The Knowledge-based Economy: Modeled, Measured, Simulated

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Universal-Publishers, 2006 - Business & Economics - 385 pages
"Challenging, theoretically rich yet anchored in detailed empirical analysis, Loet Leydesdorff's exploration of the dynamics of the knowledge-economy is a major contribution to the field. Drawing on his expertise in science and technology studies, systems theory, and his internationally respected work on the 'triple helix', the book provides a radically new modelling and simulation of knowledge systems, capturing the articulation of structure, communication, and agency therein. This work will be of immense interest to both theorists of the knowledge-economy and practitioners in science policy." Andrew Webster Science & Technology Studies, University of York, UK ________________________________________ "This book is a ground-breaking collection of theory and techniques to help understand the internal dynamics of the modern knowledge-based economy, including issues such as stability, anticipation, and interactions amongst components. The combination of theory, measurement, and modelling gives the necessary power with which to address the complexity of modern networked social systems. Each on its own would partly illuminate an innovation system, but the combination sheds a far brighter light." Mike Thelwall Information Science, University of Wolverhampton, UK ________________________________________ "The sociologist Niklas Luhmann is considered one of the few social scientists possibly able to explain a decisive event once it has happened. In this book, Loet Leydesdorff answers the challenge to take Luhmann's analysis one step further by introducing anticipation into the theory. This book provides a fascinating exploration of the use of recursion and incursion to model social processes." Dirk Baecker Sociology, Universitat Witten/Herdecke, Germany ________________________________________ How can an economy based on something as volatile as knowledge be sustained? The urgency of improving our understanding of a knowledge-based economy provides the context and necessity of this study. In a previous study entitled A Sociological Theory of Communications: The Self-Organization of the Knowledge-based Society (2001) the author specified knowledge-based systems from a sociological perspective. In this book, he takes this theory one step further and demonstrates how the knowledge base of an economic system can be operationalized, both in terms of measurement and by providing simulation models."
 

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Contents

57 Summary and conclusion
176
Reflexive Globalization and the Emergence of a KnowledgeBased Order
179
61 The emergence of a global level
180
62 Hypercycle theory
184
63 The hypercycle of cultural evolution
190
64 Smbolically generalized media of communication
192
65 The experience and semantics of hyperincursivity
196
66 Layers of selectivity in the social system
200

17 Microfoundation in terms of analytically different operations
34
171 Userproducer relations in systems of innovation
37
172 Mode 2 in the production of scientific knowledge
39
173 A Triple Helix of universityindustrygovernment relations
42
18 Empirical studies and simulations
44
Knowledge Information and Globalization
48
21 Information uncertainty and meaning
49
22 Communication meaning and codification
52
23 Observations and observational reports
54
24 The sociological theory of communication
57
25 Stabilization and globalization
58
26 Codification and the change of meaning
62
27 Language and culture
64
28 Translation and knowledge generation
66
29 Regimes and identities
68
210 The sciencesocietytechnology cycle
72
211 The incursion of knowledgebased expectations
76
The Processing of Meaning in Anticipatory Systems
79
32 Anticipatory systems
81
321 Derivation of the anticipatory model
82
322 Historical developments and evolutionary feedback
85
33 The simulation of an anticipatory system
86
34 The generation of an observer
91
35 The generation of blind spots by different observers
94
36 Interactions among observers and observations
95
37 Conclusion
102
Codification and Differentiation of Meaning in Social Systems
106
41 The sociological perspective in systems theory
107
42 The functional differentiation of communication
110
43 The formalization of functional differentiation
113
44 Specification of the differentiated system
116
45 Paradoxes and their algorithmic resolutions
120
46 The social system as an algorithmic operation
123
461 Derivation of the logistic equation
124
463 Summary and conclusion
126
47 Differentiation at each moment and different clocks
127
48 The social system as a strongly anticipatory system
129
49 Expectations as the substance of social systems
131
410 The algorithmic turn
135
The Transformation of Organization and Agency
139
51 Hyperincursion and the requirement of decisions
141
52 Decisions and organization
147
53 The historical contingency of organizations
149
54 Decisions lockins and trajectory formation
154
541 Arthurs 1988 simulation model for the lockin
156
542 The network effects of local neighborhoods
161
543 An additional routine for the simulation of learning
163
544 Conditions for the breakout from a lockin
165
bifurcation and morphogenesis
169
56 Adding reflexivity to the nonlinear dynamics
173
67 The Triple Helix overlay
203
The Historical Evolution of the Triple Helix
206
71 Science and technology policies
209
72 The European Union and research evaluation
211
73 The internet
215
74 The functionalist assumptions in the model
217
75 The sociological critique
222
76 The priority of the perspective
226
77 Translations and translation systems
230
Measurement of the Knowledge Base
234
81 Triple Helix dynamics
235
82 Methodology
238
83 Results
243
832 Testing for systemness in Triple Helix relations
246
833 The Triple Helix in the Science Citation Index
249
84 Two further tests
254
842 US Patent data
255
Variation and selection
258
86 Conclusions
260
Measuring the Knowledge Base of the Dutch Economy99
262
92 The perspective of regional economics
264
93 Methods and data
267
932 Knowledgeintensity and hightech
269
933 Regional differences in the Netherlands
271
94 Results
272
942 Mutual information
274
94 The regional distribution of the knowledge base
276
95 The sectorial decomposition
281
96 Conclusions and discussion
285
The decomposition of the German innovation system
287
101 Methods and materials
288
102 Results
292
1022 Sectorial decomposition
296
103 Conclusions and policy implications
300
Summary and Conclusions The foundation of the knowledge base in Husserls Cogitatum
306
112 Codification and globalization
312
113 The triple contingency of communication
314
114 The anticipatory operation of structure
320
115 The Triple Helix and the duality of structure
323
116 Hyperincursive models of cultural evolution
326
117 The sociological and communicationtheoretical foundations
330
1171 Anticipation uncertainty and the intentionality of communication
332
1172 Husserls phenomenology and social genomenologies
337
References
340
List of Figures
372
List of Tables
374
Author Index
376
Subject Index
381
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Page 20 - Nature builds no machines, no locomotives, railways, electric telegraphs, self-acting mules, etc. These are the products of human industry; natural material transformed into organs of the human will over nature, or of the human participation in nature. They are organs of the human brain, created by the human hand; the power of knowledge objectified.

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