Petersburg for Hungary, present Emperor is believed to have decided on the unless the remonstrance were backed by a tlect in the abolition of serfship or slavery, within his dominions. Baltic,

war.

may

an answer.

The people saw this fact plainly, and the great ma- nion regarding these affairs. Proclamations have been jority who attended sympathising meetings were in fa- || issued by both Kossuth and Georgey, but documents vour of war. The currents of public opinion in this coun- of that nature are often mcant to conceal the truth; try are not without tides and changes. Economy was although we gather from Kossuth's statement that he in the ascendancy during June-peace and arbitration did not mean to continue tlie contest in any quarter of in July-War for freedom in August; but August came

the country.

Paskewitch has declared, in different too late in the season. The responsibilities of the lat- | bulletins, that Georgey made no stipulation previous to ter position rested on those by whom it was promoted. || the submission of his army. The statement is contraAre they prepared for war? The question may yet | dicted by various reports, to which we refer in succes. be asked by men who will allow short time to framesion. The first is, that the affair was arranged with

We come to that point by-and-by. Even the Austrian Government, who granted a complete sympathy with the oppressed is a provocation to the amnesty to all parties engaged in the war, with the oppressor; and we cannot express abhorrence of a exception of five individuals, who had passports, includ man's acts without incurring his displeasure. The ing permission to Icave the country, conveyed to them. most sympathetic people in this country may claim This report is sanctioned by a rumour which preceded it, the free right of thought, speech, and publication. that ambassadors had been sent to the Hungarian This is their undoubted privilege, if they be determined head-quarters by the Austrian Emperor to treat for to defend it ; but we live in difficult times, when, if a peace on any terms. Georgey may, therefore, have nation will exercise all their rights, they must be pre-made no conditions of surrender with Paskewitch, and pared to undertake their defence.

yet the business may have been otherwise arranged ; The short and arduons campaign of the present although, if assurances so favourable as the indepensummer promised well for the Magyars. The hosts dence of Hungary, the permanence of its old constitii. of Austria and Russia were met and checked in every tion, and a general amnesty had been conceded, we quarter. The statement of the battles fought in June presume that the proclamations of Georgey and Kosand July can hardly yet be systematically drawn up, suth would have been less desponding in their tone; for conflicting reports reached this country, and every but we do not forget that the copies in this country fragment was published. The efforts of Bem anı Geor- may never have been scen or signed by the chiefs whose gey appeared, however, to be successful; and, towards names they bear. the middle of this last month, we were informed that Another report ascribes the transaction to the inRaab had been re-occupied by the Hungarians, that their fluence of the British ambassador, supported by the hussars were at Presburg, and that Viema was in remonstrances of his principal, Viscount Palmerston. danger. · General Haynau and a large portion of his Lord Ponsonby deprecated the course pursued by army had gone south to assist the Ban of Croatia, who the Magyar leaders, and he foresaw the probaliad been descated, and they were never expected to ble invasion of their territory by Russia twelve return. On the intelligence, the friends of Hungary monthis before the occurrence of that event. The speculated here. They reckoned on the Magyar armies opinions of Viscount Palmerston were stated in the keeping the field until winter, and on the accidents of House of Commons before the prorogation of Parliafour months, to aid them before the spring-time came. ment. He promised then to seize the first opporThese hopes have been cruelly disappointed. The tunity that might occur for opening a negotiation be. Hungarians had been defeated by Ilavnau at Temes. i tween the contending parties. He did not conceal the var, and by Luders at Hermannstadt. These de, abhorrence of this country to any increase of Russian inseats induced Kossuth to resign, and Georgey to capi- fluence in central Europe ; and he stated the conviction tulate without conditions. The latter event was per- of every individual in this country conversant with fected on the night between the 13th and 14th, when foreign polities to be favourable to the maintenance of the Hungarian General surrendered himself and his a strong empire in the position of Austria. Actuated army to the Russian General, Paskewitch. The ar- by these views, lie may have improved the openings alrangement is not fully explicable at present. The deforded by the disposition of the young Emperor of fents sustained by the Hungarians were

Austria to treat for a pacification; and the known but they had still large arinies in the field. They feeling of this country in favour of Hungary held possession of Comorn, and the principal fort-|| wonld promote any negotiation carried on through The season

was considerably advanced ; the British embassy with the Ilungarians. If this and although the Russians poured into their coun. supposition be correct, we can easily account for the try, in great numbers, still part of the forces must unconditional surrender of Georgey and his army to leave been soon withdrawn. Dissensions are said to the Rnssians ; but not for the despairing style of the have existed between Kossuth and Georgey; and the proclamations issued by that General, and by Kossuth. report is rendered more probable by the circumstance Following the assumption that this explanation is not that. Georgey is believed to entertain aristocratic, and unfounded, that the final arrangements were made, as Kossuth.democratic, principles. The confidence given has been stated from Paris, at Warsaw, and that the by Kossuth to the Polislı Generals may have partly British Ambassador was the principal negotiator, the caused the dissensions between him and Georgey. The responsibility of this country for the promised conditions batter, as an old Austrian officer, and a Ilungarian chief, may be assumed; but from the declarations made at so may have considered himself entitled to more complete ! many publie mectings on the Ilungarian question, we control over the armies than was awarded to him in infer that the country is not disposed to complain of, or the arrangements of Kossuth; for Bem and Dembinski to shrink from, this responsibility, although it might are both Polish Generals. From the limited nature of involve an adjournment of the objects so zealously the information yet received, we cannot form any opi-sought by the Financial Reform Association.

severe ;

resses.

may, however, add this statement, that, for the rumour, || said regarding the river-way of Hungary. Access to no better gromds are given than for any other report, | the Black Sea is not of material importance to a cornexcept the circumstantial evidence that the story is growing country, especially if that aceess be through probable, and that Viscount Palmerston wishes, if it the territories, as in this case, of a hostile and powerinl be not true, that it had been well founded ; because state ; for the Euxine itself is only open during the the achievement would have been creditable to his pleasure of Turkey--and, during a war bet ween Russia diplomatic skill.

and Turkey, the Sultan might wish to close the BosHungary, with its present territorial arrangement, || phorus. could not have formed any barrier to Europe against The commercial and geographical argument thus the power of Russia. Offers of commercial advantages rather supports our opiuion, that the present territory were freely made in this country as a return for poli massed together under the Austrian power requires tical assistance. A reciprocal advantage was proposed. to be kept together, for the peace of Europe and the We were to have cheap duties, and Hungary was to benefit of its inhabitants--with the probable exception have our aid in enforcing measures to enable her Diet of Lombardy to the line of the Mineio, which seems to to enact them. The argument never could have been be disjointed from the other provinces, and of minor used by parties conversant with a good map of Eastern importance to the stability of the empire. This end Europe ; for the statement was entirely a London in- can never be attained thoroughly by any measure short vention. Hungary is completely surrounded by the of an absolute monarchy on one side, or a thoroughly territories of Turkey, Russia, and Austria. The do.just and constitutional government on the other. minions of the Sultan would offer no obstacle to the The former plan has been tried in able hands, and low commercial tariff proposed on account of Hungary has failed. The latter might, after March, 1848, hare by the English friends of that country; for the Turks' been honestly attempted, except for the Lombard inare satisfied with the lowest possible transit duty. 'surrection and the Magyar war. The revolt of the The route proposed for Hungarian imports was not, Lombards was, undoubtedly, encouraged by the attihowever, through Turkey, but by the port of Fiume.tude of our Ambassador-extraordinary, the Eari or This small town, on the coast of the Adriatic, belongs Minto. Our diplomacy at that juncture was very unto Croatia ; and, if the Magyars have a right to choose skilful. Prejudice for Charles Albert occupied the their mode of government, the Croats must be equally place of policy. Under pretence of aiding liberts, we privileged; but they have been the most persevering determined to form a new great power, and to aggrak opponents of the Magyars, and, under the Ban of Cro-'dise a pet dynasty. From similar motives, we gave the atia, Jellachich, have mainly prevented the revolt from Sicilians the aid of our influence and our ships, under, acquiring complete success. The port of Fiume was, apparently, the condition that they should choose a new therefore, only to be got at by attacking the Croats, master from the House of Savoy, with a constitutional conquering them, and administering towards them the arrangement that prevented him from being honest and policy against which Hungary had risen in arms. liberal if he had been inclined. The Duke of Genoa Without more than the acquisition of independence, considered, but refused, the offer, from doubts of the Hungary was powerless. An inland state, completely sincerity or the power of Viscount Palmerston in the closed up from the ocean, cannot, in these days, acquire case; and Naples recovered Sicily because the Russian perfect indepeudence. The deep blue sea is the true cra- Emperor insisted on giving the Neapolitan Goveru. dle of liberty. Germany, as a united power, has struggled ment moral and physical aid. Austria regained Lomfor Schleswig-Holstein, to increase its harbours and its bardy by the force of arms; beat and demolished Charles navy. The question was not one of right, but of might, Albert, until Sardinia was beneath the feet of Radetzki; between Denmark and Germany. The ports of Schles- and aided the Dukes of Tuscany and Modena, and wig Holstein were needed by the Germans, and they the Pope, to recover their old positions. France, inwere willing to overlook justice for the sake of con- stead of fulfilling Lamartine's promise to aid strug. venience. Similar reasons have induced Austria, even gling nationalities, invaded the Roman territory, bomwhile her empire was in danger of destruction, to con- barded the Ronian city, and, by an act of atrocious tinue the blockade of Venice. The Italian provinces wickedness, destroyed the Government that it should are partly essential to the existence of Austria ; Lom- have encouraged and protected. The Hungarians wert, hardy might be separated from the empire without meanwhile, engaged, first in combating Jellachich and great inconvenience, but Trieste and Venice are neces. the Croats, next in assisting the discontented of Vienna, saries of existence to the Austrian Empire. The strip then in campaigning on their own soil against l'inof Dalmatia might, indeed, afford other harbours to dischgratz

, and lastly, in fighting the combined Austrian cither Austria or Hungary--but the latter had no good and Russian armies. No time has been, therefore, claim on Dalmatia; and thus, be it observed, this con- ||ufforded to try the honesty of the professions made flict really was not either for Hungarian independence by the Austrian Court ; but against the constitution or a constitution, but to decide whether Austria or promulgated by Count Stadion, the Magyars rebelled, Hmgary should be supreme, because their existence and the Cronts are even said to have protested. This must be mutual, and they require access to the constitution, we understand, contemplates the union Adriatic. We have observed, in several addresses made of the various nationalities that compose the Austrian on this topic, reference to the Danube, the Theiss, and Empire. The plan resembles our British union, and the other rivers, as affording great commercial advantages || Austrian Empire cannot assume the force and strength to Hungary; but although these fine rivers pass through necessary for its position without at least a federal Hungary, yet the Theiss joins the Danube, and the union of its many states. The restoration of the old Dannbe flows into the Euxine. This sentence furnishes, Hungarian constitution would be the revival of a detherefore, a sufficient answer to anything that can be lI spotism; and that, therefore, cannot be wanted by any

Russia may

friend of freedom who understands the subject. Britain || maritime powers. They reckon correctly, if they can get would not spend a shilling-would not dim a single || all the ships of all the maritime powers into one fleet a sword blade--to revive the feudal system in any corner but they would discover, like Dembinski and Georgey, of the world. Something far different from that most ob- that difficulties sometimes exist in the way of a juncjectionable scheme must be obtained for Hungary. An tion. This treaty of Warsaw would prove, iu that Austrian union-or let it be called by the name most case, a costly affair for us; and, as yet, we kuow no: agreeable to the majority, a union of the states form- || thing of the fate contrived for us after we are beaten ing the Austrian Empire, at least, upon the basis of the on the ocean. What is to be done with us on the United States, with an emperor for president, as all land ? Are we to be partitioned, or only winged ? Is the nationalities seem monarchical-is essential to save France to have Ireland-Russia to get Hindostanthe East of Europe, and European freedom and civili- and Prussia this small British fief, holding under its zation, from those dangers that now threaten them, principal until the proper time arrives for fusing the and impend over the dearest interests of mankind. If world into one mass of cream-coloured and lifeless Viscount Palmerston can effect that object, he will despotism ? earn the first place amongst the world's diplomatists, The dream is not worse than any other vision of poliassist most sigually the cause of the world's freedom, ticians. Stung by their danger, and flushed by the victory and effectually crush and disappoint the world's great-over democracy, the allied powers may propose to crush est political enemy.

the life of freedom out of Europe, and they may consider Another rumour in explanation of the Hungarian our own country as the heart of European liberty. We surrender has been circulated in many quarters. It is can be thankful for the compliment, without consenting alleged that the arrangement was formed at Warsaw, to the fate mapped out for our country. If the war as one article of a coalition-Europe against England. ||of opinion, foreseen by George Canning and Napoleon, Russia, Prussia, France, Bavaria, and Austria are, by is but commencing—if we are compelled to join the this statement, our signed, sealed, and sworn enemies. I struggle, that is, if we are to be attacked, the result Belgium goes to France, as the price of the Republic's will be ruinous to freedom or to despotism; for it is adhesion to its own destruction ; Austria has, proba- || not probable that we should take the cost and the sacribly, leave to live, as its part of the spoil ; Bavariatices of a great war without inaking the end of those who may get the incorporation of three or four smaller cause war its only day of peace. War, on any preGerman states to swell it into respectability; Prussia, tence of this nature, would terminate in the dethronewe presume, is to obtain the lead of Germany, and ment of more than one European prince, and the exHamburgh-perhaps all the Hanse towns- :---as the price tirpation of more than one dynasty. for breaking its alliance with Britain.

The realization of these dismal forebodings is not, look for the Bosphorus, for Elsinore, the Black Sea, we think, a matter to be greatly feared. The powers and the Baltic, on its private account, in course of of the Continent will find work sufficient within their time, and the Danubian provinces for a present instal- own frontiers. But now, passing from speculations to ment. According to this statement, we have got, facts, how stands the progress of free institutions at through foreign secretaryship and sympathy, into a the end of August, 1849 France threw out the serious mess.

One speaker, at a Hungarian meeting, | Orleanists in February, 1818; and has now done an in reference, probably, to the topic, assured the act of high daring against freedom and the indepenaudience that it would be better to fight the Russians dence of a foreign state, such as the Orleans dynasty on the Danube or the Theiss than on the banks of the would have trembled to attempt. France is, thereThames or the Clyde. We cordially concur in the fore, worse than before the Revolution, for the name sentiment, if these Tartars and other tribes must be “ Republic may cover the most unmitigated defought with and crumpled up, as Mr. Cobden has it. spotism. The Germans stand where they were pre

Some foundation may exist for the statement, be- l vious to the great bloodshed of 1848 and 1819, amongst cause the French Government are believing in a strong the German States; or worse than they were, because delusion, and imagine that they can restore either the the friends of despotic principles, being forewarned, are Bourbons or the Empire. The European powers, will. | forearmed. ing to injure Britain for its sympathies, its feelings, The worst feature in the German case is that the and the refuge afforded on our shores to the outcasts, struggle between kings and people was staired with and, following out their common restrictive commercial so gross errors in the name of the people, that their policy, may be inclined to make Europe up in a grand success was not very desirable. The blood unjustly Zolverein, and keep or put us “out of the play.”' || shed in Denmark cries against the authors of these Their plans may be successful in some measure, without

Italy is again crushed down without union or the ultimate resort of angry monarchs-war; but their a constitution. Sardinia comes out of the contest subjects may discover that they have to make their with the loss of a king, an army, and six or seven market in two ways. They have not only to buy, but millions sterling. The Roman Republic is trampled to sell; and if they can do without our trade, we be- under the feet of republicans ; and the Inquisition is lieve that we could get through the world without re-installed in power by the arms of freethinkers. their business. Naples has joined the coalition, forSicily is again united to Naples, and the Neapowe really injured Naples, and the king of that country | litans have probably lost their constitution. The has wrongs to resent. All the smaller powers, we infer, Lombards are subjected to Austria, without any share fall into the arrangement, as a matter of course and of that legislative representation which they were compulsion. Those well-initiated persons who profess promised. Hungary is beneath the feet of the Austo know the whole matter say that the coalition reckon trian and Russian Emperors.

Baffled and beaten, on beating us at sea, by the united forces of all the revolt has a shelter on one spot alone, on the shores

errors.

of the Adriatic, amongst the old lagoons and canals of || sword. The reasons are obvious, for the season was Venice. The roused lion of St. Mark has evinced badly selected for a French attendance. The legislamore of the old Italian spirit than the Roman eagle; tive session'is over'All the residents of Paris who and if Italy should ever regain its old independence, | can leave the metropolis have fled to the country. and embrace all its geographical boundaries, under | Like London, the capital of France is abandoned. one system of government, Venice, that has in course Still, some great men remained behind, to speak for of its ancient and modern history defied Sultan and peace in France. The Archbishop of Paris writes in Emperor, should be the metropolis. But Italy cau | its favour. Beranger, the Burns of France, gave in' never attain that position without stretching beyond his adhesion. Victor Hugo, the Walter Scott of it. An Italian republic or an Italian kingdom, with | French novelists, presided at one of the meetings. Trieste and Venice incorporated, must sway the des- / M. Gerardin, the most assiduous and one of the most tinies of Croatia and Hungary. This is the wretched influential French journalists, addressed the Congress, end of an eighteen months' struggle for freedom; and France was not, therefore, unworthily represented; the game might have been better played.

while the facilities afforded by the Government, and

the attention shown to the members of Congress, deTHE PEACE CONGRESS.

served praise. Some of the ideas promulgated at the On the 23d, 24th, and 25th of last month, this body, Congress we reject, and adopt others. The cosmoconsisting of a few American and German representa- || politanism--the fus of nations--the communism tives, a larger number of Frenchmen, and a very large applicable to states-we reject. We have a country— number of British subjects, comprising several Members we love it better thau any other country ; and by so of Parliament, met at Paris. The principles of the doing, and so continuing to do, every man will best. Congress fall short of the mark made by the members || promote the world's welfare in his own sphere. of the Society of Friends. The Peace Congress con We do not, however, carp at little differences of template the employment of all proper means calculated this nature. Great designs can never be carried forto prevent international wars--a description of contest | ward without them; and if the Peace Society can smooth that, excepting the Danish and German war, seems prejudices, can - increase national intercourse, reduce out of date in Europe. Here the divisions of nations the costs of postage and transmission of information, go to war with each other, and are successful in can abolish or lessen hostile tariffs, can make nations the work of mutual destruction. The object of the know each other better and love each other more Congress is surely most desirable. Peace is the than they have hitherto done, can in a century prebest of blessings, after freedom ; and although peacevent a battle and lengthen out a thousand lives, it. at any price forms no article of our creed, yetmay be fully forgiven for the errors of some members. few wars have occurred in which both parties and the eccentricities of others, and receive, notwith. were not partly blameable, and wherein much evil standing them, a sincere "benison” from all whom it might not have been prevented by arbitration. One may encounter. American gentleman proposed to have a court of nations Mr. Hindley, M.P., and the phonographists, suggest ready made for the pacification of differences as they one great means of doing good—too visionary, perhaps, originated. Mr. Cobden put down that idea in a way, as yet, but not impracticable. Mr. Hindley complained and by an argument, which throw light on his prin- that he had learned to read without being able to ciples regarding peace. He objected to a court of ar- speak the French language. The complaint would be rebitration, because the appointment of referees and an markably common if we were all quite candid. The umpire would be better made for each occasion that phonographists attempt to reform our orthography, for arose than on any general system. He said, for ex- | the purpose of getting us to pronounce what we write. ample, that in a quarrel on naval or military grounds, || Their scheme is stenography, as all reporters know, an admiral or a general officer would form the best produced under a new dress, and not quite so efficienils arbiter. So far he is correct; but the opinion pre- as many persons have practised the science under its old supposes the continued existence of admirals and gene- | name. If their plan had been adopted two centuries rals, the permanence of a military force, and thus be- || ago, and maintained ever since—if we had changed our comes a very

actical in which a great number orthography with our pronunciation, veryfew living mer of people may join to induce nations to give peace a would have read Shakspeare. Sir David Lyndsay of the preference over war, and to bear long and suffer much, Mount tries the reading powers of most Scotchnen even of positive injury, before they commence a career more than sufficiently. It would be better, as we have of destruction and slaughter.

a number of letters pretty well known orer Europe and These views have been expressed by good men in America, to adhere to them, to cashier the idle sineevery age. Gradually the number of their advocates curists amongst them, and to fix definitely their powers has increased. Tew military leaders of the present and sounds, in the hope that we might abide by the day refuse to them a theoretic recognition. Few writers law of nations in our pronunciation hereafter. If some advocate war, with the exception of one friend of ours, | thing of this kind could be effected, to read and to speak who lays it down that the sword prevents pestilence- a foreign language would be one acquisition. lowan idea at variance with the experience that has as- ever, the scheme will be too visionary for the present sociated them as perambulating the world together. day. We must wait awhile before that change can Famine, sword, and pestilence, like Macbeth's three| be accomplished. It has been said that the French witches, boil their different ingredients in one cauldron. Government has thrown cold water on the Congress,

The French gentlemen present at the Congress as by setting the fountains to play in honour of the members were not numerous from the classes of note || members. Cold water has been showered on many and consideration in politics, literature, science, or the things that rose at last

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