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can be done without injury to the industrious. Il|that a company should start up, and, by an artificial should, therefore,” he continues, “ follow Mr. Slade's arrangement, prevent the overgrown estate from being (the secretary's) plan, as one of the best that could be broken up into fragınents, and partitioned among adopted for that purpose. I mean that of giving the several smaller proprietors.” On the one hand, the tenant a perpetuity in a part of the ground he holds, adoption of such a principle as that above referred to, whereon he would cheerfully lay out his money, and a 1--viz., the concession of a perpetuity at a fair rentlease for one life and a certain number of years, of a would be no detriment to the destined survivors, larger portion. The consequence would be, that every | while it would create a multitude of quasi proprietors; shilling that was laid out on the part he got the per-| and, on the other hand, we might as well assert that it petuity in, would tend to increase the value of the was a resisting of Providence to restore Charles II., surrounding ground; and, when the lease of the ter- seeing that his father's head was cut off, as to affirm minable part expired, it would become much more that because one landlord becomes bankrupt by extravaluable, inasmuch as all lands adjoining to towns || vagance, no other landlord should succeed him. But, or inhabited places rise in proportion to the money " it is essentially a lottery; it is neither an investexpended in their neighbourhood.” This most sug- ment of money, with a view to ordinary profitable regestive sentence comprises the germ of a most practi- || turn, as in the case of railway or bank stock, nor a cal system for the settlement and improvement of land, || contribution during a man's own life to insure a defiand for promoting the comfort of a yeoman tenantry ; nite sum which he thinks needful to his family at the and while the adventitious aid of a Tontine may supply | period of his own death.” Certainly it is not a railway a stimulus to enterprise and improvement, which is or bank speculation, which may or may not retum greatly desiderated, this humane and mutually pro- anything--and the former of which, indeed, has often fitable object might be still more admirably accom- not made a legitimate return. We affirm that it is in plished by an obvious application of life assurance to so far better than many railways, that it starts with a the mode of tenure proposed.
certain improvable income; that the expenses are An able agricuitiral journal, while expressing the almost strictly calculable; that it presents very small hope that some principle could be at the same time opportunity for wilful mismanagement or misrepresenput in requisition by which, in respect to some por- tation of accounts; that it involves a certain retum tion of the lands to be settled, the prospect of a right of at least 50 per cent. of the investment, and possibly of pre-emption to the actual occupants within ten or many times the investment; and that, even to those twenty years, might be afforded, tending to the for- / whose nominees die early, there is the certainty of mation of a body of independent yeomanry, thus ob- || periodical profits, which will increase in the course of serves, in confirmation of the views here expressed :-|| time, as the survivors, in the course of nature and
“Without discussing the ethics of the Islay Tontine, which, || Providence, decrease in number. in point of moral propriety, do not seem to have any deeper To a certain extent it is, indeed, a lottery, as all dependence on the hazard of the die, or the calculation of matters involving elements of speculation must be, inchances, than those of ordinary assurance, we would yet say it is adapted to produce the principal effect which tlie friends of asmuch as there may be a small loss to some, at the Ireland thus desiderate for their new plantation. The Tontine same time that there must be a very large gain to must terminate in a national proprietary; the better, perhaps, that others; but, in another point of view, it is even less a it is to be more than usually extensive."
lottery than most speculations, seeing that the actual Such are the principles of action which actuated the limits of loss and gain may be scientifically estimated. Governor and Society of the Plantation of Ulster, and, We shall admit candidly, and without reservation, that certainly, the material moral and religious improvement the Tontine, as a tontine, will not, nor does it pretend of their tenantry has not been neglected.
to supply the place of an ordinary life assurance, as a The Directors of the Islay Tontine are equal in certain provision for children. This, however, is nopoint of respectability, as well as practical ability, tothing but to admit that a railway will not suppir the members of the Irish Society; and are just as the place of a bank, nor a bank that of a Mechanics' likely to be actuated by feelings of “ enlightened self-Institution; only the Tontine involves the successful interest;" and if managers adopt a good principle of establishment of one of the most comprehensive and action, it will hardly be dissented from by the share- || productive systems of life assurance yet projected. holders.
We hardly think it worth while to notice an asserThe writer we have quoted says :-“But the scheme |tion that “the promoters of this modern lottery preprovides for the whole passing into the hands of an sume to take hold of the lives of their fellow-men, to individual proprietor. In this feature, too, we recog- turn up the chances for them.” To turn up the chances nise a pernicious interference with the natural, the for whom? The nominees are not in any way inte providential order of things, and so on, to the effect rested in the question, and may not even know the that large properties ought not to be accumulated in they have been selected. The issues of life and death the hands of one person.” Even so, but the main are certainly, as regards them, as all of us, in the hands evils of the present system of accumulations, viz. - of Providence; but their nomination affects not ther, the unqualified power of an individual to do what he and their selection will, indeed, be made according to likes with his own, may be entirely obviated by the those indications of probable health and longevity wise management and foresight of the directors, before which that very Providence has marked and noted in the survivor, or more probably survivors, come into the features and constitutions of every one, and whieh possession.
indications are open to the consideration of legitimate We are told that “it is a resisting of Providence science. Add to this, that every shareholder is made —when a property so unwieldy, in the hands of one to possess a practical interest in the continued life of man, was brought to the hammer by his insolvency-- his nominee, which, even thongh a pecuniary one, cana
not be detrimental to him, as it is certainly, to our judg. 1 this object, after using up all his arguments, and ment, anything but morally prejudicial to the nominator. ended in a burst of passion, with the expression of his
The writer decides that he shall not be one of the hope that he should yet live to see the tenant and nominees, taking care to add, “ As for ourselves, we his fainily uprooted from his estate. " Your lordhave not yet reached the venerable age of threescore; / ship’s hope shall never be gratified,” coolly answered but we tell the gentlemen of the Tontine that, though the independent tenant, “ for I have taken your we were of an eligible age, and of iron sinews, they lordship’s life as the last on the lease.” The tenant should not be allowed to make a nomince' of us." was perfectly right, for the heir of entail will not
This determination reminds us of a system re-expel him for the causes that originated the presembling a tontine, but more objectionable, on the sent owner's spite. What if this writer, in the grounds stated in the previous extracis, prevalent magazine we have quoted, should be, notwithstandin Scottish farming until the present generation; || ing his asseveration, just at the important point of and still followed in many cases.
A vast nuinber life, “ three score," and out of anger at his labours, of farms were held, and a number are yet held, on a director of this Tontine should name its critic's lives—sometimes on that of the occupant, and per- life on one of his shares: Would it be placed in exhaps more frequently on the life or lives of a nomi-traordinary danger because one family were deeply nee or nominees. Many farms were let on two or interested in its prolongation to the utinost limits thrée lives, and some, we believe, on a greater, but of mortality? & specific number ; differing thus absolutely from a
The last point of all in this argument is, suppose system very common in Ireland of granting leases | soine future Maria Manning has possession of a share on lives, renewable for ever, on the payment of a dependent on one old man's life, while only three befixed fine, frequently double rent for one year at sides him are surviving. The share which she holds each lapsc. An exactly similar practice to these is worth £12,000, in any circumstances; but if her leases on lives, renewable for ever, exists in Scot-nomince survives the other three, it will be worth land, under the name of feus. Nearly all the £600,000. One shudders to think of the tremendous small towns are held by this mode of lease, by strength of the temptation to murder that the scheme which the superior is generally entitled, in terms of creates and applies. the bond or charter, to a double rent at each re- The tremendously cold blooded estimate of human newal of the feu, or, in other words, at cach lapse nature implied in the argument, applies to any son who of a life in the succession of holders. The condi- will inherit a large estate on his father's decease, with tion is left unassailed on moral grounds. ' Nobody the same force as in the case in question. Experience says that it resembles a lottery; and, although the demonstrates that, except in the cases cited by the superior of small boroughs of barony must have an murder of children by poor parents, for the sake of obvious interest in the spread of disease and the the burial fees, where the temptation was not in number of deaths, yet we generally find them sub- the amount of the prize, but the depravity aud scribing to dispensaries, and cheerfully assisting in poverty of the tempted, scarcely an instance occurs any scheme for opposing the progress of cholera,'' in educated society of crimes for the sake of large fevers, or other maladies that would shorten lives, reversions. Assuming the bare possibility, for the and thus increase their annual gains.
sake of argument, of such a crime, where the motive The Scottish system -
- more prevalent, we i being patent to the whole world, detection would confess, in previous years than now—of letting be as certain and as swift as the lightning, that farms on single, double, or treble lives, was not chance is met by the universal experience of all assailed as an exhibition of lotteries, although the tontines, which have ever resulted in the division, long entire means of a family often hung on the issue of before the last survivorship, of the property forming these contracts, and the risk could not ther, as their basis among a dozen or twenty persons; thus now, be met by a policy of Life Assurance. inore probably realizing the aspiration of the writer, peer of the realm, still living in one of our Scottish that “we would have much more security for a healthy counties, and rather celebrated for his repugnance economic condition to the island, as well as freedom, to the Free Church, has a number of farms on these civil and religions, to its large and humble population, leases for lives. He is guided in his transactions if it were divided among twenty independent lairds.” by personal feelings, not always of the most ami- ! We concur most cordially in that opinion; but able character. Against one of his tenants he had the estate was in the market-a large capitalist formed an antipathy, for reasons, we believe, most was named as the probable purchaser--and the commendable in the fariner, and discreditable to projectors of this tontine, meanwhile, negotiated the landlord. One life still remained to be named à conditional purchase. They have not Leen un. on the fariner's lease, and all the others had lapsed. willing to consider sugyestions made to them; and, The noble owner deemed this a fitting opportunity for the parpose of preventing the evils that might to buy out, from, and off his estates, a tenant result from the estate being left for many years in whom be disliked. The factor—a gentleman whose the hands of trustees, they fixed sixty years as opinions follow those of the peer in this instance, the minimum age of nominees. A few alterations like the tints of the chameleon-was instructed to, might be made, with the utmost advantage, in tho take the measures necessary to buy the nomination constitution of their scheme. They might either of the last life from tho obnoxious tenant; but he provide for its termination at a specific date, or failed in striking a bargain. The nobleman sent upon a fixed number of survivors. Perhaps the for the tenant to his castle, in the hope of making an latter is the best mode, and twenty a reasonable arrangemont on a personal interview. He failed in number, This arrangement would provide for the large Islay estate falling into the hands || the close of all leases would be removed; and a of twenty resident owners within thirty years from gradually ascending rental might be obtained for the commencement of this transaction. The diffi- the estate; while the interests of the tenants, and culties which might arise on a division of the the employment of the labourers, would be secured. property could be prevented by effecting that object || An arrangement might be easily made by which at the present date. The estate might be divided holders of shares could insure their cost with the asinto a number of lots corresponding with the num- sociation on the life of the nominee, so as to render ber of lives with which the tontine was to be thistransaction the reverseof a lottery-namely a cer. closed. The labour of the trustees might be tainty to each partner of receiving his own again, abridged, and the cultivation of the island would be less the premiums, which cannot make a serious loss. promoted, by giving leasos extending over twenty-|| By arrangements of this nature, the scheme would be five or thirty years, the time at which this business made thoroughly satisfactory and unexceptionable. unay be concluded.
These leases would probably | It has been suggested that the company should be taken on increasing rentals, especially if accom- have power to sell lots of the estate to purchasers, panied by the provision that the tenants would on favourable terms, and invest the proceeds. receive at the expiry of their leases a sum of money This proposal is not necessarily opposed to the for improvements, if these were made and main-original scheme; and yet seems less connected tained consistently with intelligible conditions of with it than those suggestions which we have preleasing. By this means the temptations to over- viously named ; and would press at least upon the cropping and under-manuring which exists towards li consideration of the promoters.
LITERARY REGISTER. The Age and Christianity. By Robert Vaughan, D.D. || of Young Englandism. The aim of this school is not so much London : Jackson & Walford.
to conserve the good of the present as to call back the full life The author of this volume is already favourably known who have given themselves to this somewhat eccentric service
of the remote past-to revive Old Englandism. The gentlemca to the public. Several highly valuable works have pro
see nothing in our much-vaunted social advancement to claira ceeded from his pen, so that his character as an able from them reverence and aflection. thinker and accomplished writer is now fully established.
"We nay flatter ourselves that the progress of civilization is The present production consists of a course of lectures de
a good; that the development of intelligence is a good; that
the diffusion of a self-reliant and self-governing temper among livered in London at the request of the trustees of Coward the people must be a good. We may imagine that in all this College ; and his aim in the lectures may be learned from
we are imparting greater stability to human institutions, greater the following extract :
compass to human enjoyment, and that we are thus doing some“Our age, amidst its many forms of scepticism and worldli-l thing towards realizing the fruit of the hard struggles in which ness, is ill at ease; and, in common with all preceding ages,
the European nations have been engaged during the last exhibits an irrepressible yearning of the human spirit after some
three hundred years. But far from this is the judginent thing more settled and satisfactory than it has found.
of Young England. The golden age of their social state is of want is going out, conspicuously enough, in search of some
sought, not in the creation of anything new, but in a resuscitathing higher--of something more poble. My object is to de
tion of the old. It is by retracing our steps some three or four monstrate to some of those bewildered and weary wanderers that
centuries ---by calling back feudal barons in place of mill
. the old path is, after all, the true one; that the new paths opened pendent; well fed it may be, and even graciously anased upon
owners--by reckoning dependants a3 doomed to be ever de. out, on either hand, are harder to make way upon than the one on which we may trace the footprints of our sires; and that, !| holidays, but never to aspire to political individuality or responseeing all men are compelled to be believers in some shape, it is sibility, to the duty of self-government, or to anything abore a really a much easier thing, and assuredly a much happier thing, blind and instructive leaning on their betters, and a narrow, to believe after the manner of a Christian than to believe after unreflecting attachment to particular associations and localities, any other manner."
What we call the expansion of industry, is with such persons
only the widening of a system which is fast jading the bodies Accordingly, the different subjects discussed are:- :-Thell and souls of all who are subject to it, to destruction. That we characteristics of the age; the characteristics of the age hail as the spread of intelligence is only the diffusion of an esin relation to the proofs of Christianity; the charac-hrusting fever, often rising to delirium. Even our representative teristics of the age in their relation to the truths of Chris- system is ridiculed as partaking more of broad farce than of wis
dom. The thing needed, it seems, is the return of an age when tianity ; the characteristics of the age in relation to the the people did all that their wonder-working propbets com: Christian religion. These topics are considered in six manded, and when they were all ready to slay or to be slain at lectures, and no one can read them without being im- the bidding of their heroes. pressed with the fact that they are the production of an
" This, even this, is the sort of social millennium towards which original thinker, of a close observer, and, especially, of might have thought that a little reflection woull have sufficed to
some of the elile spirits of our time are now looking. One one who has an intimate and correct knowledge of the suggest that the qualities which make prophets and heroes what subjects handled in this volume. Dr. Vaughan has cer- they are, may certainly be made to exist in some small degree tainly rendered considerable service to the cause of truth in the people at large, and that qualities which are praised so by the delivery and publication of these lectures. We highly, ns possessed by a few, can hardly cease to be of give an extract from the work itself :
worth by passing, though in smaller quantities, from the few to
a greater number. For whether these gentlemen see it or not “But this tendency (contempt of the past), in common with it is a change in this direction which takes place as society althose before mentioned, has called forth its re-actions. First, vances from rudeness to civilization. there is the form of re-action understood aniong us by the name “What Young Englandism is, as a re-action against the bear
ings of contempt for the past with reference to society, that|| form one of the most complete and convenient library 'Tractarianism is, with regard to its bearing in reference to re- editions of Byron hitherto published ; and it will be acligion. Both are excesses generated by excess. The wrong done to the past, on the one side, calls forth this puerile worship companied, as it should be, by a minute life of the great of it from the other. Corporations are generally conservative, poet, especially priestly corporations. In religion it seems to be as- Owen's Universal Revolution. London: Effingham Wilson. sumed, that whatever ceases to be immutable must cease to be
This thin green volume is a mere reproduction, with ementrue. Hence the sternness with which the ministers of religion have resisted innovations ; hence the hard fate generally await-dations, of those tracts and pamphlets, and boarded books, ing the religious reformer. But in our tine, the temper which in which for many years Mr. Owen has been inculcating Has not spared Christianity itself
, has dealt somewhat rulely with pernicious opinions ; so often met, and so frequently conthe pretensions of its priesthood. lu proportion, however, as futed, that the task of noticing them again would be cverything deemed sacred in clerical authority has been assailed, everything, no matter how far obsolete, has been placed under profitless and tedious. Like all other nionomaniacs, Mr. requisition in its favour. Protestantism has been blamed for this Owen harps on one or two points, on which he is at supposed dristing of affairs towards religious anarchy; and, in radical difference with the world, evidently believing himconsequence, Protestantism itself has been either openly or vir- self the man with whom, if wisdom will not die, at least it tually abandoned. Worldly power is everywhere falling away has commenced. from the priestly office, and its ecclesiastical and spiritual claims are insisted on only the more largely and earnestly. The im
Private property is his abhorrence; and yet few men portance attached to the functions of the order is everywhere have held more private property than the author, although dying out; and, for this reason, no pains are spared that may it is the easiest thing in the world to throw off this burseem to impart to its services new value and a deeper signifi- | den. The organization of families is one of the great evils
Thus current rushes against current --- passion wars with that aflict society; and some of the finest and the most passion--and our age becomes the motley exhibition we find it."
humanizing feelings of our nature are to be uprooted, beThe Life and Memoirs of Alfrcil the Great. From the
cause Mr. Owen thinks we would all be better without German of Albert V. Huller. By Francis Steinitz. them. Priests have made a bad use of religion, and thereLondon : Longman & Co.
fore religion itself, in every cognate form, is despicable This volume comes at the moment when zealous Anglo- and degrading. Man is not responsible for his actions, Saxons purpose the celebration of Alfred the Great's mil- and therefore, never a tyrant lived who should be called leonium, for he was born in 849. The text of Huller is
a tyrant, and Mr. Owen should have sympathised with ably translated by N. Steinitz, who experiences a part that tortured instrument and machine, Wilson, who was of the author's enthusiasm for his hero: and Alfred hung at Liverpool—a distressed innocent-guiltless as one was a prince likely to inspire enthusiasm. From him may
of the stones in, or the cranes upon the docks. be fairly dated the rise of moderate monarchy in
sent edition is a step less offensive, but not less egotistical, Britain. His laws and his maxims influence society to than its predecessors. Mr. Owen has been himself revothe present day. An able warrior, a courageous patriot, lutionised. He has become a deist, which is rather a faa friend of science, literature, and liberty, Alfred's his-vourable change, though he acknowledges that he wor
He saystory presents the utmost scope for the poct or the his-ships, he knows not what. torian, and for the pride and veneration of his successors.
* For man to attain a state of rationality and happiness, so The notes of the translator form short but often valuable long as he shall retain the delusive idea that man forms his own
character or qualities of body and mind, is an endeavour more dissertations on various points in the British constitution, I impracticable ihan the atteinpt to unite vil and water.” and its working. The text was written, and published in
Very few persons, we fancy, consider themselves selfGerman, seventy years since ; but it is fresh and unknown created. That is not the general opinion. We argues reading to the Saxons of England. The vignette is formed that all blame for evil deeds rests not with the creature, by a beautiful specimen of art, comprising portraits of the but the Creator ; that the machine is irresponsible. But Queen, the Duke of Wellington, and Sir Robert Peel ; and he must know best, of course, whether he formed the dethe volume is worthy of the millennial period of the good || sign of writing this book, or his fingers began the task and great monarch whose transactions it celebrates.
without any counsel from the mind, and went forward
without control. What follows is a very convenient docThe Works of Lord Byron; edited by W. Anderson, Esq., trine for housebreakers and sheep-stealers, and all other
author of “ Popular Scottish Biography.” Elinburgh: such persons, great and small. A Fullerton & Co.
“It is known to those who liave studied nature, that the A Greek philosopher told Crosus that he could not general and individual qualities of all things created are given 10 call any man's life happy until it had closed. A similar them by the Great Creating Power of the Universe ; and that not principle prevents us from pronouncing very definitely the things created, but their Creator, is the sole author of one upon the merits of a work until it be completed. This and all, whether animate or inanimate--whether mineral, vegeta
ble, or animal--whether rational or irrational existences; and, of edition of Byron's works is in parts, of which five are
course, that whatever compound of the general qualities of hupublished, and seven
The style of manity any may have, the general qualities and particular comthe publication is creditable to the publishers; and bination of them in cach one is alone the work of that Creating the numerous engravings, to those parties who have | Power; and, for them, it is insanity to blame, and the essence of charge of that department. The editor is most com
injustice to punish, or in any way to injure, the poor, passive
created being, whether man or any other animal, except in self. petent to his duty, from a most extensive acquaintance defence, or to obtain the means of sustaining life, which could with the literary history of the period in which Byron not be otherwise supported; and that every act of unnecessary lived, the works of the parties amongst whom Byron | cruelty is an act in oposition to the laws of God.” moved, and the circumstances of the poet's various con- We believe that some persons, apparently sane in ortemporaries. For these reasons, we deviate from our | dinary transactions, believe that this man is neither mad ordinary practice of deferring works in parts until they nor wicked. The conclusion of charity must be, that he be in whole, to express our belief that the present will!l is mad, with a method in the disease.
A Treatise on Epidemic Cholera. By J. Rutherford Rus- || caleulated to overthrow a general theory, which, neversell, M.D. London: William IIcadland.
theless, we believe to be more fanciful than real.
Contagion, or no contagion, is treated nearly in the same We have received a great number of pamphlets on cho
way:lera-to all of which we have been unable to give that at. tention which the subject might command, because all of
“ Those who are most unwilling to admit the contagious.
ness of cholera, allow its tendency to localize' itself, as them are deficient in distinctness. The disease is described bey term it. That is, if cholera once gains access to a as a mystery--that being true of every malady except those house, then all the inmates of that house, and all who enter
it, become liable to be attacked by the disease. The feet resulting from accident. The origin of fover is as much con
is undoubted, and we have seen many instances of it; cealed as that of cholera. Against both discases we are desired sometimes afier the lapse of two weeks the poison continued to employ cleanliness, regularity, temperance, warm clothing, question: Where does the poison dwell? The rooms are
to act upon a new comer. This nauraly suggests the good air, and abundance thereof. Farther, nobody seemsable sometimes perfectly bare; not even are there bed-clothes to to peuetrate. The origin of the disorder is mysterious. Dr. harbour the deadly and subtle power." Russell's volume presents a fair history of the calamity, From which we would suppose the existance of a distinctly and offers some suggestions regarding its origin that are poisonous influence in the atmosphere. One theory recently more curious than satistactory, arising from the general promulgatod was, that electricalderangement and defieieres ignorance on the subject; for the author would evidently caused the disease, and that towns where a great amount bring out the facts, if he knew them, in a plain and intelli
of combustion was going forward escaped its infliction. gent form. Regarding the recent origin of the disease, he The answer to that may be found in the Board of says:
llealth returns. Merthyr Tydvil has suffered more than “In casting one's eye upon the map of Indin, it is impos- | any other district in the present year, and Coatbridge sible not to be struck with the watering of the great plain and Gartsherrie in the last. These places are entirely sop. of the Ganges. Not only does the main trik ramify on hoth sides, as we track it upwaris towards its source, but ported by the manufacture of iron, and the combustion is instead of debouching by one large outlet, like rivers con- their atmospheres must be very large. People rushi rapid's fined by barriers, as in our own country, it splits into many to conclusions, and Dr. Russell is not an exception. II. fingers, as it were, each of which finds its own separate entrance into the sea. There are few plains in the
while the plague cannot be averted from such tons world watered like the Delta of the Ganges. Ilere it as Edinburgh and Glasgow, yet Paisley may be saved; was that in the summer and autumn of 1817, cholera burst ont in various places simultaneously, destroying six thou: although we know of no condition existing in Glasgow that saud of the inhabitants of the town of jessore, about may not be found in Paisley, with this difference, that the eighty miles north-east from Calcutta; and in a few latter contains a sinall population. weeks stretching from Sylhet on the east, to the extreme borders of Balasore and Cuttack, and reaching We may conclude, then, that while we cannot afert the from the mouths of the Ganges, nearly as high as plague from such towns as Edinburgh and Glasgor-the iis junction with the Jumna. At this period, within an former exposed 10 a damp atmosphere, the latter situated area of several thousand miles, scarcely a town or village on a river—we may prevent it altogether, or at least gratis escaped; and, so great was the mortality, that the bulk of mitigate its severity, by judicious sanitory measures, in such the whole population was sensibly diminisbed. The large towns as Paisley. and populous city of Moorshedabad, however, situated in
“ The impression on the mind of almost all obsarrers and the heart of the conflagration, almost entirely escaped. It cholera seems to be, that at the time of its prevalence hardly crossed the Ginges-appearing on the eastern side there was something unusual about the weather; it was selike an exotic which soon dies out."
naturally hot, cold, wet, or stormy. Dr. Orion, who siruogie This extract merely goes to show that the influence by in favour of this belief.
advocates this opinion, has collected a nun ber of testimgales which cholera is caused has an extremely localised deve
It is not out of place to notice here that Paisley sentelopment; and the sad experience of the past and the pre- almost to have escaped the epidemic of the past and the sent year, in this country, abundantly establishes that fact.
Present year. It stands on low, level ground, a few miles Therefore we infer that while one cause of the disease may from the Clyde, and occupying towards the Cart, exas y exist in the general atmosphere, this agency becomes vitale | the position of Glasgow towards the former river. poisonous, and fatal only by contact with another and a
Last year, during the existence of cholera in Glasgow, ke local agency-thus establisling the necessity of sanatory remember not that cases were reported from Paisks, reform.
although the distance is only seven miles. Respecting its progress, Dr. Rrussell says:--
Greenock, fifteen miles below Paisley, on the Civile, to " The few conditions of its progress that we have b come been severely attacked, and we hear of no cases in either acquainied with are the following :--It has a decided ati | Glasgow or Paisley. The circumstance denotes the bira niiy for water. By casting a glance at the map which
row and localised influences pecessary to render fatal taccompanies this volume, this will be recognised at once. I has a strong tendency to run up rivers, even to their very
disease. source. It frequently reelines in winter, to revive with the Dr. Russell refers to experiments by which it appearei approach of summer. It is most fatal in large, low-lying
It passes rapidly over plains: it firds difficulty in that the atmosphere was leavier in cholera than in other getting over hills. It has bitherio confined itself to ceriain districts ; which would imply a strange alteration in the parallels of latitude. Its progress is geeraily most rapid in nature and quality of the air during the prevalence autumn, and its course is in a Westerly direction.''
this pestilence. The most consistent recent and starties We have found the disease very prevalent in this coun- | theory ascribes the whole evil to the existence of min try, wliere little or no water was to be found on the sur-organisations--s0 minute as to be imperceptible is the face. We could name several localities, if a probability atmosphere, without scientific research, but capable the existed, that similar examples will not occur to every reader | by of being discerned. These organisations are to be where the development has been most severe; and yet, found in the air, on the water, and may attach the where no river-course, loch, or pond, exists for miles on selves to our food. They are described as on tebe either side; but we do not adduce that circumstance as one " fungus" tribe ; and they are said to multiply the