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that is, became extinct in the male branch ; but he a needle point. This superiority could not have does not prove satisfactorily, and adduces no clear | existed during the many hundred years of Roman evidence from any other authority, that the “Lyndy-/ occupation of England, and of the south of Scotsays" did not exist and flourish in England before land, when walls were formed from sea to sea, to the arrival of the Normans in other words, that | build out the northern tribes. It could not have the great district of Lindesey, in Lincolnshire, was existed when the distressed ancient Britons and not represented by a Saxon family of that name, Roman colonists, whose descendants are still, wenn and that the Scottish Lindsays are not descen- believe, existing in England and Scotland, begged dants of the Saxon earl—who may have found a re- a legion or two from Rome to save them from their fage in the court of Malcolm Caenmore, to which destructive and irritated neighbours. It could not many Saxons fled with the royal Saxon family, and have existed during the Heptarchy; for to which of were kindly received, in gratitude for the entertain- | the Saxon kingdoms was Scottish fealty due? It was ment of Malcolm Caenmore at the English court, only after England began to be consolidated by during his exile.

Alfred, that any claim of this nature could have been A descent from a Saxon earl is not less credit. || possibly raised. History shows that the Saxon able for all good purposes than one from a Norman monarchs, from Alfred to Harold, never were in a baron; and, so far as the Scottish Lindsays are con- condition to make any claim of that nature. It cerned, is the more probable turn in their genealogy. I could not have grown up during the reign of MalThe existence of a French Norman family of the colm Caenmore's predecessor; and it could not have name of Limesay is proved. The extension of a been preferred during the period immediately prebranch of this family to England, with the Normans, ceding that, for Scotland was divided amongst difis almost equally clear; but the existence of two ferent chiefs, who exercised regal authority, and names so nearly resembling each other as Lyndysay one of whom invaded England. The superiority or Lyndeseye, and Limesay, does not prove them to claimed resolves itself into a defensive alliance,combe the same, although, at a subsequent period, they mon amongst nations at all times; for a superiority may have been confounded with each other, as was that could not touch property, manners, laws, or doubtless the case in England.

liberty, is nothing, and ex nihilo nihil fit. The preA chapter follows on the origin of the different tence originated in the circumstance that the Scotraces that people these islands; and Lord Lindsaytish kings were sometimes extensive English land. adopts the views of those who suppose that the Celts owners, and, in that capacity, were as much feudaare a mixed race, mixed in a more marked degree tories of the English crown as any other owners of than the Teutonic, to which both Saxons and Nor- | the English soil. The only “incontrovertible historimans belong–insomuch as that the descendants of cal authority," quoted by Lord Lindsay is Sir Japheth and Ham are intermingled amongst the Francis Palgrave ! His lordship alleges that the Celts---endorsing thus a curious legend in old Irish historical fact—the imaginary superiority-may be tradition. The origin of the Teutonic race is hid- l“ unpalatable to our national pride;" but we do not den in the deepest gloom. They came thundering share that feeling. We cannot get over the facts down, we are told by Lord Lindsay, from the Per- that England is, and always has been, a larger, sian mountains; and it may be true, but the subject more populous, and wealthier country than Scotrequires, and would repay, more minute inquiry land ; and these facts are not unpalatable.

We than it has ever yet received. If they came from cannot change them, and have no reason to the Persian mountains, they are in a fair way of be nationally ashamed of their existence. If, completing the circle by the re-occupation of the therefore, the Saxon emperors, as they are styled, same mountains again.

had achieved a superiority of some kind, and the Lord Lindsay holds, "though it may be unpala- | one claimed for them is impossible, the Scotch table to our national pride, that the Scoto-Pictish I could have had no more reason to be hurt by the Kingdom was subjected, not in property, but politi- | result, in their feelings of national pride, than any cally, to the Saxon Kings;” and states, on what he other small nation beaten by a great power. The calls “incontrovertible historical evidence,” that the conquest of Scotland was not an achievement calSaxon“Basileus,” or “Emperor, held this superiority calated to reflect additional honour on the rivals of -not, as may be supposed, over provinces feudally | France. We treat the claim, therefore, as any held of England, but over the whole of the Scottish other groundless statement put now in a form that dominions of the Scottish kings--a superiority, it could not be true. Lord Lindsay, indeed, says is to be remembered, purely political, and implying that Malcolm Caenmore failed in endeavouring to neither right to the soil, nor interference with the throw off this superiority at the date of the Connational laws, liberties, and manners—while the quest, and was compelled to do homage to William protection thus accorded to the Scottish kings the Conqueror; while, in the same page, he informs in acknowledgment of their dependence, saved us that Malcolm's successor, Edgar, assumed the those laws and liberties, in instances innumerable, | title of “Bassileus,” or Emperor of Britain, being from annihilation.” We can make nothing out the rightful heir to the English crown, by maof a superiority which was not to interfere with pro- ternal descent; and we cannot help thinking perty, with laws, with national liberties, or national that the Norman kings would have prevented manners. Lord Lindsay might perceive that these the employment of any of their titles by one exceptions preclude the possibility of its exist- of their feudal dependants, if they had been ence. They occupy the entire ground, without in a condition to enforce obedience. A feudal inleaving to the superiority claimed the breadth of ferior was not likely to advance such claims and

to use this title. We cannot doubt the civilizing || riod—the beginning of the twelfth century—a com. results to Scotland from the influx of Saxonparatively modern date. In the early part of the earls and refugees at the period of the Conquest. | thirteenth century, the Lindsays became connected The security found by them north of the border with the district of Crawford-the barren ground evinces the utter hollowness of this claim for supe- || intersected now by the Caledonian railway, and fiority on the part of the English crown. If supe- || forming the highest summits, that have given the riority meant anything, it would carry the power engineers the greatest trouble, and from which the to expel rebels against the English king from the Annan and the Clyde run south and west, in diffe. boundaries of Scotland. If Malcolm Caenmore paid rent directions, to the sea. The Earldom of Crafhomage to William the Norman for the crown of ford was, therefore, long retained in the family of Scotland, he would have been required to expel the Lindsays after their chief possessions were the Saxon refugees from his court and the country. I achieved in Forfarshire; and their principal resi: This demand seems never to have been made, and dences were at Edzell, in Glenesk; and Finhaven, certainly it was not conceded. The great immi- on the South Esk, in that county. The Lindsays, gration of Saxon refugees, “ the noblest of the na- at a subsequent period, became the first Dukes of tion," into Scotland, after the Norman conquest, Montrose; although the title subsequently fell to while it tended to advance the country, also fixed" the gallant Graham,” as did the lands of Cray. the implacable hatred to English power, entertained ford to the great family of the stern Douglasses. by those refugees, into the national feeling, and We have already mentioned a feature, if not a prolonged it for centuries after its origin was for- || peculiarity, in Scottish nationality that is calculated gotten. The English and Scottish nations had no to reduce the pride of the highest and oldest of the causes of quarrel ; but the Scottish people repre- | noble families in their genealogies; for the honours sented, undoubtedly, the Saxon enmity to the Nor- of the proudest houses are, or they may be, shared man power, even after the latter had assumed the with the humblest men. The tendency of the Saxon name. The number of Norman barons who Scottish commonalty to trace back, and claim deare supposed to have found their way into Scotland || scent from, or connexion with, some great family, is no evidence on this subject; for the alliance of has been the subject of frequent satire. It has Scotland with France was long and intimate, and been most distinctly marked amongst tho Highland Norman families reached this country direct from clansmen, who had the most direct and legitimate the Norwegian rocks and the Baltic shore. Lord right to such advantage and honour as they could Lindsay, in reference to this source of civilization, derive from the claim; for, amongst the original says:

Scots and Picts, the land was held in common* The completion of the groundwork of Scottish civilization, the chieftain was an elective official, whose power by the introduction of the Norman element, the fendal law, and and privileges were derived from the suffrages of the monastic system, was reserved for David I., youngest son of his neighbours and relatives, and who had no more Malcolm and Margaret, and successor of Alexander I.--the sainted right to alienate their property in his own favour, son of a sainted mother, and allowed, even by Buchanan, to pre

or in that of others, than the director of a puble sent the perfect model of a wise and virtuous sovereign. Educated in England among the most accomplished and chivalrous of institution to appropriate its funds. Purists sith the Normans, he had imbibed their character and principles ; and titles look horrors at the presumed delinquencies of even before his accession to the throne, during his administration a Hudson; but if all could be proved that the comiof Strathclyde or Cumbria, he couceived the scheme of human-mittee of the York and North Midland write, 29. izing his country by introducing a new race of proprietors from thing would be shown more corrupt than the man Normandy and England-colonists, not conquerors---men who would diffuse the superior civilization of the South, foster the

ner in which some of their estates were obtained in religions establishments he proposed to scatter over the land, and early times. Their ancestors were appointed chaircontrol the barbarism of the natives; and the wisdom and dis- men of the clans' directors, and they seized rails, crimination with which he selected these colonists are evinced stations, locomotives, waggons, carriages, and earthby the superior happiness and prosperity enjoyed by Scotland work-the whole plant, and the whole receipts; during the reign of his successors down to the close of the thir. | charging their relatives “ fares” for living upon teenth century. The whole history, in fact, of Scotland, subsequently to the reign of Alexander I., is that of the working out

and tilling their own land. These appropriations of the scheme first organised and brought into systematic action were greatly expedited by the introduction of the by St. David; and the mingling of races thus associated, the Norman or Saxon feudal system into Scotland; bat Celt

, the Saxon, and the Norman, each strongly opposed in cha- they are not forgotten. Two years since, we heart racter, neither absolutely subjected to the others, and all of them contributing their quota or element to the formation of that na

an officer in her Majesty's service, a younger brotber tional character which has been the result of their fusion, is the of a Highland chieftain, in a promiscuous assencause, in great measure, of those strong lights and deep shadows, blage, accuse the Highland landlords, not merely of that strange antagonism of feelings and principles, sometimes of a harsh, but of a dishonest, expulsion of their cotin advance, sometimes in the rear, of the times, which renders | tiers and clansmen. The traditions regarding to the history of Scotland so picturesque and peculiar.”

old state of Celtic property have had their effect is James the Seventh represented St. David as a sembittering the changes that have occurred es “sair saunt for the crown;" but the introduction Highland estates; and it may be an apology k of all that was civilizing in the monastic system | various atrocities in Ireland, that the perpetrators into Scotland occurred long before this period, and really believed themselves to be the avengers, by was the labour of love performed by the Culdees. I wild justice, of great wrongs. In the lowland äs Lord Lindsay surely does not mean to allege that | tricts of Scotland, the barons, as they were termen the walls of old Iona were built by the Normans. were often nothing more than pilgrim fathers, The “Lives of the Lindsays" commences at this pe- whose descendants ramified into many tenantry,

and a few owners. At page 117, vol. 1, Lord||to introduce the evil system of entails in Scotland. Lindsay describes the result of these arrange- || The fortunes of the family had risen and fallen by ments :

matrimonial alliances; and against further vicissi. “Thus far, the picture I have drawn bears a close resem. tudes to the Lindsays by this cause, he entailed blance to the feudalism of the Continent. But, owing to the on the heirs male of his house, being Lindsays, exmixture of Celtic and Norman blood, a peculiar element mingled || cluding the female side, and so securing, as he befrom the first in the feudality of Scotland, and has left its in- | lieved, the perpetuity of his name in the land. Man delible impress on the manners and habits of thought in the country: Differently from what was the case in England, the proposes, and God performs. There are no Lindsays Scoto-Vorman races were peculiarly prolific, and population was

now in the braes of Angus; the name is hardly, encouraged as much as possible. The Earl and Baron bestowed we believe, on the roll of justices or commissioners a fief, for an esample, on cach of his four sons, who paid him of supply for Avgus and Mearns, where the great tribute in rent and service ; each son subdivided his tief again Earls of Crawford, from their fortresses of Edzell among his own children, and they again among theirs, till the blood of the highest noble in the land was flowing in that of the and Finhaven, issued their commands with sovemeanest peasant, at no remote interval. This was a subject of reign authority. The Ogilvys, who were somepride, not shame, in Scotland. Within three or four centuries | times their allies, and sometimes their foes, surafter their settlement in the Nortlı, above one hundred different | vive, and are represented by the Earl of Airly ; minor houses, or families of Lindsays, were flourishing in Scot.

but tho Lindsays are almost obliterated from that land, many of them powerful independent barons, holding in capite of the Crown-many more, vassals of the house of Craw-/part of the land-a fate not unmeet in the case of ford-the greater number settled in Angus, and the surrounding those who, having an ambition to fulfil, made procounties, yet others, in districts more remote, and in the ex- vision against the dealings of Providence in a way tremity of the kingdom—all of them, however, acknowledging the at once unnatural, and calculated to work, as it has Earls of Crawford as the chiefs of their blood, and maintaining wrought, the greatest harm to their country. The constant intercourse with them, either by assistance in their feuds, first act of entail was of necessity dishonest. The old or by sending their sons to seek service, either with them, or their more powerful kinsmen—the whole clan thus forming, col.

castle of Edzell is now forgotten, and yet it was once lectively, more particularly during the fifteenth century, a great “the finest and stateliest mansion in the east counbarrier and breakwater between the fertile Eastern Lowlands and try." The new town of Edzell, designed by one the lawless clans of the Highlands. This is no imaginary sketch. The charters of the Earls of Crawford, and of their principal || the visitor to the scenery of the North Esk at Gan.

of the last Earls Crawford, was never built; and cadets, through several centuries, bear witness to the constant intercourse maintained, even with branches settled for genera- | nochio—the pass of the river from the high to the tions in districts far removed from Angus, but whose claims of low country--finds a village of a few houses, hidden kindred were never forgotten by themselves

, or overlooked by from the busy world, where once “ the Lyndsays their chiefs; while a constant preference was given to priests, || held their court." notaries, pedagogues, tradesmen, and even domestic servants, of

We do not comprehend the zeal of Lord Lindthe named blood of Lindsay. A principle of union and attachment thus reigned throughout the whole race; the tie of con

say in endeavouring to establish that shadow of sanguinity was carefully acknowledged in eachi ascending stage- || supremacy for England over Scotland claimed by the meanest felt himself akin to the highest-the feudal bond the former power, unless it be to cover the conduct was sweetened by blood, and the duty to their chief became the of his own ancestry; for, as he says, the admission paramount principle of action; and it is to this mixture of feu

rescues us from the "inevitable and surely more undalism and patriarchism, the result of the mingling of races above alluded to, and reigning throughout the whole social sys- || palatable alternative of confessing our ancestors in tem, that much of that good faith, which a celebrated historian | 1174 and 1290 to have been dastards and villains," of France has recognised as the distinguishing and redeeming! We can explain the conduct of some of the nobles, feature of feudal times in Scotland-passion and conviction bear- | and, amongst others, of more than one Lindsay, ing even a stronger sway than selfish interest—is attributable. The value for names, is, indeed, still strong in Scotland--a link upon a different ground than either downright of mutual interest between the upper and lower classes who bear

cowardice or villany. They were large holders of the same patronymic. It is rare to find a Lindsay, a Hay, a

land both in England and Scotland at the same Drummond, in the lower orders, who has not some tradition, at time, and they had learned to "gripe fast.” They least, of descent, from the Ilouses of Perth, Errol, or Crawford.

wero willing to vindicate their northern indepenAnd these traditions form, not unfrequently, a strong moral Idence, if they could still retain their southern motive, producing self-respect, exertion, and independence, and deterring individuals who inherit them, from doing auglit un

wealth. Their circumstances were undoubtedly worthy of the race they attach them to. It has been the fashion trying, and their position incompatible with their of late years to undervalue feudal and patriarchal times. They duty to Scotland, as subjects to England as feudal exhibit, it is true, but a limited and partial stage of civilization; || barons. Even the Scottish kings held possession but no nation ever rose to enduring constitutional greatness of lands in England ; and, at one time, were the without passing through feudalism, or something akin to it. And we must not forget that we always in a rude age hear of the acknowledged feudal superiors of part of what is bad rather than the good, of those who are the curse rather than now embraced in the boundaries of that country, the salt of society. There must have been much happiness and A regular war between England and Scotland inmnch virtue which we do not hear of.”

volved a great sacrifice on the part of the Lindsays, So originated the old proverb that blood is thicker who held wide and valuable estates in the former or stronger than water ; and it is creditable to the country. We are not, therefore, astonished at their Lindsays, that they seem to have introduced and attempts to reconcile conflicting interests by the cultivated learning amongst their dependants and acknowledgment of a claim by England, which was followers in Angus. At the end of the sixteenth, only offered as a shadow, until the dispute regardand early in the seventeenth century, many of the ing the succession between Baliol and Bruce, when commonalty amongst the Lindsays could write Edward of England gave greater solidity to the well. We may remark, in passing, that one of pretensions of that crown. the Lindsays, Earl Crawford, was the first baron Whọn Baliol succeeded to the crown, he was compelled to resist the unjust aggressions of Ed. || they may have well considered a minor evil. The ward—was forced into war, and defeated at Dun- | fate of the coadjutors and completers of this great bar. The signature of the Ragman's Roll followed, crime was singular and remarkable. The tradition on which the names of all the Lindsays were in-| regarding the question and the answer in the church scribed. In fact, all the names of the Scottish of Dumfries at the moment of the slaughter of the barons, with few exceptions, were placed there. Red Comyn is most probably imaginative. The Only two noted exceptions occur, those of Sir Wil- || question might have been put by a partisan of the liam Wallace and Sir Andrew Moray. The great murdered man, concealed within the building, barons had English lands which were dear to them, some monk connected with its affairs, for exam. and their example influenced their minor followers. ple, one of the waking Franciscans—and the The common people had no temptation to swerve response might have come from a similar source ;from their country's cause, and they loved it more yet how the latter should have been in the form, than life. They were not left without a leader. as events occurred, of a precise prophecy, is not The bravest and the purest knight on the rolls of clear by any means. Scottish chivalry became the instrument of working out his country's freedom. The annals of no

“Sir James, the accomplice in the murder of the Red Corn nation contain greater or more disinterested achieve- || another Sir James, his eldest son and heir, in whose person the

in the church of the Minorites at Dumfries, was succeeded by ments than those of William Wallace. In all his sacrilege of the father was visited by a fearful retribution, as restruggles he was well supported by the commonalty corded by the ancient chroniclers. "Sir James and Roger Kirke of Scotland—the men who have embalmed his me

patrick, as you may recollect, were partners in the deed. The mory in their traditions, and in the affections of by the Franciscans, with the usual rites of the Church ; but

body of the slaughtered Comyn was watched during the night successive generations, for well nigh a thousand midnight the whole assistants fell into a deep sleep, with the years. It is right to add that the Lindsays did not exception of one aged father, who heard with terror and surprise all stand long on the side of power and tyranny; for a voice like that of a wailing infant, exclaim, 'How long

, O some of them became the fastest friends of the cham- | Lord, shall vengeance be deferred P' It was answered in a pion to their land, and were, like him, excepted even day shall return for the fifty-second time. In the year 1937,

awful tone, 'Endure with patience until the anniversary of this from the mercy of their ruthless foe.

says Sir Walter Scott, fifty-two years after Comyn's death, “Jans The deepest crime of Robert Bruce became the of Lindsay was hospitably feasted in the castle of Caerlaveroek, in cause of his rising. The Red Comyn was a nearer Dumfries-shire, belonging to Roger Kirkpatrick. They were the heir to the crown than Bruce. His connexions were

sons of the murderers of Comyn. In the dead of the night, far more powerful. His experience was greater. His some unknown cause, Lindsay arose, and poniarded in his bed bis means of opposing the English power more likely and fear had so bewildered his senses, that, after riding all night

, be

unsuspecting host. He then mounted his horse to fly; bat gali to be successful than those of the Bruce. This was taken at break of day not three miles from the castle, and powerful chieftain was induced to meet young was afterwards executed by order of King David II! Sir James Robert Bruce in Dumfries. The sad story has thus untimely cut off, was succeeded by his son, Sir John Lind been often told, and thus Lord Lindsay repeats it:- say of Craigie and Thurston, whose danghter and heiress

, Mar

garet, carried the property into the family of Riccardon, eter “ The circumstances which led to the decisive act which flung since designed of Craigie,' the representatives in the collaten! Bruce upon his fortunes, and led to the independence of Scot- male line of Sir William Wallace.” land, are unknown. All that can be ascertained is, that Comyn of Badenoch, popularly named the Red Comyn, his personal

A rightful heir to the throne was cut off by rival, and the leader of the Baliol interest, was at Dumfries at the same time with Bruce; that they held a secret conference in treachery--and the slaughter of the Red Comyi the church of the Minorites, or Franciscans; that a quarrel arose

was one of the darkest deeds, and done on one of between them; and that Brnce, in a paroxysm of rage, stabbed the darkest days for Scotland in its history-behim on the steps of the high altar. Rushing to the door, le met cause, except for the feud which it originated, s Sir James Lindsay and Roger Kirkpatrick, of Closeburn, who | Bannockburn would probably have been fought demanded what had disturbed him? I doubt,' replied, Bruce much earlier ; and Scotland might have been I have slain Comyn!' Have you left it doubtful P' replied Lindsay. 'I mak sicker,' or 'sure,” rejoined Kirkpatrick spared from all the calamities attendant on the wherewith they rushed into the church; and Kirkpatrick, asking | Stuart race. Lord Lindsay asserts, indeed, that the wounded baron whether he deemed he might recover, and Comyn was not the nearest heir to the crown, and hearing from him that he thought he might if he had proper in proof mentions that Edward Baliol vas stil leech-craft, stabbed him to the heart-a deed for which Bruce and alive, and an English prisoner. Being an English his adherents were excommunicated as soon as the news reached the Holy See."

prisoner, he was unable to assert his right

and This murder has been excused and palliated by being a Baliol, it may have been deemed a fer the partisans of Bruce on various grounds. But it feit; and next Christiana de Lindsay, Lady of was a foul and treacherous crime—the only evil Lamberton, whose mother was an elder daughter deed laid to his charge ; and its consequences of King John than Marjory, Comyn's mother

. wasted Scotland for many long years of unprofitable This tracing merely gives one part of Comya's warfare, until the doom of blood was for a time re- claim, and, at least, it was a superior claim to moved, and the battle of Bannockburn cast the long-Bruce's. This transaction has not been frequently contested claim of English superiority in the nega- | treated with the reprobation it deserved, on acesant tive. The partisans of the Red Comyn were dis- of the glories of King Robert's reign ; but he made heartened by his violent death, yet they resisted, || a narrow escape from the fate of poor Macbethfor many years, more successfully than Edward || a worthy monarch, too, who asserted the indepes. himself, the claims of Bruce; until, wearied at last dence of Scotland against the shadow of supremacy with a contest that wrought woe to their common claimed by the English monarchs, and accorded, as country, they appear to have acquiesced in what is believed, by the "gracious Duncan"-A smaller Baliol in his time. The following eulogy of Bruce||Civil wars were common between rival chiefis, nevertheless, elegant and true :

tains. The Douglasses, the Gordons, and other

families and clans, resisted often, and sometimes « The aim of Bruce's life was now accomplished. Happier

successfully, the power of the crown. Soon than the lawgiver of Israel, he had been permitted to accompany || after the death of Robert Bruce, the English his chosen people to the last through all their troubles, till he openly espoused the cause of Edward Baliol; had established them free denizens of a free country, the land of I who entered Scotland at the head of a consi. their children's love—he had crowned his work of patriotism-- || derable body of men, and was feebly opposed he had won the wreath of glory. His star hovered over him until he reached Daplin, in Perthshire, where he awhile as he leaned against the goal, weary with the race; but at defeated the adherents of young David Bruce. last departed fairly---lingeringly, but for ever--while slowly, annid || In this battle the Lindsays lost many men. Eda nation's sobs, he sank into the arms of death, a willing prey. || ward Baliol was soon after crowned at Scone. His Well, indeed, might Scotland—well may mankind, revere King | enterprise was ultimately unsuccessful. He was Robert's name; for never, save Alfred the Great, did monarch so obliged again to quit Scotland; and the Lindsays, profit by adversity. Vacillating and infirm of purpose, a courtier continuing faithful to the cause of David Bruce, and a time-server at the footstool of Edward, during the days of were rewarded in proportion to the value of their Wallace, and betrayed into sacrilege and bloodshed on the very

services. All the possessions that of right belonged steps of the altar at Dumfries, he redeemed all by a constancy, a

to Christiana de Lindsay, the heir and claimant to patriotism, a piety, alike in his troubles and his prosperity, which

the crown after Edward Baliol, were forfeited, and rendered him the pride and example of his contemporaries, and

bestowed on the Scotch branch of the Lindsays. have been the theme of history and of a grateful posterity in all

The lady left them to her son, Sir William, Sire

de Coucy, who never obtained possession; but succeeding ages. The Christian, the patriot, the wisest monarch, and the most accomplished knight of his age, and, more endearing | bitter feeling with which the English barons prose

these family charters explain and illustrate the than all, the owner of a heart kind and tender as a woman's, we

cuted the wars against Scotland. The struggle was may indce d bless his memory, and, visiting his tomb, pronounce || personal. The barons who adhered to England lost over it his epitaph, in the knightly words with which Sir Hector rich possessions in Scotland. The Scottish nobles mourned over Sir Launcelot-- There tlou liest, thou that werų were in a similar position. Neither party would see never matched of earthly knight's hands! And thou wert the most and acknowledge the reasonable character of the courteous knight that ever bare shield! And thou wert the division. They fought for more land; and their tekindest man that ever struck with sword! And thou wert the nantry, who ere now had no interest in the question, goodliest person that ever came among press of kuights! And were spoiled and slain to gratify their masters' terthou wert the meekest man, and the gentlest, that ever eat in hall || ritorial avarice. The wars between England and among ladies! And thou wert the sternest knight to thy mortal France were maintained from a similar spirit. The foe that ever put spear in the rest!' Snel, and more than this, English nobles had inherited rich domains within was Bruce."

the frontiers of France. They could not expect to

maintain their possessions without a junction of the In reference to the claim of Christiana de Lind

two crowns, and, therefore, they pressed the English say to the crown of Scotland, which has been men

monarchs to enforce, or at least to retain, their tioned by Lord Lindsay as better than that of the claims upon the French crown, and especially upon Red Comyn, we may mention that she was an the French territory.

The Scottish Lindsays, English subject, and therefore would have been meanwhile, prospered on every hand. War and very properly excluded from the Scottislı crown, at peace both seemed to accumulate for them great a time when the assumed and asserted supremacy | possessions. The fortune of war, and the favour of of England over Scotland was the question at issue. || heiresses, helped their house, until Lord Lindsay Except for that claim, the Baliols were the nearest||thus describes their fortunes :heirs, Their conduct forfeited the crown. They sold their country for the enforcement of their own The star, in fact, of the House of Crawford was now in claims; and the country expelled them. On the the ascendant. The barony of Crawford, with its depensame grounds, which were good grounds, if the dencies, had been bestowed, as I have already mentioned struggle was justifiable, Christiana de Lindsay, the on Sir Alexander, on the forfeiture of the Pinkeneys—many Lady of Lamberton, had forfeited her claim also, fair estates, and an hereditary annual rent of one hundred and was incompetent for the crown ; leaving, of marks, then a very large sumn, from the great customs of course, the Red Comyn as the nearest heir in that Dundee, were among the tokens of favour bestowed upon line, to whom no exception could be raised that was

Sir David, by Robert Bruce; and by his marriage with

Mary, co-heiress of the Ibernetbies, in 1:325, he acquired a not more obviously applicable to Bruce himself. The battle of Bannockburn decided the struggle great accession of territory in the shires of Roxburgh, Fife,

and Angus. He was entrusted, too, at one time, with the for Scottish independence, which left rankling between the nations a feeling of hatred and jealousy custoly of Berwick Castle, and at another, with that of that four centuries scarcely served to quench, fed, || in praise of his orderly and prudent conduct while in that

rgh, which is especially mentioned by Wyntown, as it ever was, by new wars and new embarrass

ofice:ments. Robert Bruce left to his successors a new

*Intil his time with the countrie, struggle. The great barons, in aiding to achieve the

Na riot, na, na strife made he.' independence of Scotland, almost succeeded in ac- Nor was he ungrateful for these honours and distinctions, complishing their own. They became small kings, || as witnessed by his donations to God and the church. He' each within his own district and possessions." confirmed the grants of his predecessors, and more par.

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